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TREATY OF FRIENDSHIP COMMERCE AND NAVIGATION.
Concluded June 21, 1867 ratification advised by the Senate January
20, 1868; ratified by the President February 7, 1868; ratifications exchanged June 20, 1868; proclaimed August 13, 1868.
XI. Property in war. II. Freedom of commerce.
XII. Right of residence. III. Most favored nation.
XIII. Refuge and asylum. IV. Discrimination on exports and XIV. Right of transit between imports.
oceans. V. Discrimination on tonnage du- XV. Neutrality of route for canal. ties.
XVI. Persons and property on route. VI. Discrimination duties on vessels. XVII. Protection withdrawn. VII. Reciprocal privileges of citizens XVIII. Right of citizens. in business.
XIX. Dividends. VIII. Reciprocal privileges of citizens. XX. Duration. IX. Intermarriage, travel, etc.
XXI. Ratification. X. Consuls.
The United States of America and the Republic of Nicaragua, desiring to maintain and to improve the good understanding and the friendly relations which now happily exist between them, to promote the commerce of their citizens, and to make some mutual arrangement with respect to a communication between the Atlantic and Pacific Oceans by the River San Juan and either or both the lakes of Nicaragua and Managua, or by any other route through the Territories of Nicaragua, have agreed, for this purpose, to conclude a treaty of friendship, commerce, and navigation, and have accordingly named as their respective Plenipotentiaries, that is to say:
The President of the United States, Andrew B. Dickinson, Minister Resident and Extraordinary to Nicaragua; and His Excellency the President of the Republic of Nicaragua, Señor Licenciado Don Tomas Ayon, Minister of Foreign Relations:
Who, after communicating to each other their full powers, found in due and proper form, have agreed upon the following articles:
There shall be perpetual amity between the United States and their citizens on the one part, and the Government of the Republic of Nicaragua and its citizens of the other.
• This treaty was denounced by Nicaragua, to take effect October 24, 1902. 24449—FOL 2-10 4
There shall be between all the territories of the United States and the territories of the Republic of Nicaragua a reciprocal freedom of commerce. The subjects and citizens of the two countries, respectively, shall have full liberty freely and securely to come with their ships and cargoes to all places, ports, and rivers in the territories aforesaid, to which other foreigners are or may be permitted to come, to enter into the same, and to remain and reside in any part thereof, respectively; also to hire and occupy houses and warehouses for the purposes of their commerce; and generally the merchants and traders of each nation, respectively, shall enjoy the most complete protection and security for their commerce, subject always to the laws and statutes of the two countries, respectively. In like manner the respective ships of war and post-office packets of the two countries shall have liberty freely and securely to come to all harbors, rivers, and places to which other foreign ships of war and packets are or may be permitted to come, to enter the same, to anchor, and to remain there and refit, subject always to the laws and statutes of the two countries, respectively.
By the right of entering places, ports, and rivers, mentioned in this article, the privilege of carrying on the coasting trade is not understood; in which trade national vessels only of the country where the trade is carried on are permitted to engage.
It being the intention of the two high contracting parties to bind themselves by the two preceding articles to treat each other on the footing of the most favored nations, it is hereby agreed between them that any favor, privilege, or immunity whatever, in matters of commerce and navigation, which either contracting party has actually granted, or may grant hereafter, to the subjects or citizens of any other State, shail be extended to the subjects or citizens of the other contracting party; gratuitously, if the concession in favor of that other nation shall have been gratuitous, or in return for a compensation, as nearly as possible of a proportionate value and effect, to be adjusted by mutual agreement, if the concession shall have been conditional.
No higher or other duties shall be imposed on the importation into the territories of the United States of any article being the growth, produce, or manufacture of the Republic of Nicaragua, and no higher or other duties shall be imposed on the importation into the territories of the Republic of Nicaragua of any article being the growth, produce, or manufacture of the United States, than are or shall be payable upon the like articles being the growth, produce, or manufacture of any other foreign country; nor shall any other or higher duties or charges be imposed in the Territories of either of the high contracting parties on the exportation of any articles to the Territories of the other than such as are or may be payable on the exportation of the like articles to any other foreign country; nor shall any prohibition be imposed upon the importation or exportation of any articles the growth, produce, or manufacture of the territories of the United States or the Republic of Nicaragua to or from the said territories of the United States, or to or from the Republic of Nicaragua, which shall not equally extend to all other nations.
ARTICLE V. No higher or other duties or payments on account of tonnage, of light or harbor dues, or pilotage, of salvage in case of either damage or shipwreck, or on account of any local charges, shall be imposed in any of the ports of Nicaragua on vessels of the United States than those payable by Nicaraguan vessels, nor in any of the ports of the United States on Nicaraguan vessels than shall be payable in the same ports on vessels of the United States.
