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Staves-long butt, from 5 feet 6 inches to 5 feet 9 inches long,
from 5 to 6 inches broad,
from 2 to 24 inches thick, Short butt?
} from 4 feet 6 to 4 feet 9 inches long, and pipe s
from 3 to 4 inches broad,
from of an inch to 14 thick, Hogshead from 3 feet 6 to 3 feet 9 iuches long,
from 3 to 4 inches wide,
from # to 14 inch thick,
not less than 3 inches wide,
not less than $ of an inch thick in any place, Heading-of 28, 30, 32, in due proportion, and not more
than 34 inches long, from 5 to 7 inches broad, dressed and clean of
sap, and from # to 14 inch thick.
The only law of this state relating to weights and measures, a knowledge of which has been obtained, was enacted prior to the American revolution, during the administration of Governor Gabriel Johnston, and is yet in force. It prohibits the use, in trade, by all the inhabitants or traders within the province, of any weights and measures other than are made and used according to the standard in the English Exchequer, and the statutes of England in that case provided. It charges the justices of the county courts to provide, at the charge of each county, sealed weights of half hundred, quarter of hundred, seven pounds, four pounds, two pounds, one pound, and half pound ; measures of ell and yard, of brass or copper, measures of half bushel, peck, and gallon, of dry measure, and a gallon, pottle, quart, and pint, of wine measure. It prescribes the appointment of standard-keepers in each county, to whom all weights and measures of the inhabitants are to be brought to be sealed, and who are to be sworn to the faithful discharge of their duties : and it subjects to suitable penalties the various offences of falsifying weights and measures, or of trading with such as have not been duly tried by the standard and sealed. It also repeals all former laws of the province upon the subject.
By an act of 12th April, 1768, the public treasurer was required to procure, of brass or other proper metal, one weight of 50 pounds, one of 25 pounds, one of 14 pounds, two of 6 pounds, two of 4 pounds, two of 2 pounds, and two of 1 pound, avoirdupois weight, according to the standard of London ; and one bushel, one half bushel, one peck, and
one half peck measures, according to the standard of London. The weights were to be stamped or marked in figures denominating their weight, and to be kept by the public treasurer: and by these weights and measures, declared to be the standards, all others in the province were to be regulated. By another act, of 17th March, 1785, subsequent to the Revolution, the justices of the county courts were authorized to regulate weights and measures within their respective jurisdictions, and to enforce the observance of their regulations by adequate penalties.
An act of the state legislature of 10th December, 1803, declares the standard of weights and measures established by the corporations of the cities of Savannah and Augusta to be the fixed standard of weights and measures within the state ; and that all persons buying and selling shall use that standard until the Congress of the United States shall have made provision on that subject. It directs the justices of the inferior courts, in the respective counties, to obtain standards conformable to those of the corporation of one of those cities ; and prescribes regulations for keeping the standards, and for trying, marking, and sealing, by them, the weights and measures of individuals, with penalties for using, in traffic, any others not corresponding with them.
An ordinance of the city council of Augusta directs that all weights for weighing any articles of produce, or merchandise, shall be of the avoirdupois standard weights ; and all measures for liquor, whether of wine or ardent spirits, of the wine measure standard ; and all measures for grain, salt, or other articles usually sold by the bushel, of the dry, or Winchester measure standard. And it prohibits the use of any other than brass or iron weights, thus regulated, or weights of any other description than those of 50, 25, 14, 7, 4, 2, 1, 1, 4, pound, 2 ounces, 1 ounce, and downwards.
An act of the legislatare, of 11th December, 1798, reciting in its preamble that Congress are empowered by the federal constitution to fix the standard of weights and measures, and that they had not passed any law for that purpose, recognizes, as thereby remaining in force within that commonwealth, the act of the General Assembly of Virginia, of the year 1734.
It therefore authorizes and directs the governor to procure one set of the weights and measures specified by the Virginian act of 1734, with measures of the length of one foot and one yard; and declares that the bushel dry measure shall contain 2150 solid inches, and the gallon of wine measure 231 inches. It provides that these standards shall be kept by the secretary of state of the commonwealth ; that the governor shall cause to be made and transmitted to each county, scales and standards conformable to those of the state, which are to be kept by persons to be appointed by the county courts, and with which all the weights and measures, used in trade by individuals, are to be made to correspond.
From a communication received from the governor of the state of Tennessee, it appears that there is in that state no standard of weights and measures fixed by the legislature.
The only act of the legislature of the state of Ohio, on this subject, is of 22d January, 1811. It directs the county commissioners of each county in the state to cause to be made one half bushel measure, to contain 1075; solid inches, which is to be kept in the county seat, and to be called the standard.
Before the accession of Louisiana to the union of these states, the weights and measures used in the province were those of France, of the old standard of Paris. An account of these, and of the present state of the weights and measures in the state of Louisiana, is submitted in the appendix to this report.
By an act of the legislature of 21st December, 1814, the governor of the state was required to procure, at the expense of the state, weights and measures corresponding with those used by the revenue officers of the United States, together with scales and a seal, to be deposited in the custody of the secretary of the state, to serve as the general standard for the state.
