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land, T. Thomson, W. Atkinson.

The Magistrates fine James Jackson for non-attendance as a Constable, Twenty Shillings.

COURT HELD AT ADOLPHUS TOWN, 28TH JANUARY, 1800.

SPECIAL SESSIONS, 24TH MARCH, 1800. (KINGSTON.] Present :-R. Cartwright, Thos. Markland, Wm. Atkinson. [Receiving accounts of Road Overseers and assigning work.] COURT OF QUARTER SESSIONS, HELD AT KINGSTON,

22ND APRIL, 1800 Magistrates present :—R. Cartwright, T. Dorland, W. Atkinson, T. Markland, D. Wright, Alex. Clarke. D. Fraser, J. Miller, T. Thomson, J. Booth.

23rd. It is ordered by the Magistrates in Sessions that threefourths of a rate be levied from the Midland District for the year 1800.

It is ordered by the Magistrates in Sessions that a sum not exceeding forty-pounds, be paid by the Treasurer of the Midland District to M. Dorland, M. Fisher, and Peter VanAlstine, Esquires for the use of the Court House in Adolphus Town.

24th. It is ordered that the following sums be paid to the undermentioned persons : Thomas Markland

£61 4. 11
Titus Fitch
Wm. Ashley

18
Town Wardens, Kingston

23 4 9
John Cannon
Geo. Barns

I 16 2
John Cannon

3I Io
Town Wardens, Sydney

5
Clerk of the Peace

15
Wm. Coffin
R. Cartwright

38 3
Town Clerk, County of Addington

15
Marysburgh
Fredericksburgh

15
Adolphus Town
Kingston and Pittsburgh

15
Richmond .
Town Wardens, Marysburgh

17 9 3

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Mr. John Cannon, high Constable for the year ensuing.

[List of township Constables follows.] COURT OF GENERAL QUARTER SESSIONS OF THE PEACE FOR THE MIDLAND DISTRICT, HELD AT ADOLPHUS TOWN ON

TUESDAY, THE 8TH OF JULY, 1800. Present :- Alex. Fisher, T. Dorland, C. Gilbert, A. Clarke, J. Miller, D. Wright, A. Spencer, J. Embury. [Long list of cases of assault and battery disposed of.]

JULY IOTH. On application of Mr. Robert McDowall, a Presbyterian minister, a certificate was given him agreeably to the act of the Province.

COURT OF GENERAL QUARTER SESSIONS OF THE PEACE FOR THE MIDLAND DISTRICT, HELD AT KINGSTON ON

14TH OCT. 1800. Present :-Richd Cartwright Esq Chairman, Alex. Fisher, Alex. Clarke, J. Cumıning, Arch. McDonell, T. Markland, P. Smith. 15th. It is ordered by the Magistrates in sessions that the sum of twenty-three pounds ten shillings be levied from the

1 The question as to the form of a legal marriage was one which agitated the Province of Upper Canada from its first settlement. There being no clergymen in the western districts in the earlier days of their history, marriages commonly took place before one or another of the military officers at the various posts. But among The poorer settlers, or those at a considerable distance from the posts, the parties to the marriage sometimes dispensed with any ceremony, and simply "took each other's word for it,” as one of them put it. Where, however, any question arose as to the inheriting of property by the children of the early settlers, no marriages but those solemnized by clergymen of the English and Roman Catholic Churchs were regarded as legal. (See a Report on the Marriage Law in Upper Canada by Richard Cartwright, Jr., given in full in the Canadian Archives Report for 1891, p. 85.) In order to remedy this hardship, there was introduced in the first session of the first parliament of Upper Canada, a bill to legalize past marriages and make more liberal provision for the future. But Simcoe, regarding the English Church establishment as indispensable in securing the dependence of the colonies on the mother country, strongly opposed the measure. The result was that a compromise act was passed in the following session, 33rd Geo. III Cap. V. This rendered legal all marriages solemnized, according to the forms of the Church of England, by Justices of the Peace, where no clergyman of the Church of England was available within eighteen miles. All dissenting ministers, however, were denied the right to perform legal marriages until 1798, when the act, 38th Geo. III Cap. IV, was passed. In virtue of this act, ministers of the Church of Scotland and Lutheran and Calvinist ministers were allowed to solemnize legal marriages on certain conditions. They were required to appear before at least six Justices in Quarter Sessions, take the oath of allegiance, be vouched for by at least seven respectable persons of their congregations, and pay a fee of 5s, to the Clerk of the Peace, when they received a prescribed certificate or licence giving them the necessary authority. The act also rendered valid all previous marriages performed by such ministers. The Rev. Robert McDowall, here referred to, was the first Presbyterian minister in the district. His marriage register is preserved in the Library of Queen's University.

