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The powers not delegated to the United States by the constitution, nor prohibited by it to the states, are reserved to the states respectively, or to the people.—[Id.


LIMITATION OF JUDICIAL POWER. The judicial power of the United States shall not be construed to extend to any suit in law or equity commenced or prosecuted against one of the United States by the citizens of another state, or by citizens or subjects of any foreign state.—[Proposed March 5, 1794: Ratified Jan. 8, 1798.



The electors shall meet in their respective states, and vote by ballot for president and vicepresident, one of whom, at least, shall not be an inhabitant of the same state with themselves; they shall name in their ballots the person voted for as president, and in distinct ballots the person voted for as vice-president; and they shall make distinct lists of all persons voted for as president, and of all persons voted for as vice-president, and of the number of votes for each, which lists they shall sign and certify, and transmit, sealed, to the seat of the government of the United States, directed to the president of the senate. The president of the senate shall, in the presence of the senate and house of representatives, open all the certificates, and the Fotes shall then be counted. The person having the greatest number of votes for president shall be the president, if such a number be a majority of the whole number of electors appointed; and if no person have such a majority, then from the persons having tho highest numbers, not exceeding three on the list of those voted for as president, the house of representatives shall choose immediately, by ballot, the president. But in choosing the president, the votes shall be taken by states, the representation from each state having one vote: a quorum for this purpose shall consist of a member or members from two-thirds of the states, and a majority of all the states shall be necessary to a choice. And if the house of representatives shall not choose a president, whenever the right of choice shall devolve upon them, before the fourth day of March next following, then the vice-president shall act as president, as in the case of the death or other constitutional disability of the president. The person having the greatest number of votes as vice-president shall be the vice-president, if such number be a majority of the whole number of electors appointed; and if no person have a majority, then from the two highest numbers on the list the senate shall choose the vice-president: a quorum for the purpose shall consist of two-thirds of the whole number of senators, and a majority of the whole number shall be necessary to a choice. But no person constitutionally ineligible to the office of president shall be eligible to that of vice-president of the United States.- [Proposed Dec. 12, 1803; ratified Sept. 25, 1804.


ART. SEC. Acts, ete., of each state entitled to credit in other statea..

4 1 Amendments to the constitution, how made... 5 Appropriations, must be made by law.... 1 9 Attainder, bill of, prohibited....

1 9 Attainder, of treason, not to work corruption of blood, etc....

3 3 Bills, for revenue, shall originate in the house of representatives...

1 7 Bills, how to become laws...

1 7 Bills, not returned in ten days considered approved ...

1 7 Capitation Tax..

1 9 Cenzus, to be taken every ten years..

1 2 Claims, of the United States, or of the several states, not to be prejudiced.......

3 Citizens, of each state, privileges in other states 4 Commerce, regulations of, to be equal, etc....... 1 Congresa, vested with legislative power........ 1 1

ART. Sec. Congress, shall assemble every year....

1 4 may provide for cases of removal, etc.,

of president and vice-president...... 2 1 may determine time of choosing clec

tors of president and vice-president 2 1 may vest the appointment of inferior

officers in the president alone, in the
courts of law or heads of depart-

2 2
may from time to time establish courts
inferior to supreme court.....

3 1 may declare the punishment of treason 3 3 may prescribe the manner of proving

the acts, records, etc., of each state 4 1 the assent of, required to formation of

a new state within jurisdiction of
another, or, by the junction of two
or more

may alter the regulations of state legis.
latures concerning elections of sen.
ators and representatives, except as
to place of choosing senators......... 1 4

4 3 may propose amendments to the con

stitution, or, on application, call a
convention ....

5 1 the assent of, required to the admission

of new states into the Union......... 4 3

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ART. SEC. Congress, powers of

Legislative Power, vested in congress..... 1
to lay and collect taxes, duties, etc...... 1 8 Money, to be drawn from the treasury only by
to borrow money...

1 8

laws appropriating
to regulate commerce...
1 8 Nobility, titles of, not to be granted,

to establish uniform laws of bank-

Officers, civil, removable by impeachment...... 2
ruptcy and naturalization...

