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come within his knowledge. The interrupted with this intelligence. story would puzzle him. Undoubt. Probably he would exclaim: “My edly he would feel aggrieved over the word, what a bother!" and, after an action of those heroic radicals who interval, frowning petulantly over the deprived our country of the trap food, would continue his meal. Or pings of royalty forever.
he might turn to his German consort Kings, in his experience, are invari. (so many kings seem to be provided ably wise and good and princesses with German queens) and remark: surpassingly beautiful and princes “My dear, I am informed the sky is wonderful and brave. He is pleas. falling. Most annoying, I'm sure.” antly familiar with their appearance
And the lady, biting angrily through and habits. In fact he can recognise a peach stone or chewing up the stem a king at a glance-in his story books. of her wine glass, would reply: The word democracy is without “Humph! I don't believe it. It's significance in his young life, but probably just another British lie,” he is most enthusiastic about kings. and would hurry through her dinner
Each evening after he has finished and go out to distribute Potsdamerei his meal and while I am waiting for among the officers of the royal army. mine, he sidles up to my chair with At this point in the narrative of the request: “Daddy, read me a Henny-Penny these misanthropic re
flections occur to me, but my son is If I agree to this he comes in hug. not troubled with them. To him, in ging an armful of multi-coloured vol. the case of some untoward event, it umes, of which he carefully selects seems most natural to seek the wise one, usually night after night the aid of some crowned head.
Among the illustrations in our "What's this, son?” I exclaim, edition of the excellent tale of Hennyregistering astonishment.
Penny is no picture of a king, but “Henny-Penny,” he replies tri. usually, as
usually, as soon as I conclude the umphantly, as he scrambles up on reading, the new generation rum.
mages through some other story book I read:
and holds up triumphantly for my “One day a hen was picking peas
admiration the likeness of a resplenin a farmyard, under a pea-stack, dent individual with crown and scepwhen a pea fell on her head with tre, clad in purple and gold and such a thump that she thought the ermine. “There, daddy! There's the sky was falling. “I must run to tell king!” There is a thrill in his voice! the king,' she cried.
We take up our Mother Goose and “So she ran and she ran, till she find ourselves in a nest of royalty. met a goose," etc. Now in the world of reality no
When the pie was opened,
The birds began to sing. man, bird or beast who was convinced
Wasn't that a dainty dish that the sky was falling would think
To set before the king? of running to a king. He might call up the police department, or attempt On the next page is that jovial into get in touch with Washington, or ebriate, King Cole, and beyond him communicate with Mr. Edison or the the melancholy tale of Humpty Standard Oil Company (thereby Dumpty, whose accident probably sending the price of gaso- serious that even the king's restoraline up a notch) or the Associated tive might could not aid him. Even a Press.
king, it seems, is unable to unscramI picture to myself a king, seated ble eggs. Just beyond this tragedy in state at his evening repast, being we find the itinerant feline:
Pussy cat, pussy cat,
and rule, our children scarcely out Where have you been?
of the cradle are being made into I've been to London,
staunch little monarchists. To visit the queen.
What are we going to do about it? Thus we progress from one crowned
How can we make the nursery safe head to another, and finally, if
for democracy? mother is lenient, we take
Probably it is impossible at this
up Grimm's Fairy Tales, a veritable gal. literature of childhood. Kings and
time to abolish autocracy from the axy of royal personages.
“Then," I read, the king took queens are too deeply rooted there. Gretel to his palace and celebrated
Long after the last throne has fallen
and the last monarch has become the marriage in great state. And she told the king all her story, and he
merely an unpleasant item of hissent for the fairy and punished her.”
torical record, little boys will be Think of having the power of pun.
devouring tales of kingly adventure ishment over fairies! The King und
and little girls will be thrilled with Gott!
stories of millers' daughters and But my son swallows it all complacently. He does not question
butchers' girls and woodcutters' the divine right of kings.
wenches who are wed by princes and After he is tucked away in bed
live happily ever after. (In real life I continue to turn the pages mus
the daughters of some of our bestingly.
known millers and packinghouse
millionaires and lumber magnates “Once upon a time two princes went out into the world to seek their have married princes and the like, fortunes.”
“Snow-drop and only to find their unions neither the prince lived and reigned happily happy nor permanent.) over that land for many many years.