Counties of Lenox, Hastings and Northumberland for mem-
bers wages for the year 1800.
AT THE COURT OF GENERAL QUARTER SESSIONS OF THE PEACE,
HELD AT ADOLPHUS TOWN ON THE TWENTY SEVENTH

DAY OF JANUARY, 1801.
Present :- Alex. Fisher Esq Chairman, Thos. Dorland, A.
Clark, J. Stinson, J. Cumming, J. Miller, J. Peters, B. Crawford,
P. Smith.

A Licence from the Sessions was given to Mr. John G. Wigant, authorizing him to be a Lutheran Minister at the recommendation of William Beuniher, Martin Fraleigh, Michael Smith, Jonas Amy, Ludovick Hartman, Conrad Borgand, Charles Keller.

28th Jan. It is ordered by the Magistrates in Sessions that the sum of fifteen pounds ten shillings be levied from the inhabi. tants of the County of Frontenac for Edward Jessup, Esq for Member's wages for the year 1800.

[Eleven pounds levied from same County for same member for year 1799.]

It is ordered by the Magistrates in Sessions that the sum of Twenty-three pounds ten shillings be allowed to William Fairfield Esq for the County of Addington and Ontario for the year 1800.

[Twenty-two pounds from same Counties for same member, apparently for 1799.] SPECIAL SESSIONS HELD AT KINGSTON, 30TH MARCH, 1801.

Magistrates Present :-R. Cartwright, T. Markland, P. Smith, Esqs.

The Road Masters were called upon to produce their accounts for the year 1800.

[Accounts follow and sections are assigned for following year.) COURT OF GENERAL QUARTER SESSIONS OF THE PEACE, HELD AT

KINGSTON THE 28TH OF APRIL, 1801. Magistrates Present :-Richard Cartwright, Esq., Chairman, Alex. Fisher, Thos. Markland, Wm. Atkinson, Thos. Dorland, Caleb Gilbert, Bryan Crawford, Joshua Booth, John Cumming, Dan'l Wright, John W. Myers.

See previous note. The names of seven persons required to testify to the minister's position are here given.

ALUMNI CONFERENCE-FEBRUARY 1901.

MONDAY.

3 p.m.-Interpretation of Modern Life by Tennyson. Rev. Armstrong Black.

4 p.m.—The Age of St Augustine. Prof. Glover.

8 p.m.--The Relation of Legislation and Morality. Professor Shortt, W. S. Morden, LL.B., J. R. Lavell, B.A., Rev. M. Macgillivray, M.A.

TUESDAY. 10 a.m.- The Chancellor's Lectureship. Dr. Watson. Subject, St. Augustine.

11-1-Persian Influence on Judaism. Rev. R. J. Hutcheon, M.A. Discussion opened by N. R. Carmichael, M.A., and Rev. M. Macgillivray, M.A.

3. p.m.-The Method of St. Paul's teaching. Discussion opened by Rev. R. Laird, M.A., W. N. Anderson, B, A., and Rev. Dr. Eby.

8 p.m.— The Function of Journalism in a democracy. J. G. Willison, J. G. Elliott, Rev. J. A. McDonald, John Marshall and the Principal.

