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The can (kann) remains invariably the same in all measures, whether dry or liquid, in which it is used.
The measures of Sweden compared with those of France and England.
According to the official comparison made by the French philosophers Prony, Legendre, and Pictet, between the French standard metre and an English measure, made expressly by Troughton for that object, both these measures being at the temperature of freezing, the French metre is equal to 39.3827 English inches.
See Annals of Chemistry, for June, 1817, pa. 166. (Annales de Chimie et Physique.) Thus : 1 French metre = 39.2827 English inches (log. 5953056)
= 36.9413 old French inches (log. 5675125)
= 33.68 12606 Swedish dec. inches (log. 5273883.) 1,000 English feet = 1026.275( the proportion beSwedish feet
tween the deci-((log. 0112639) 974.397 English feet = 1,000 mal inches is the Swedish feet. ( same.
(log. 9887361) 1,000 English duodecimal inches = 1026.275 Swedish work inches. 1,000 do. do. do. = 855.229 Swedish decimal inches
1000 Swedish decimal inches
1169.276 English duodecimal inches = 1,000 Swedish decimal inches
(log. 0679173.) 1,000 English sq. feet = 1053.24 Swedish sq. feet (log. 0225278.)
949.945 do. .do. = 1,000 do. do. (log. 9774722.) 1,000 English duodecimal sq. inches = 731.417 Swedish decimal
sq. inches (log. 8641654.) 1367.21 English duodecimal sq. inches = 1,000 Swedish decimal sq.
inches (log. 1358346.) 1 Swedish acre (tunnland)=56,000 Swedish sq. feet = 53,169
English sq. feet (log. 7256602.) 1,000 English cubic inches =625.53 Swedish cubic decimal inches
(log. 7962481.) į Swedish can (kann) = 100 Swedish cubic decimal inches
= 159.864 English cubic inches (log. 2037519.) 1 Swedish meal ton (maltunna) =5,600 Swedish decimal cubic
inches =8952.41 English cubic inches ; This is divided into 8 fjerdingar, each 700 Swedish decimal cubic
inches = 1119.048 English cubic inches. In commerce there is also a corn ton (sparnmaltunna) = 6,300 Swe
dish decimal cubic inches = 10,071 English cubic inches; Which is in fact the same measure of exactly 5,600 Swed. cub. dec. in. But in the sale of all kinds of grain is added thereto 1 fjerding or eighth part, }
It was formerly the practice in the sale of grain to give heaped measure; but as this practice, for want of precision, occasioned continual disputes, it was at length abolished by law, and the addition of one-eighth part ordained in its stead ; that is, 9 tons make 8 of corn, and the measure now is not to be heaped or shaken.
Mintvigt, (mint weight.)
The Swedish mint weight, or that with which gold and silver are weighed at the mint and at the bank, when these metals are left for coining, is divided into the mark, lod, qvintin, and ass : and in respect to the fineness of silver, into the mark, lod, and gran (grain); and in respect to the fineness of gold, into the mark, karat, (carat) and gran, (grain.)
1 Márk, mint weight, = 16 lod = 64 qvintin =4,384 (troyske) Dutch ass.
Medicenalsvigt, (apothecary weight.)
1 pound (libra) medicenalsvigt, is divided into 12 ounces, 1 ounce into 8 drams, 1 dram into 3 scruples, 1 scruple into 60 grains.
Thus, 1 libra = 12 ounces = 96 drams = 288 scruples = 5,760 grains =7,416 (troyske) Dutch ass.
Victualievigt, (provision weight.)
The Swedish victualievigt is divided into sheppund, (shippounds) centner (hundreds,) lispund, and marks, or skulpund. Thus, 1 shippound
=4 centner = 5 lispounds = 400 marks, or skulpounds. The skul. pound is divided into lod and ass, and i skulpound = 32 lod = 8,488
N. B. The centner is generally omitted in accounts, and one shippound divided at once into 20 lispounds.
Metalsvigt, Stapelstadsvigt, or Exportationsvigt. The weight which is called by these three names is divided, like the victualievigt, into shippounds, centner, lispounds, skulpounds, lod, and ass, of the same relative value. The skulpound is also divided into fourth, eighth, and sixteenth parts.