Once you delete royalty from the “One fine evening a young
nursery stories, you rob them of their princess went into a wood and sat
charm and glamour. Reduce them to down by the side of a cool spring of reality and you make them unintelliwater. She had a golden ball in her gible to the juvenile hearer. Take the
lines hand, which was her favourite plaything, and she amused herself by The money-king was in his counting house, tossing it into the air and catching
Counting out our money; it.” The idle-rich hussy!
"A The mayor was on the roof garden, certain king had a beautiful garden,
Dancing with his honey. and in the garden stood a tree which Here you have both rime and rea. bore golden apples.”
son, but the metre has suffered and Of course
the Brothers Grimm the story has entered the puzzling were of that race which our most realm of American politics and respected newspaper editors love to finance. refer to as Huns, butchers and bar. For many nights without success barians. Probably they didn't know I have projected my intelligence into any better than to celebrate kings the task of writing a democratic and queens and their offspring. If Mother Goose and democratic fairy the trouble were with the Grimm tales. I have lain awake cogitating book alone, it could be easily dis- the problem. Last night, after tossposed of. But the other volumes in ing restlessly, I fell into a slumber the nursery library are tainted to troubled with ghastly dreams, and in an equal extent with the obsession one of them I was reading to my of royalty. In a world wherein we a revised version of Henny. are pouring out our blood and treas
Penny. ure that democracy may live safely “One day a hen was picking peas
in a farmyard under a pea-stack, can easily prove this, when the time when a pea fell on her head with comes, by calling the child's attention such a thump that she thought the to photographs of really-truly royal. sky was falling. 'I must run to tell ties in the illustrated magazines. The the President, she cried.
picture of some vacuous king, dis“So she ran and she ran until she creetly bearded to hide his recesmet the Postmaster General. . . sional features, pinning a medal on a
Obviously this sort of stuff will not mutilated soldier and saying: “I only do. It shows a loss of the charm of regret that you have but two legs the original autocratic narrative,
autocratic narrative, to lose for my country," or whatever with probably no corresponding gain the court chamberlain or press agent in democratic feeling.
has told him to say—this is a great The substance of the folk legends help in weaning the child from mon. of the nursery can no more be archism. A similar purpose is served changed than the mythology of
of by the photograph of a typical prinGreece or Scandinavia. We must cess, whose hat and features alike concede to our infants their kings seem so unfortunately chosen, openand princesses along with their giants ing a Red Cross bazaar with the and witches and fairies, trusting that words “Eeney meeney miney mo, as the young minds mature they will or some appropriate phrase of simirealise that the royal persons of the lar meaning. stories are compounded of the same Of course the disillusion must not stuff of unreality as the hobgoblins. be made too abruptly, or the child There are no such animals.
might do himself some injury. Conscientious democratic parents
AUTOBIOGRAPHY OF A LIBERALIST*
BY LUTHER E. ROBINSON
“WHEN we see a soul,” says Emerson, potent for the Tractarians, called for “whose acts are regal and graceful a definition of knowledge based upand pleasant as roses, we must thank on scientific inquiry and radical God such things can be and are.” thinking. Gladstone, following the When a great book appears, garner- impress of Peel, was breaking away ing into the world's treasure-house from his earlier conservatism to be. the ripe fruitage of a long rich ex- come the protagonist of a perience for the delight of souls com- democratic order in political life. In ing after, civilisation is the grateful the field of thought Mill's doctrines gainer. Such a book is Lord Mor- vindicated the compatibility beley's Recollections. These two hand- tween liberty and discipline. Carsome volumes contain the modestly lyle had given impulse to the study written account of his distinguished of German literature and history, career as a man of letters, as con- and Comtism had become a cult frère of men eminent for their lib. among certain English intellectuals eralisation of the human mind, and whom the young Oxonian as public servant long devoted to the shortly to count among his intimate social improvement of the state. In friends. Morley “revelled” in the the midst of the daily journalisation books of Victor Hugo and felt the of world-wide dissonance, a work warm glow of Mazzini. The genius like this comes among us like a fog- of George Sand served him as a tering voice of culture to render the “stirring rebuke to
“stirring rebuke to the loitering "feelings more sane, pure, and per
quietism of the brain," and George manent."