WEDNESDAY.
10 a.m.—The Chancellor's Lectureship.

11-1—The Book of Ecclesiastes. Rev. Dr. Milligan. Discussion opened by Rev. J. A. Grant, B.A.

3 p.m.-Interpretation of Modern Life by Tennyson. Rev. Armstrong Black.

4 p.m.—The Book of Jonah. Rev. N. McPherson, B.D., and J. Young, M.A.

8 p.m.-Life, Organism, Environment. Rev. Dr. Lyle. Discussion opened by Prof. Knight, Dr. Clarke and Rev. J. Millar, M.A.

THURSDAY.
10 a.m.— The Chancellor's Lectureship.
II-1—The

Maccabean Epoch and its Literature. T. A. Cosgrove, B.A. The Book of Daniel. W. W. Peck, LL.B.

3-5 p.m.-The Substance of St. Paul's Teaching. Discussion by Prof. McNaughton, Revs. S. G. Bland, J. Binnie, M.A., E. Thomas, B.A., and D. Strachan, B.A.

8 p.m.- Amos, the Desert Prophet. Prof. McFayden, B.A. Discussion opened by Prof. Jordan.

FRIDAY.
10 a.m.—The Chancellor's Lectureship.

11-1—The Literature of the ist Century B.C. By Revs. J. Turnbull, M.A., and John Hay, B.D. 3 p.m.-- What does the Documentary theory of the Pentateuch

Prof. Jordan.
4 p.m.--Students Meeting.
8 “.

p.m.-Lecture on "The National Outlook." By Dr. Parkin, C.M.G.

SATURDAY. II a.m,- Meeting of the Alumni. Arrangement for the year following, etc.

mean.

IT

T is said that the difficulty of knowing the real mind of a

woman is that she herself does not know it; but what is the depth of a woman's mind compared to that of a nation, Canada and the especially if the nation be racially heterogeneous

Empire and scattered over half a continent ! No wonder that for a time Canada was but dimly concious of her own deepest thoughts and feelings. Annexation, plausibly disguised as "Manifest Destiny,” or “the Continent to which we belong” theory, secession, attractively termed "Independence,” commercial union, or a liaison which combined political allegiance to the Queen with trade subjection to rings at Washington, were advocated by seductive voices, all asserting too that the defenders of Imperial unity were quite as revolutionary as themselves. They certainly made as much noise and seened to have as large a following. But, as in a great assembly, where different motions are submitted with each supported by two or three eloquent speakers, it seems to onlookers in the gallery as if the house were equally divided until the vote is called for, when perhaps half a dozen hands are held up for the amendments and thousands as silently for the main motion, and the strife of tongues at once subsides, so has it been in Canada. The Empire was insolently threatened ; its territories were invaded at 48 hours notice; and almost as quickly, in an informal but none the less real way, there was a vote which declared the mind of Greater Britain so unmistakably that there remains now no doubt on the subject. As a people, Canadians reject, for ever, suicide, secession, and liaisons. We abide by our history and our Constitution ; our

1 flag, our Queen, and our world-wide Empire with its mission of liberty, justice and peace, each and all so precious that we must be ready to fight for each and all. On this occasion, we have given for the common cause two or three millions of money, and including the Strathcona horse and the Halifax and Esquimalt garisons--about four thousand men. Had there been need we would have given both men and money ten times over. Our population is as great as England's was in the days of Elizabeth, and far greater than Scotland's in the age of Wallace and Bruce. All the world knows the great things our fathers did then, and their children are not likely to forget. It always "pays," in a far higher than the vulgar sense of the word, to make sacrifices for national life or the honour without which life is not worth living.

But what of the attitude of the French-speaking section of The attitude of

our population, it is asked ? On the whole, it has French-speaking been admirable ; but to understand it, one must un.

derstand them and their position. 'Put yourself in his place,' is always a righteous demand. Well, suppose that Canada belonged to France and not to Britain ; that one Province was British and had been British for two centuries

Canadians.

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