1 8
of senate, how chosen..

to coin money, regulate the value of

Order, to be approved by the president... 1 coin, and fix standard of weights

Office, certain, not to be filled by members of
and measures...

1 8

to punish counterfeiting..

1 8

person holding office under the United to establish post-offices and post-roads 1 8

States not to be a member of either to authorize patents to authors and


1 6 inventors


8 Persons, importation of, not to be prohibited to constitute tribunals inferior to the

prior to 1808....

1 9 supreme court...

1 8

escaping from one state to another to to define and punish piracies, felonies

be delivered up..

4 2 on the high seas, and offenses against

Powers, not delegated, reserved--10th amend't the law of nations....

1 8 Presents, emoluments, office or title, from forto declare war, grant letters of marque

eign state, prohibited...

1 9
and make rules concerning captures 1 8 President of the United States, vested with exec-
to raise and support armies...

1 8
utive powers.

2 1 to provide and maintain a navy...

1 8
shall be chosen for four years

2 1 to make rules for the government of

how elected......

2 1 the army and navy...


same-12th amendment to provide for calling out the militia

qualifications for..

2 1 in certain cases....

1 8
compensation of...

2 1 to provide for organizing, arming and

oath of office...

2 1 disciplining the militist...

1 8
removable by impeachment..

to exercise exclusive legislation over

shall be commander in chief of the
certain places.

1 8
army and navy

2 2 to pass laws necessary to carry the

may require the written opinions of enumerated powers into effect....... 1 8

the heads of departments...

2 2 to dispose of and make rules concern

may reprieve and pardon..

2 2 ing the territory or other property

may make treaties with consent of
of the United States....

4 3
senate ...

2 2 Constitution, laws and treaties declared to be

may appoint to office with consent of
the supreme law.


2 2 established by the ratification of nino

shall fill vacancies happening during

the recess of senate.

2 2 Court, supreme, its original and appellate juris

shall give information to congress and

recommend measures.

2 3 inferior, may be established.

3 1

may convene both houses, or either Crimes, persons accused of, fleeing from justice,

house, may adjourn them in case of
may be demanded...

4 2

2 3 Debts, contracted before the adoption of the

shall receive ambassadors, etc.

2 3 constitution, valid...


shall take care that the laws be exeDuties, on exports prohibited...

1 9

2 3 on imports and exports not to be laid

shall commission all officers of the by the states without consent of

United States.

2 1 congress

1 10

in case of death of, etc., on whom to
on persons imported...

1 9

2 1 Elections, of senators and representatives to be

Property, shall not be taken for public use prescribed by the states......


without just compensation - 5th
qualifications and returns of members

of congress to be determined by each
Quorum, for business.

1 5 house..

1 5

of states, in choosing a president by Electors of president and vice-president, how

the house of representatives—12th
chosen, and their duties...

2 1
amendment, also

2 1 same--12th amendment.

Receipts and Expenditures, account of, to be shall vote the same day throughout


1 9 the United States....

2 1 Records, etc., faith and credit to be given to... 4 1 of president and vice-president, no

Representatires, house of, how composed ....... 1 2 senator or representative, or person

qualifications of members.

1 2 holding oftice under the United

how apportioned.

1 States, shall serve as...

2 1

not to exceed one for every 30,000.. 1 Executire Ponver, shall be vested in a president 2 1

to choose their officers...

1 2 Esports, duties on, prohibited......

1 10
Vacancies, how filled..

1 Er post facto law, prohibited....

1 9

shall have power of impeachment.... 1 2 Habeas Corpus, can only be suspended in cases

judge of the election, etc., of its mem-
of rebelliou or invasion.

1 9

5 Impeachment, all civil officers liable to...... 2 4

quorum of...

5 Imposts, power to levy ...,

1 8

any number may adjourn and compel Importation, of persons, not to be probibited

absentees to attend...

1 5 prior to 1808.