Eliot kindled his enthusiasm for her Native of Blackburn in Lanca- "wide and profound culture.” He shire, Morley was educated at Ox- makes acknowledgments to the ford, where he just missed the books of Adam Smith, of Bentham, tutelage of Mark Pattison and where Maine, and Turgot; but for “pracConnington, Stanley, Mansel, and tical principles in the strategy and Goldwin Smith were among his in- tactics of public life” he admits his structors. There also he came under chief indebtedness to Burke. "Well the liberalising speech of Cotter might Macaulay exclaim, “The greatMorison, a senior commoner, who, est man since Milton.'' we are told, brought more than one Finding the law unalluring, Morundergraduate into contact with the ley became a journalist. For fifteen awakening ideas of Carlyle, Emer. years he was editor of the Fortson, and Comte. Morley took his de- nightly Review and served in similar gree in 1859, a time of tense mental capacity on the Pall Mall Gazette atmosphere in England. Darwin, and Macmillan's Magazine. His edi. Buckle, Tennyson, and Ruskin were torial posts brought him into inti. among those producing the literature mate and sympathetic relations with of a new era of thought. The spirit Swinburne, Meredith, Gabriel Ros. of liberalism, which had proved too
setti, Bagehot, Huxley, Pater, Leslie *Recollections. By Lord Morley. New
Stephen, Matthew Arnold, Frederic York: The Macmillan Company. In two
Harrison, and others active in visualvolumes. $7.50.
ising and shaping the more progres
sive mental and moral conceptions kind will be gravely imperilled if of the Victorian age. These friends great questions are left to be fought stood for the “spirit of liberalism in out between ignorant change and its most many-sided sense." Under ignorant opposition to change.” His the mirror of their independent quality of quickening other minds is criticism traditional beliefs were in- apparent in advice to Morley like terrogated and the new theories of this: “Keep yourself in the fresh science were examined under the air of the world; do your best in the militant rationalism of the day. world's affairs; study the active Huxley probably denoted the intel- rather than the passive; do not be lectual altruism of these battling
an ergoteur, but take pains for clear agnostics as clearly as any in his feel. and limpid expression.” ing that “there is no alleviation for Morley's friendship for Joseph the sufferings of mankind except ve
Chamberlain began in 1873, the year racity of thought and action, and the of Mill's death. The commensal disresolute facing of the world as it is, course under Chamberlain's roof at when the garment of make-believe, Birmingham, where other guests inby which pious hands have hidden cluded Mazzini, Carlyle, and Emerits uglier features, is stripped off.” son, was not “brilliant contention,
Uniting him with this powerful but fruitful co-operation in thought circle of diverse minds and talents and knowledge for plain common was the author's indubitable spirit ends.” Popular education, municipal of friendship. He has possessed a life, and "religious equality above genius for maintaining affection mu- all, were among the themes distuelle with those whose intellectual cussed. Unlike many others, Chamconclusions clashed in action with berlain had not been brought up in
His keen and generous an atmosphere of books. His politics discernment of excellence gives fasci- came to him from penetrating obsernation to his critical judgments. vation of his environment. Under his Representative of this is his estimate inspiration Morley began his Parof Meredith. None knew better than liamentary career in 1883. In spite that abstemious philosopher of life of their unfailing mutual regard, that his books could make no popu- they gradually drifted apart politilar appeal. Yet his “brave faith in cally. Morley's friendliness to the good,” says Lord Morley, “in the rise Home Rule programme never fitted of good standards . . . made him a with the imperialistic philosophy of teacher of many a sane and whole. the Birmingham statesman; it agreed some lesson, among those who had with Gladstone's views and led to the happiness to be his friends, long their political alliance and personal years before the world found out the friendship, which endured to the fire and strength and richness of his end. A touch of pathos glows under genius.” Similarly with John Stuart neath the Greek-like restraint and Mill. At Blackheath Morley often directness with which is told the shared the table-talk of Mill in com- story of Gladstone's final discompany with other intellectuals, among fiture over his last Home Rule measwhom were Herbert Spencer, Grote, ure and the impasse in the Cabinet Froude, Charles Kingsley, Faucett, which brought about his retirement and Louis Blanc. “What gave value from political life and leadership. to his talk ... was mental discipline Mrs. Gladstone importuned Morley at least as much as his tenets." Mill's to tell her how matters stood. “The generalisations were usually well poor lady was not in the least prefreighted; for example, this preg. pared for the actual stroke. ... What nant remark: “The future of man- a curious scene! Me breaking to her