Provision was also made by the same act for the appointment of an inspector at New Orleans, and for furnishing standards to the several parishes throughout the state.
By the last section of this act, a special dry measure is ordained, by the name of a barrel, to contain three and a quarter bushels, according to the American standard, and to be divided in half and quarter barrel. The capacity of this measure, containing, according to the law, 6988.86 cubic inches, is referrible to none of the usual dry measures of the ancient Paris standard; but corresponds with tolerable exactness with the ancient Bordeaux half-bogshead, and with the assize of barrels prescribed by almost all the states of the Union, for packing beef, pork, and flour, for exportation.
An act of the territorial legislature, of 17th September, 1807, adthorized the courts of common pleas of the respective counties in the
territory, whenever they might think it necessary, to procure a set of measures and weights for the use of the county; namely, one measure of one foot, or twelve inches English measure, so called ; one measure of three feet, or thirty-six inches English measure; one half bushel for dry measure, to contain 1075 solid inches; one gallon measure, to contain 231 solid inches; the measures to be of wood, or any metal, as the court may think proper; also, one set of avoirdupois weights, to be sealed with the name or initial letters of the county. These weights and measures were to be kept by the clerks of the county courts, for the purpose of trying and sealing those used in their counties. After due notice given by the courts that these standards had been procured, all persons were prohibited from buying or selling by weights or measures not corresponding with them : and the clerk was to try and seal all weights or measures brought to him therefor corresponding with the standard. This act was to continue in force till Congress should otherwise provide.
The provisions of this act are, in substance, and nearly to the letter, repeated in an act of the state legislature, of 21st January, 1818.
There is also an act of 24th December, 1816, regulating the inspection of tobacco; and one of 2d January, 1819, regulating the inspection of flour, beef, and pork. The assize of hogsheads and of casks, prescribed in them, is the same as that of the Virginia laws.
An act of the territorial legislature, of 4th February, 1807, directed the treasurer to procure a set of the large avoirdupois weights, according to the standard of the United States, if one were established, but if there were none such, according to the standard of London, with proper scales for weights; together with measures of foot and yard, dry measures of capacity, and liquid wine measures. He was also required to furnish each county in the territory with a set of weights, scales, and measures, conformable to the above standards, to be kept by a person appointed by the county courts, under oath, and accessible to all persons desirous of having their weights and measures tried and sealed. Penalties were also annexed to the use of weights and measures not corresponding with these standards.
A subsequent act, of 230 December, 1815, further required of the treasurer to procure six sets of the weights and measures as above described, and to distribute them at suitable places in the several counties of the territory; and additional penalties were prescribed for the use of weights and measures not corresponding with the standard.
An act of the legislature of the state of Mississippi, of 6th Februa. ry, 1818, “ to provide for inspections, and for other purposes," contains many other regulations for the keeping of the standard weights and measures, and for securing conformity to them. It makes no alteration of the standard, but confirms, “ until Congress shall fix a · 66 standard for the United States," that which had already been esta. blished. It also requires that barrels of flour should contain 196 pounds nett; and barrels of pork and beef 200 pounds nett of meat. ;
The territorial act of 17th September, 1807, passed while the state of Illinois formed a part of the Indiana territory.
But by an act of the legislature of this state “regulating weights, 66 and measures," of 22d March, 1819, the county commissioners of each county in the state were required to procure, at the expense of the county, one foot and one yard English measure; a gallon liquid or wine measure, to contain 231 cubic inches; corresponding quart, pint, and gill measures, of some proper and durable metal; a half bushel dry measure, to contain eighteen quarts, one pint, and one gill, wine measure, or 1075.2 cubic inches, and a gallon dry measure, to contain one-fourth part of the half bushel, these two measures to be of copper, or brass; also, a set of weights, of one pound, one half pound, one eighth pound, and one sixteenth pound, made of brass or iron, the integer of which to be denominated one pound avoirdupois, and to equal in weight 7,020 grains troy, or gold weight. These weights and measures are to be kept by the clerk of the county commissioners, for trying and sealing the measures and weights in common use.
All persons are authorized to have their weights and measures tried by the standards, and sealed ; and are forbidden, upon suitable penalties, to buy or sell by others not corresponding with them.
The most remarkable peculiarity of this act is, its departure from the English standard weights by fixing the avoirdupois pound at 7,020 instead of 7,000 grains troy.
This state having formed a part of the Mississippi territory, previously to the admission of the state of Mississippi into the Union in 1817, the acts of that territory of 4th February, 1807, and 230 December, 1815, embraced this section of territory. No act of the state. legislature of Alabama, on this subject, is known to have been passed.
The territorial legislature, by an act of 28th July, 1813, directed the several courts of common pleas within the territory to provide, for and at the expense of the respective counties, one foot and one yard English measures; one half bushel, to contain 10754 solid inches, for dry measure; one gallon, to contain 231 solid inches, and smaller liquid measures in proportion; to be of wood, or any metal the court