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by two powerful rivals. These were John Hepburn, Prior of St Andrews, and Andrew Forman, Bishop of Murray in Scotland, and Archbishop of Bourges in France. The former having prevailed on the canons to elect him to the see, laid siege to the fortress ; and after some resistance, expelled the servants of his competitors. The Earl of Angus, attended by a party of two hundred horse, made an unsuccessful attempt to regain the castle k: but it is not apparent that his uncle had instigated him to this measure. In the mean time, Andrew Forman, an unprincipled ecclesiastic of address and influence, who had formerly been employed in many important services, found means to obtain from the pope a grant of the archbishopric of St Andrews, the abbacies of Dunfermline and Aberbrothock, and the other benefices lately enjoyed by Alexander Stewart'. It was a privilege granted by the sovereign pontiff, that, within the space of eight months after a vacancy occurred, the kings of Scotland should retain the power of presenting qualified persons to benefices exceeding a certain annual value ". This right however was often superseded : and in the present instance, his Hoz

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A Ibid. vol. i. p. 197.

liness was pleased to invalidate the claim of Douglas as well as of Hepburn.

Douglas, inspired with the genuine spirit of Christian moderation, immediately resolved to abandon the pursuit of an object which could only be attained by engaging in acts of unbecoming violence. To this exemplary virtue the conduct of his ambitious rivals forms a striking contrast. Forman being afraid to proclaim the papal bull, prevailed upon Lord Hume to undertake the support of his cause; and by the influence of that nobleman, was enabled to march to Edinburgh accompanied by ten thousand men in arms. Having there performed the ceremony, they immediately directed their course towards St Andrews in order to secure the possession of his new dignity. Hepburn was not unprepared for his reception : surrounded by his friends, tenants, and servants, he had placed the castle in a posture of defence; and, not satisfied with that precaution, had even converted the metropolitan church into a fortress, ready to withstand the approach of a prelate nominated by the successor of St Peter". Forman being unwilling to hazard an attack, was enabled by the mediation of his friends to draw the contest to a more amicable conclusion. It was stipulated that he should be put in quiet possession of the archbishopric of St Andrews, and

Lindsay's History of Scotland, p. 191.

that his competitor should derive an annual sum from the bishopric of Murray, and should also retain the revenues which he had already levied from the former diocese

Douglas was thus excluded from a participation of the emoluments: and, to complete the measure of his disappointments, the abbacy of Aberbrothock, which he had regarded as secure, was transferred to James Beaton, Archbishop of Glasgow'. By these violent and unjust measures, his hopes of immediate preferment were rendered abortive. The death of George Brown, Bishop of Dunkeld, presented him with new prospects, and exposed him to new mortifications. That prelate dying in January, 1515, the queen nominated Douglas to the vacant see; and, by the interposition of her brother Henry the Eighth, obtained a papal bull in his favour. In the mean time however Andrew Stewart, through the influence of his brother the Earl of Athole, had been elected postulate bishop by the chapter: and he manifested a determination to retain by force of arms the precarious possession which he had thus acquired in a clandestine manner. The enemies of the queen eagerly embraced an opportunity of exposing to disgrace a man so nearly related to her husband. Douglas was summoned before his proper judges, and arraigned for having, contrary to the laws of the realm, procured bulls from Rome. This practice had indeed been prohibited in several statutes ; but the existing laws were very rarely carried into execution. The hostile fáction were however eager to grasp at every opportunity of circumscribing the influence of those who were interested in supporting the Earl of Angus: and as they contemplated the superior talents of his uncle with a jealous eye, the present seemed a favourable occasion for depriving him of the power of exertion. Sentence of banishment was accordingly pronounced against him : but his punishment appears to have been afterwards mollified into imprisonment of an indefinite term. He was first committed to the custody of his former rival Hepburn, and confined in the castle of St Andrews. Having remained there for some time, he was removed to the castle of Edinburgh, and afterwards to that of Dunbar, whence he was again conducted to Edinburgh.

o Buchanan. Rerum Scotic. Hist. p. 257. P Leslæus de Rebus Gestis Scotorum, p. 364.

A reconciliation having at length taken place between the two leading factions, he was released after a confinement of upwards of twelve months. He was consecrated at Glasgow by Archbishop Beaton ; who defrayed the necessary expences attending the ceremony. Having paid a visit to the metropolitan city of St Andrews, he proceeded towards Dunkeld. Here the clergy and laity testified the utmost joy at his arrival, and offered up their thanks to heaven for bestowing upon them a bishop so noble, so learned, and so virtuous. The pope's bull being with the usual solemnities proclaimed at the high altar, he retired to the house of the dean, where he was splendidly entertained. The episcopal palace was still occupied by the retainers of Andrew Stewart: they declared that they held it in the name of the regent, and would not surrender it without orders from their master. The bishop, finding next day that they had also garrisoned the steeple of the cathedral, was under the necessity of performing divine service in the house where he lodged. Here also the customary oaths were administered to his canons. In the afternoon he entered into a consultation with the nobility, gentry, and clergy, who attended him: but they were speedily interrupted by the intelligence that Stewart was advancing to the support of his adherents. At the same instant a volley of cannon-shot was discharged from the palace and the cathedral. This was received as a signal for more vigorous exertion. James Lord Ogilvie, David Master of Crawford, Colin Campbell of Glenorchy, Thomas Greig, Prebend of Alyth, with many others of his friends, immediately prepared themselves for action : and messengers being dispatched to Angus and Fife, his party was next day strengthened by the arrival of a multitude of armed men. Stewart finding his force inadequate to the relief of his retainers who were inclosed in the palace and caVOL. II.

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