1 9

may determine rules of proceeding.... 1 5 Judges, to hold office during good behavior... 3 1

may punish or expel a meniber. 1 compensation, not to be diminished... 3 1

shall keep a journal and publish the Judicial Power, where vested....

3 1

Bame, except the parts requiring
the cases to which it extends....

3 2

1 5 Judicial Proceedings, etc., of each state entitled

shall not adjourn for more than threo to full faith and credit in every other

days, nor to any other place, without

4 1
consent of senate..

1 5 Jury, trial by, secured...

3 2

one-fifth of, present may require the trial by, secured-amendments.. 6

yeas and nays

1 5 trial in suits at common law-amd'ts 7

house of, shali originate bills for raisLaw, the constitution, the laws and treaties of

ing revenue....

1 7 the United States declared the su

compensation of....

preme .............

privilege from arrest...


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ART. Sec. Representatives, not to be questioned for

Senate of the United States, may punish or ex-
speech or debate

1 6
pel a member..

1 5 not to be appointed to certain offices... 1 6

shall keep a journal and publish the caun, whilst serving, hold no office

1 5 under the United States......

1 6

shall not adjourn for more than three menubers of, shall not serve as electors

days, nor to any other place, without of president, etc.......

2 1

the consent of the other house..... 1 5 vacancies in, how supplied

1 2

one-fifth of, present, may require the Resolution, order or vote, requiring concurrence

yeas and nays

1 5 of both houses (except for adjourn

may propose amendments to bills for inent,) to be approved by the presi

raising revenue..

1 7 dent

1 7
shall try impeachments..

1 3 Rights of the Citizen declared to be

their judgments, extent of

1 3 liberty of conscience in matters of

members of, shall receive a compensa-

tion to be ascertained by law

1 6 freedom of speech and of the press.... 1

privileged from arrest....

1 6 to assemble and petition


shall not be questioned elsewhere for to keep and bear arms....


any speech or debate in the house... 1 6 to be exempt from quartering soldiers

shall not be appointed to certain offices 1 6 in any house, in time of peace, and

Senators and Representatives, election of, how in time of war, except as prescribed


1 4 by law....

3 Senator, shall not be an elector of president... 2 1 to le secure from unreasonable search

Slares. See Persons.
es and seizures...
Speaker, how chosen..

1 2
to be free from answering for a capital
States, restrictions on powers of...

1 10 or infamous crime, unless on present

new, may be admitted into the Union 4 3 ment or indictment of a grand jury 5

how formed within the jurisdiction of Dot to be twice jeopardized for same

other, or by the junction of two or


3 not to be compelled, in criminal cases,

judges of, bound to consider constituto be a witness against himself....... 5

tion and laws of United States sunot to be deprived of life, liberty, or

preme ....

6 1 property, without due course of law 5

majority of all, necessary to the choice private property not to be taken for

of president..

2 1 publie ure without just compensa

each to be guaranteed a republican 5

form of government; protection that the accused, in criminal prosecu

against invasion and domestic viotras, shall enjoy the right of a


4 4 beruy public trial, by an impartial

Tazes, on persons imported, not to exceed ten jury of the vicinage, and the means


1 9 necessary for his defense..

direct, how apportioned...

1 2 that, in civil cases, facts tried by a jury

capitation or direct, shall be laid only shall only be re-examined according

in proportion to census ......

1 9 to the rules of the common law...... 7

on exports, prohibited..

1 9 that, in suits at common law, where

Territory, or property of the United States, the value shall exceed twenty dol

congress to make rules concerning... 4 3 lars, the right of trial by jury shall

Test, religious, shall not be required........ 6 3 be preserved.. 7 Tilles. See Mobility ..........

1 9 that excessive bail shall not be reTitle, from foreign state. See Presents..

1 9 quired, excessive fines imposed, nor Treason, defined......

3 3 cruel or unusual punishments in

Treasury, money drawn from, only by appro-


1 9 Rights, that the enumeration of certain, shall

Treaties, the supreme law.

6 2 not operate to disparage others reVacancies, how filled....

