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the author of

Thomas Budd' this book, was

the son of the Rev. Thomas Budd, of the parish of Martock,2 Somersetshire, England. The latter was "an established preacher of the national church, and having been convinced of the truth as professed by the Quakers, separated himself from that church, renounced his benefice, and became a minister of the gospel, without money and without price.3" He did not flinch from what he conceived to be the line of duty, and having permitted a meeting for religious worship to be held at his house, which the rabble broke in upon and dispersed, was arrested as a disturber of the peace, and although discharged from custody the end was not yet. Persecution for opinion sake raged throughout England; the most cruel opposition followed any attempt to exercise religious 1 Fac-simile autograph of the author.

2 MARTOCK, SOMERSETSHIRE, a parish and market town in the hundred of Martock on the river Parret, 166 miles from London. * * The town consists chiefly of one long street with a market house near the centre. The living All Saints, a discharged vicarage, with the curacy of Load in the Archdeanry of Wells and Diocese of Bath and Wells at present has a value of £194. Parish contains 6,930 acres; established population in 1849, 3,479. See 3d vol. Clarke's British Gaz., Lond., 1852.

3 Besse's Sufferings of the Quakers, I, 580, in note.

4 See note at end of introduction.



Budd was a marked man.

In 1661 he was required to take the "oath of obedience" prescribed by the statute 1st James I, passed "for the better discovering of papist recusants."

Although willing to affirm, and entirely loyal, he could not take an oath and comply with the requirements of an oppressive statute perverted to an oppressive purpose. He was arrested, indicted, found guilty, and receiving sentence of præmunire, lingered out his few remaining years in the jail at Ilchester, where he died on the 22d of June, 1670, firm in his faith.1

The father's dying wish was answered. Thomas Budd attached himself to the society of Friends, and leaving England arrived at Burlington, New Jersey, in the year 1678, an ardent upholder of the rights of conscience, thoroughly imbued with the spirit of liberty, and ready to lend his influence to their fundamental establishment "for all people" within the province.

John Cripps, in a letter dated at that place 19th 4 m., 1678, and written to a relation in England, refers to Budd as having had "far more experience" of West Jersey than some other individual, whose name he does not give, "could have had in the short time he was among us." The writer further states that Budd also had written "and endeavored to satisfy, as near as he could, of the truth of things.'

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1" A faithful man, having been a prisoner at Ilchester about 8 years and 4 months under sentence of præmunire, departed this life in much peace, declaring some hours before his death that he had renewed his engagements and covenants with God, and was therein well satisfied, and expressed a firm hope and belief, that God would support him as in life, so in death, with the right hand of his righteousness. He also rejoiced and praised God that his children did walk in the way of the Lord."- Besse, I, 609. 2 Smith's New Jersey, 100, 108.

From this we conclude that Budd came in the beginning of 1678.1 During his residence in West Jersey he held several important offices and was a leading man in the province.

In the year 1681, he was, by act of Assembly, appointed with Thomas Gardiner one of the receivers general to collect £200 for the purpose of defraying the debts of the province, and in the same year was chosen one of the commissioners for "settling and regulation of lands," a member of the governor's council and one of the regulators of weights and measures.2

In 1682 and '83, he was elected to the Assembly and rechosen land commissioner and councillor, and in the

1 The following is a list of all the vessels which arrived in the Delaware from Great Britain between the years 1675 and 1679. It is probably not complete, although there is no available source within our knowledge to make it more so. After 1679 the arrivals were much more numerous.

The “Griffith," from London, arrived in 1675 with Fenwicke and his company, and landed at the spot called by him Salem. Smith, p. 79, says this was the first English ship that came to West Jersey, and Proud states (I, 137), that "it was near two years before another followed," which was the 66 Kent," Gregory Marlow, master, and which arrived from London at New Castle, 16, 6m., August, 1677.--Smith, 93. "Phenix," Matthew Shearer, master, arrived 6th m., 1677.- From a copy in possession of editor of a MS. Registry of Arrivals. "Flie Boat Martha," of Burlington, Yorkshire, sailed from Hull in Aug., 1677.-Smith, 102. A copy of MS. Registry of Arrivals says the Martha, Thomas Wildtuys, master, arrived in 7th m., 1677. "Willing Mind," John Newcomb, master, from London, arrived Nov., 1677 -Smith, 102. MS. Registry of Arrivals says 28th 7th m., 1677. “Shield,” of Hull, Daniel Towes, master, arrived 10th month (O. S.), 1678. -Smith, 108. "Elizabeth and Sarah," Richard Ffriend, master, arrived 29th 3 m., 1679.-MS. Registry. "Elizabeth and Mary," of Weymouth, arrived 4th 4th m., 1679.- MS. Registry. "Jacob and Mary," Richard Moore, master, arrived 12th 7th m., 1679.-MS. Registry.

2 Smith, 130, 152; see also Leaming and Spicer's Laws.

latter year with Thomas Gardiner again commissioned one of the treasurers of the province.1

Budd and Francis Collins, in 1683, were each to have 1,000 acres, "parts of lands to be purchased of the Indians above the falls," the present site of Trenton, N. J., in consideration and discharge for building a market and court house, at Burlington.2

And in the same year Budd was appointed by the Assembly to draw up a letter to Edward Byllinge, and also an instrument containing the state of the case of the proprietors with Edward Byllinge.3

Such was the satisfaction he gave in the handling of this business that it led to further employment in it.

In 1684 the Assembly resolved "that the matter relating to the demand and consideration of the right of the corporation and freeholders to the government, against Edward Byllinge's pretence to the same, be proceeded in, and a demand to Edward Byllinge for his confirmation of what he hath sold be first made" and Budd, with Thomas Jennings, were appointed to negotiate the affair in England.

The poverty of the province was such that it was unable to provide funds to defray the expenses and salaries of its commissioners, and Jennings and Budd with Thomas Oliver became bound for 100 pounds sterling in the public account for the charges of the commission, and received fifteen hundred acres above the falls as their security, the title to be made when the land was purchased of the Indians.4

In 1684 Budd sailed upon his mission, and it was during his stay in England that Good Order was published, and

1 Leaming and Spicer's Laws, 442, 445, 458. 2 Idem., 467. Idem., 482, * Idem, 485, 487.

which appears to have been given to the printer on the 25th of October, 1685.

In the latter end of the year he returned to West Jersey, and was with his brother, James Budd, chosen a member of the Assembly, and became one of the chief promoters in the erection of the new Meeting House at Burlington.1

This, so far as the records inform, was his last appearance in public life in that province, and it is likely he shortly afterwards removed to Philadelphia, for on the 17th 9th m., 1685, he petitioned the provincial council of the province of Pennsylvania for a special court to end a difference between Philip Th: Lehman and himself. He probably at this time began to give his attention to mercantile pursuits.

We meet no further reference to him until the 7th of 12th mo., 1688-9, when we find his application to the provincial council of Pennsylvania conjointly with others representing their "design in setting up a bank for money, and requesting incouragement from the governor's council for their proceeding therein." Blackwell, Penn's deputy governor, replied "that some things of this nature had been proposed and dedicated to the proprietor by himself some months since," that he hoped shortly to hear from Penn and encouragingly suggested that he knew "no reason why they might not give their personall bills to such as would take them as money, to pass as Merchants usually did bills of exchange, but that it might be suspected that such as usually clipp'd or coyned money would be apt to counterfeit their bills unless more than ordinary care were taken to prevent it which might be their ruine, as well as ye peoples that should deal with 1 Idem., 502. Provincial Minutes of Pa., 163.

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