Uppstadsvigt, Bergsvigt, and Tackjernsvigt. These are three distinct weights, but are divided and subdivided in the same manner as the provision weight and the exportation weight.
Application of the several weights. The use of the mint weight is already explained. The medicenalsvigt is, as the term imports, for weighing drugs and medicines. The victualievigt is that which is most generally and frequently used in Sweden. With it are weighed all kinds of provisions, and all merchandise wbich is sold within the country, or exported abroad by weight, excepting those articles only which specially appcrtain to the other sorts of weights herein mentioned. The metalsvight, stapelstadsvigt, or exportationsvigt, is applied exclusively to weighing iron, steel, copper, and other gross metals, for exportation abroad.
Bergsvigt, also called Bergshammervigt, (that is weight, or mine hammerweight,) is the weight used at the forges, for iron intended for home consumption, and to be sent into the interior, or to the uppstads, which are towns or cities whence no exportation abroad is allowed, there being at those places no custom houses for this purpose. But iron sent to the stapelstads, or cities whence exportation abroad is permitted,and at which there are custom houses for this purpose, is weighed at the forges, by the metalls-stapelstads, or erportationsvigt.
Uppstads weight is that used at these places, or any where in the interior where iron is sold for home consumption.
Tackjernsvigt (pig iron weight) is exclusively used throughout Swe. den for weighing pig iron to the workmen, who are to forge it into bar iron for account of the proprietor.
Comparative view. The Swedish ducat ought to consist of gold of the fineness of 23 carats and 5 grains, and to weigh gross 727. Dutch ass, or 624 ducats make one mark, mint weight, =4384 Dutch ass (nearly.) One mark of gold of the fineness of 24 carats, gives 62 ducats. The addition is according to the alloy. The remedium ( mintage) which is allowed for ducats, is one grain in the fineness, and one ass in the weight, each piece.
The Dutch ducat contains gold of the fineness of 23 carats and 8 grains, with a remedium of one grain per piece, of 721 Dutch ass. At least 72 pieces, new ducats, ought to weigh 5088 ass, or 159 angels.
Swedish silver coin, whole rix dollars, two thirds rix dollars, and one third rix dollars, consists of silver of the fineness of 14 lod one grain, with a remedium of one grain ; one dollar of which ought to weigh gross 608. Dutch ass, or 36 rix dollars ought to weigb 5 marks mint weight :
1 whole dollar, of fine silver 5344 ass.
ness of silver, 11 lod i grain.
1 twenty-fourth do.. 2 styck do. 6 lod 2 grains. All with a remedium of one grain. All, both the whole dollar and the parts of the dollar, have each its full value in silver, and the copper alloy is thereto superadded.
Wrought silver ought to have the fineness of 13 lod and four grains, with a remedium of 24 grains. If the fineness be not thirteen lod, the vessel shall not on that account be broken up, but subjected to a double control duty, which makes it cost more than if the silver was of the requisite fineness.
All wrought silver is sold according to the lod victualievigt; and all wrought gold according to its weight in ducats.
The fineness of crown gold, so called, (kronguld) for different ves. sels, or other articles, is 18 carats. In victualievigt, as above, one skulpound=8488 Dutch ass. The skulpound victualievigt is divided also into lod and quintin : thus, i skulpound = 32 lod, and i lod=4 quintin = 276, ass. One ounce, or 8 drams, medecinalsvigt, are equal to 9 quintin, victualievigt, or 1 libra = 7416 Dutch ass. Metallsvigt is of victualievigt. Thus, 16 skulpounds, victualievigt 20 skulpounds metallsvigt; and one skulpound metallsvigt = 707874 Dutch ass.
