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in a farmyard under a pea-stack, can easily prove this, when the time when a pea fell on her head with comes, by calling the child's attention such a thump that she thought the to photographs of really-truly royal. sky was falling. 'I must run to tell ties in the illustrated magazines. The the President, she cried.
picture of some vacuous king, dis“So she ran and she ran until she creetly bearded to hide his recesmet the Postmaster General. . . sional features, pinning a medal on a
Obviously this sort of stuff will not mutilated soldier and saying: “I only do. It shows a loss of the charm of regret that you have but two legs the original autocratic narrative,
autocratic narrative, to lose for my country," or whatever with probably no corresponding gain the court chamberlain or press agent in democratic feeling.
has told him to say—this is a great The substance of the folk legends help in weaning the child from mon. of the nursery can no more be archism. A similar purpose is served changed than the mythology of
of by the photograph of a typical prinGreece or Scandinavia. We must cess, whose hat and features alike concede to our infants their kings seem so unfortunately chosen, openand princesses along with their giants ing a Red Cross bazaar with the and witches and fairies, trusting that words “Eeney meeney miney mo, as the young minds mature they will or some appropriate phrase of simirealise that the royal persons of the lar meaning. stories are compounded of the same Of course the disillusion must not stuff of unreality as the hobgoblins. be made too abruptly, or the child There are no such animals.
might do himself some injury. Conscientious democratic parents
AUTOBIOGRAPHY OF A LIBERALIST*
BY LUTHER E. ROBINSON
“WHEN we see a soul,” says Emerson, potent for the Tractarians, called for "whose acts are regal and graceful a definition of knowledge based up: and pleasant as roses, we must thank on scientific inquiry and radical God such things can be and are.” thinking. Gladstone, following the When a great book appears, garner impress of Peel, was breaking away ing into the world's treasure-house from his earlier conservatism to bethe ripe fruitage of a long rich ex come the protagonist of a more perience for the delight of souls com- democratic order in political life. In ing after, civilisation is the grateful the field of thought Mill's doctrines gainer. Such a book is Lord Mor- vindicated the compatibility beley's Recollections. These two hand- tween liberty and discipline.' Carsome volumes contain the modestly lyle had given impulse to the study written account of his distinguished of German literature and history, career as a man of letters, as con and Comtism had become a cult frère of men eminent for their lib. among certain English intellectuals eralisation of the human mind, and whom the young Oxonian was as public servant long devoted to the shortly to count among his intimate social improvement of the state. In friends. Morley “revelled" in the the midst of the daily journalisation books of Victor Hugo and felt the of world-wide dissonance, a work warm glow of Mazzini. The genius like this comes among us like a fos- of George Sand served him as a tering voice of culture to render the “stirring rebuke to the loitering "feelings more sane, pure, and per- quietism of the brain," and George manent."
Eliot kindled his enthusiasm for her Native of Blackburn in Lanca. “wide and profound culture." He shire, Morley was educated at Ox- makes acknowledgments to the ford, where he just missed the books of Adam Smith, of Bentham, tutelage of Mark Pattison and where Maine, and Turgot; but for “pracConnington, Stanley, Mansel, and tical principles in the strategy and Goldwin Smith were among his in- tactics of public life” he admits his structors. There also he came under chief indebtedness to Burke. “Well the liberalising speech of Cotter might Macaulay exclaim, “The greatMorison, a senior commoner, who, est man since Milton."" we are told, brought more than one Finding the law unalluring, Morundergraduate into contact with the ley became a journalist. For fifteen awakening ideas of Carlyle, Emer. years he was editor of the Fortson, and Comte. Morley took his de- nightly Review and served in similar gree in 1859, a time of tense mental capacity on the Pall Mall Gazette atmosphere in England. Darwin, and Macmillan's Magazine. His ediBuckle, Tennyson, and Ruskin were torial posts brought him into intiamong those producing the literature mate and sympathetic relations with of a new era of thought. The spirit Swinburne, Meredith, Gabriel Rosof liberalism, which had proved too setti, Bagehot, Huxley, Pater, Leslie *Recollections. By Lord Morley. New
Stephen, Matthew Arnold, Frederic York: The Macmillan Company. In two
Harrison, and others active in visualvolumes. $7.50.