2 2 tained


in representation in congress, how

1 2 Rules, each house shall determine its own...... 1

5 Vessels, to enter, clear, and pay duties in the Senate of the United States, composed of two

States in which they arrive, or from
senators from each state....

which they depart

1 9 hos chosen, classified, and terms of

Vice-President, of the United States, how service.

1 3

elected-12th amendment, also...... 2 1 qualifications of members...

1 3

qualifications for-12th amendment... sball choose their officers, except the

shall, in certain cases, discharge the

1 3
duties of president....

2 1 shall be judge of election, etc., of its

may be removed by impeachment...... 2 4 members 1 5 Vote, etc., how passed. See Resolution...

1 7 what number shall be a quorum..... 1 5 Warrants, for searches, etc., when and how to any number may adjourn, and compel


.4th amendment the attendance of absentees....... 1 5 Witness, in criminal cases, no one commay determine its rules.................... 1 5

pelled to be against himself..5th amendment

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OF AMERICA AND THE MEXICAN REPUBLIC. Dated at Guadalupe Hidalgo, 20 February, 1848: Exchanged at Queretaro, 30th May, 1818: Ratified by the

President United States, 16th March, 1818: Proclaimed by the President United States, 4th July, 1848.


A PROCLAMATION. WHEREAS, a treaty of peace, friendship, limits and settlement, between the United States of America and the Mexican Republic, was concluded and signed at the City of Guadalupe Hidalgo, on the second day of February, one thousand eight hundred and forty-eight, which treaty, as amended by the senate of the United States, and being in the English and Spanish languages, is word for word as follows: IN THE NAME OF ALMIGHTY Gon:

The United States of America and the United Mexican States, animated by a sincere desire to put an end to the calamities of the war which unhappily exists between the two republics, and to establish upon a solid basis relations of peace and friendship, which shall confer reciprocal benefits upon the citizens of both, and assure the concord, harmony and mutual confidence, wherein the two people shouid live, as good neighbors, have for that purpose appointed their respective plenipotentiaries--that is to say, the president of the United States has appointed Nicholas P. Trist, a citizen of the United States, and the president of the Mexican Republic has appointed Don Luis Gonzaga Cuevas, Don Bernardo Couto and Don Miguel Atristain, citizens of the said republic, who, after a reciprocal communication of their respective full powers, have, under the protection of Almighty God, the author of peace, arranged, agreed upon and signed the following TREATY OF PEACE, FRIENDSHIP, LIMITS AND SETTLEMENT, BETWEEN THE UNITED STATES


ARTICLE I. There shall be firm and universal peace between the United States of America and the Mexican Republic, and between their respective countries, territories, cities, towns and people, without exception of places or persons.

ARTICLE II. Immediately upon the signature of this treaty, a convention shall be entered into between a commissioner or commissioners appointed by the general-in-chief of the forces of the United States and such as may be appointed by the Mexican Government, to the end that a provisional suspension of bostilities shall take place, and that, in the places occupied by the said forces, constitutional order may be re-established, as regards the political, administrative and judicial branches, so far as this shall be permitted by the circumstances of military occupation.

ARTICLE III. Immediately upon the ratification of the present treaty by the government of the United States, orders shall be transmitted to the commanders of their land and naval forces, requiring the latter (provided this treaty shall then have been ratified by the government of the Mexican Republic, and the ratifications exchanged, ) immediately to desist from blockading any Mexican ports, and requiring the former (under the same condition) to commence, at the earliest moment practicable, withdrawing all troops of the United States thon in the interior of the Mexican Republic to points that shall be selected by common agreement, at a distance from the sea ports not exceeding thirty leagues; and such evacuation of the interior of the republic shall be completed with the least possible delay; the Mexican Government hereby binding itself to afford every facility in its power for rendering the same convenient to the troops, on their

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march and in their new positions, and for promoting a good understanding between them and the inhabitants. In like manner, orders shall be dispatched to the persons in charge of the custom houses at all ports occupied by the forces of the United States, requiring them (under the same condition) immediately to deliver possession of the same to the persons authorized hy the Mexican Government to receive it, together with all bonds and evidences of debt for duties on importations and on exportations not yet fallen due. Moreover, a faithful and exact account shall be made out, showing the entire amount of all duties on imports and on exports collected at such custom houses, or elsewhere in Mexico, by authority of the United States, from and after the day of the ratification of this treaty by the government of the Mexican Republic, and also an account of the cost of collection; and such entire amount, deducting only the cost of collection, shall be delivered to the Mexican Government, at the city of Mexico, within three months after the exchange of ratifications.