Uppstads weight has a shippound = 421 skulpounds, metallsvigt, or 20 Uppstadsvigt, = 21 metalls or stapelstadsvigt. Bergshammersvigt has a shippound, = 442 skulpounds, metallsvigt, or 20 bergshammersvigt, = 22 jy metalls, or stapelstadsvigt.
The reason for this difference in the two last mentioned instances, is, that the iron being valued at the uppstads, and at the stapelstads, respectively, at the same price per shippound as at the forges, this factitious increase of weight has been devised to cover the expense of transportation to the respective places of delivery. Tackjernvigt has a shippound = 26 lispounds, or 520 skulpounds, bergshammersvigt, or 20 tackjernvigt,=26 bergshammersvigt, which means simply this, that the forgeman, for every 26 pounds of pig iron which he receives, must deliver to the proprietor 20 pounds of bar iron. From the data here furnished, all the weights of Sweden may be reduced to the victualievigt, or to the (troyske) Dutch ass. I will here observe that the word “ troyske," which is used in the Swedish publications on weights and measures, applied to the ass, cannot be satisfactorily translated into other languages, as its derivative meaning is lost. Several learned men, however, have told me that they conjecture that it came from Holland. I have therefore translated it “ Dutch."
To compare our weights with those of Sweden, the following data are believed to be sufficient.
1 skulpound, Swedish victualievigt, = 8848 Dutch ass.
1000 pounds English troy weight = 877.7124775 skulpounds, Swedish victualievigt, =1000 pounds English avoirdupois weight, = 1066.794476 skulpounds, Swedish victualievigt, = 1333.49355 Swedish skulpounds, metalls, staplestads, or exportingvigt.
Uniformity. With regard to uniformity, in the first sense above suggested, you will perceive that it exists in Sweden, in respect to measures, so far as the different uses of those measures will easily admit, as they are all reducible to the Swedish foot, lineal, square, or cubic, divided into 10 or 12 parts or inches. In respect to Swedish weights, such uniformity does not exist. The mint, apothecary, and provision weights, rest on foundations entirely distinct from each other, and the principal unit of each is divided into parts, with denominations and quantities reculiar to themselves. Although metalls, uppstads, bergs, and tackjerns weights, have indirectly a certain relation to provision weight, and the principal unit of each is divided into parts of the same names, and relative quantities, yet their diversity is sufficiently obvious from their different uses, and the different standards to which they must necessarily be made to conform. With regard to uniforinity, in the second sense above suggested, there have been no proceed ings whatever in this country for the purpose of establishing it: indeed the policy, as well as the habits, of the people appear to be opposed to its adoption. The only time when this question has been agitated here, was upon the receipt of the circular which the French government, soon after the introduction of the new weights and mea. sures in France, addressed to the governments of other countries, recommending an universal conformity to the new standard. But there never, for a moment, existed here a disposition to accede to that proposition. All the convenience and facilities afforded by the plan proposed could not prevail against the prejudices opposed to it. The people consider their ancient customs as a constituent part of their rights, and would defend their old weights and measures as attributes of their liberty and independence.
The bankers object to the decimal system, because it does not readi. Jy admit of thirds, in which they pretend to have a great interest. And the politicians affect to believe that a diversity in weights and measures is necessary for the preservation of a diversity in governments, and that the adoption of general uniformity would facilitate universal conquest. I will not detain you with a comment on these objections.
With regard to uniformity in the third sense above suggested, which consists in preserving the constancy of weights aud measures, by an exact conformity to one or more standards, respectively, I shall now present to you the regulations of Sweden.
Standard weights and measures are required by law to be kept at Stockliolm, in the college of commerce and the mines, in the office of the receiver of the revenue, in the land surveyor's office, and in the City Hall. Standard weights and measures, adjusted by those of Stockholm, are also kept in the offices of the receiver of the revenue, and of the land surveyor in all the other towns or cities, and at all the parish churches in the country. The standard measures, the ell and the foot, are made of brass or steel. The standard weights are made of bronze. It is the duty of the land surveyors, in the interior, to take care that the weights and measures, in their respective districts, conform to the standards, and they are allowed a compensation for so doing.