ising and shaping the more progres
sive mental and moral conceptions kind will be gravely imperilled if of the Victorian age. These friends great questions are left to be fought stood for the “spirit of liberalism in out between ignorant change and its most many-sided sense.” Under ignorant opposition to change.” His the mirror of their independent quality of quickening other minds is criticism traditional beliefs were in apparent in advice to Morley like terrogated and the new theories of this: “Keep yourself in the fresh science were examined under the air of the world; do your best in the militant rationalism of the day. world's affairs; study the active Huxley probably denoted the intel. rather than the passive; do not be lectual altruism of these battling an ergoteur, but take pains for clear agnostics as clearly as any in his feel. ing that “there is no alleviation for Morley's friendship for Joseph the sufferings of mankind except ve Chamberlain began in 1873, the year racity of thought and action, and the of Mill's death. The commensal disresolute facing of the world as it is, course under Chamberlain's roof at when the garment of make-believe, Birmingham, where other guests inby which pious hands have hidden cluded Mazzini, Carlyle, and Emerits uglier features, is stripped off.” son, was not "brilliant contention,
Uniting him with this powerful but fruitful co-operation in thought circle of diverse minds and talents and knowledge for plain common was the author's indubitable spirit ends.” Popular education, municipal of friendship. He has possessed a life, and “religious equality above genius for maintaining affection mu- all,” were among the themes distuelle with those whose intellectual cussed. Unlike many others, Chamconclusions clashed in action with berlain had not been brought up in his own. His keen and generous an atmosphere of books. His politics discernment of excellence gives fasci. came to him from penetrating obsernation to his critical judgments. vation of his environment. Under his Representative of this is his estimate inspiration Morley began his Parof Meredith. None knew better than liamentary career in 1883. In spite that abstemious philosopher of life of their unfailing mutual regard, that his books could make no popu- they gradually drifted apart politi. lar appeal. Yet his “brave faith in cally. Morley's friendliness to the good,” says Lord Morley, “in the rise Home Rule programme never fitted of good standards . . . made him a with the imperialistic philosophy of teacher of many a sane and whole. the Birmingham statesman; it agreed some lesson, among those who had with Gladstone's views and led to the happiness to be his friends, long their political alliance and personal years before the world found out the friendship, which endured to the fire and strength and richness of his end. A touch of pathos glows under. genius." Similarly with John Stuart neath the Greek-like restraint and Mill. At Blackheath Morley often directness with which is told the shared the table-talk of Mill in com- story of Gladstone's final discompany with other intellectuals, among fiture over his last Home Rule measwhom were Herbert Spencer, Grote, ure and the impasse in the Cabinet Froude, Charles Kingsley, Faucett, which brought about his retirement and Louis Blanc. “What gave value from political life and leadership. to his talk ... was mental discipline Mrs. Gladstone importuned Morley at least as much as his tenets." Mill's to tell her how matters stood. “The generalisations were usually well poor lady was not in the least prefreighted; for example, this preg. pared for the actual stroke. . . . What nant remark: “The future of man- a curious scene! Me breaking to her
that the pride and glory of her life trace of arbitrary proscription) from was at last to face eclipse, that the the opposing party that counted Libcurtain was falling on a grand drama eralism, old or new, for dangerous of fame, power, acclamation.” An- and deluding moonshine.” other political current had already
More characteristic of the writer's set in, antagonistic to the old leader's genial moods is the impressive quesIrish and peace policies. The new
The new tion he frankly raises whether the ideal was imperialistic, and one of influence of Liberalism in the “civilits most significant moves was the ised world” has been so much more exchange of Heligoland for Zanzibar. potent than the gospel of the various On this event Lord Morley refrains churches”? The question baffles, for from comment.