The evacuation of the capital of the Mexican Republic by the troops of the United States, in virtue of the above stipulations, shall be completed in one month after the orders there stipulated for shall have been received by the commander of said troops, or sooner, if possible.

ARTICLE IV. Immediately after the exchange of ratifications of the present treaty, all castles, forts, territories, places and possessions which have been taken or occupied by the forces of the United States during the present war, within the limits of the Mexican Republic as about to be established by the following article, shall be definitively restored to the said republic, together with all the artillery, arms, apparatus of war, munitions, and other public property which were in the said castles and forts when captured, and which shall remain there at the time when this treaty shall be duly ratified by the government of the Mexican Republic. To this end, immediately upon the signature of this treaty orders shall be dispatched to the American officers commanding such castles and forts, securing against the removal or destruction of any such artillery, arms, apparatus of war, munitions, or other public property. The city of Mexico, within the inner line of intrenchments surrounding the said city, is comprehended in the above stipulations, as regards the restoration of artillery, apparatus of war, etc.

The final evacuation of the territory of the Mexican Republic, by the forces of the United States, shall be completed in three months from the said exchange of ratifications, or sooner, if possible; the Mexican Government hereby engaging, as in the foregoing article, to use all means in its power for facilitating such evacuation, and rendering it convenient to the troops, and for promoting a good understanding between them and the inhabitants.

If, however, the ratification of this treaty by both parties should not take place in time to allow the embarkation of the troops of the United States to be completed before the commencement of the sickly season at the Mexican ports on the Gulf of Mexico, in such case a friendly arrangement sball be entered into between the general-in-chief of the said troops and the Mexican Government, whereby healthy and otherwise suitable places, at a distance from the ports not exceeding thirty leagues, shall be designated for the residence of such troops as may not yet have embarked, until the return of the healthy season. And the space of time here referred to as comprehending the sickly season shall be understood to extend from the first day of May to the first day of November.

All prisoners of war taken on either side, on land or sea, shall be restored as soon as practicable after the exchange of ratifications of this treaty. It is also agreed that if any Mexicans should now be held as captives by any savage tribe within the limits of the United States, as about to be established by the following article, the government of the said United States will exact the release of such captives, and cause them to be restored to their country.

ARTICLE V. The boundary line between the two republics shall commence in the Gulf of Mexico, three leagues from land, opposite the mouth of the Rio Grande, otherwise called Rio Bravo del Norte, or opposite the mouth of its deepest branch, if it should have more than one branch emptying directly into the sea; from thence up the middle of that river, following the deepest channel where it has more than one, to the point where it strikes the southern boundary of New Mexico; thence westwardly, along the whole southern boundary of New Mexico (which runs north of the town called Paso) to its western termination; thence northward, along the western line of New Mexico, until it intersects the first branch of the River Gila (or if it should not intersect any branch of that river, then to the point on the said line nearest to such branch, and thence in a direct line to the same); thence down the middle of the said branch and of the said river until it empties into tho Rio Colorado; thence across the Rio Colorado, following the division line between Upper and Lower California, to the Pacific Ocean.

The southern and western limits of New Mexico, mentioned in this article, are those laid down in the map entitled "Map of the United Mexican States, as organized and defined by various Acts of the Congress of said Republic, and construed according to the best Authorities. Revised edition. Published at New York, in 1847, by J. Disturnell." Of which map a copy is added to this treaty, bearing the signatures and seals of the undersigned plenipotentiaries.


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