he finds that diplomacy is “as able as To the Gladstone-Morley school of ever it was to dupe governments and politics this new ideal was porten- governed by grand abstract catchtous. Out of it grew the Boer War, words veiling obscure and inexplicwhich Morley denounced in the face able purposes, and turning the whole of a determined popular sentiment world over with blood and tears to a in its favour. It enlarged the military strange Witches' Sabbath.” As a matestablishment in the interest of im ter of fact Lord Morley's England felt perial defence. The Foreign Office the powerful leaven of both Liberalacquired greater power of self-direc. ism and religion as they have united tion. Morley as head of the Indian to advance the ideals and practices of Office, maintaining the generous an enlightened and progressive deprinciples he had employed as Secre mocracy. He is more accurate in his tary for Ireland and sympathising estimate of Liberalism than Arnold with the native aspirations of the was, or could be, fifty years ago. His imperial population, knew nothing of appraisement of the Victorian period what was passing in the diplomatic is the most satisfactory that has yet office. His correspondence with Lord been written: Minto, Indian Viceroy, introduced at this point in the Recollections,
Some ages are marked as sentimental, contains no reference to foreign
others stand conspicuous as rational. The
Victorian age was happier than most in the events beyond a notice of the German Emperor's visit to London in 1907.
flow of both these currents into a common This visit he describes as an event
stream of vigorous and effective talent. which would “much improve the
New truths were welcomed in free minds, chances of a little decent calm all
and free minds make brave men. Old preju
dices were disarmed. Fresh principles were over Europe.” Almost in vain, too, the reader of these instructive pages
set afloat, and supported by right reasons.
The standards of ambition rose higher and waits for some comment upon the present world conflict, whose begin
purer. Men learned to care more for one
another. The rational prevented the sentining led to Lord Morley's voluntary withdrawal from political responsi.
mental from falling into pure emotional. bility. The meagre statement touch
It was Bacon who penned that deep aping the matter contains a piquant peal from thought to feeling. "The nobler reminder that the "new Liberalism"
a soul is, the more objects of compassion
it hath.” This of the great Elizabethan was in power at the opening of the war had proved no more "fertile than the
one prevailing note in our Victorian age. respectable old;" that its representa
The splendid expansion and enrichment of tives had broken down, or thought belong to Toleration was another.
Toleration and all the ideas and modes that they had (1915) and could discover no better way out of their scrape than In these Recollections autobiogto seek deliverance (not without a raphy as such is artistically subdued.
Self-predication is everywhere subor measure successful. That conception dinated to the interpretation of his at heart is “Respect for the dignity age and its leading forces and person and worth of the individual ... puralities. His tastes and character, his suit of social good against class interideals and his achievements, are de est and dynastic interest." In public lightfully reflected in the wide range life Lord Morley opposed the extenof serious literature he draws upon to sion of the imperial frontiers; he preillustrate the changing scene of life ferred to strengthen, through benevoas he has seen and lived it. His lent measures, the human interests method is that of the literary work already under the broad lines of the man setting down, in the spirit of in. imperial ægis. Probably he did not tellectual repose, the more striking clearly discern upon the horizon the and essential events of a long and greater struggle yet in store for the supremely inviting experience, from very principle of Liberalism to which the heights of a detached and un he had devoted his own great talents. clouded eminence. He is one of the Be this as it may, he has made a rich last survivors of a great circle of per and noble contribution to life. Like sonages to whom scholarship and rea the eminent Roman essayist and son stood as the guides of a creative statesman to whose higher tastes and and disinterested social service. They virtues his own bear a marked resem. sought to make their conception of blance, he may truly write, Diu civilisation prevail, and were in large multumque vixi.
SNAP-SHOTS OF FOREIGN AUTHORS: FRANCE
BY RICHARD BUTLER GLAENZER
The sanctum of your mind