The same duties shall be paid on the importation into the territories of the Republic of Nicaragua of any articles being the growth, produce, or manufacture of the territories of the United States, whether such importation shall be made in Nicaraguan vessels or in the vessels of the United States; and the same duties shall be paid on the importation into the territories of the United States of any article being the growth, produce, or manufacture of the Republic of Nicaragua, whether such importation shall be made in Nicaraguan or United States vessels. The same duties shall be paid, and the same bounties and drawbacks allowed, on the exportation to the Republic of Nicaragua, of any article, being the growth, produce, or manufacture of the territories of the United States, whether such exportation shall be made in Nicaraguan or United States vessels; and the same duties shall be paid, and the same bounties and drawbacks allowed, on the exportation of any articles, being the growth, produce, or manufacture of the Republic of Nicaragua to the territories of the United States, whether such exportation shall be made in the vessels of the United States or of Nicaragua.
All merchants, commanders of ships, and others, citizens of the United States, shall have full liberty in all the territories of the Republic of Nicaragua to manage their own affairs themselves, as permitted by the laws, or to commit them to the management of whomsoever they please, as broker, factor, agent, or interpreter; nor shall they be obliged to employ any other persons in those capacities than those employed by Nicaraguans, nor to pay them any other salary or remuneration than such as is paid in like cases by Nicaraguan citizens; and absolute freedom shall be allowed in all cases to the buyer and seller to bargain and fix the price of any goods, wares, or merchandise imported into or exported from the Republic of Nicaragua as they shall see good, observing the laws and established customs of the country.
The same privileges shall be enjoyed in the territories of the United States by the citizens of the Republic of Nicaragua under the same conditions.
The citizens of the high contracting parties shall reciprocally receive and enjoy full and perfect protection for their persons and property, and shall have free and open access to the courts of justice in said countries, respectively, for the prosecution and defence of their just rights; and they shall be at liberty to employ, in all cases, advocates, attorneys, or agents, of whatsoever description, whom they may think proper; and they shall enjoy, in this respect, the same rights and privileges therein as native citizens.
In whatever relates to the police of the ports, the lading and unlading of ships, the safety of merchandise, goods, and effects, the succession to personal estates, by will or otherwise, and the disposal of personal property of every sort and denomination by sale, donation, exchange, testament, or any other manner whatsoever, as also the administration of justice, the citizens of the two high contracting parties shall reciprocally enjoy the same privileges, liberties, and rights as native citizens; and they shall not be charged in any of these respects with any higher imposts or duties than those which are or may be paid by native citizens, submitting, of course, to the local laws and regulations of each country, respectively,
The foregoing provisions shall be applicable to real estate situated within the States of the American Union, or within the Republic of Nicaragua, in which foreigners shall be entitled to hold or inherit real estate. But in case real estate situated within the territories of one of the contracting parties should fall to a citizen of the other party, who, on account of his being an alien, could not be permitted to hold such property in the State in which it may be situated, there shall be accorded to the said heir, or other successor, such time as the laws of the State will permit to sell such property. He shall be at liberty, at all times, to withdraw and export the proceeds thereof without difficulty, and without paying to the Government any other charges than those which would be paid by an inhabitant of the country in which the real estate may be situated.
If any citizen of the two high contracting parties shall die without a will or testament in any of the territories of the other, the Minister or Consul, or other Diplomatic Agent of the nation to which the deceased belonged, (or the representative of such Minister or Consul, or other Diplomatic Agent, in case of absence,) shall have the right to nominate curators to take charge of the property of the deceased, so far as the laws of the country will permit, for the benefit of the lawful heirs and creditors of the deceased, giving proper notice of such nomination to the authorities of the country.
1. The citizens of the United States residing in Nicaragua, or the citizens of Nicaragua residing in the United States, may intermarry with the natives of the country; hold and possess, by purchase, marriage, or descent, any estate, real or personal, without thereby changing their national character, subject to the laws which now exist or may be enacted in this respect,
2. The citizens of the United States residents in the Republic of Nicaragua, and the citizens of Nicaragua residents in the United States, shall be exempted from all forced or compulsory military service whatsoever, by land or sea; from all contributions of war, military exactions, forced loans in time of war; but they shall be obliged, in the same manner as the citizens of each nation, to pay lawful taxes, municipal and other modes of imposts, and ordinary charges, loans, and contributions in time of peace, (as the citizens of the country are liable,) in just proportion to the property owned.
3. Nor shall the property of either, of any kind, be taken for any public object without full and just compensation to be paid in advance; and
4. The citizens of the two high contracting parties shall have the unlimited right to go to any part of the territories of the other, and in all cases enjoy the same security as the natives of the country where they reside, with the condition that they duly observe the laws and ordinances.
It shall be free for each of the two high contracting parties to appoint Consuls for the protection of trade, to reside in any of the territories of the other party. But before any Consul shall act as such, he shall, in the usual form, be approved and admitted by the Government to which he is sent; and either of the high contracting parties may except from the residence of Consuls such particular places as they judge fit to be excepted.
The Diplomatic Agents of Nicaragua and Consuls shall enjoy in the territories of the United States whatever privileges, exemptions, and immunities are or shall be allowed to the agents of the same rank belonging to the most favored nations; and in the like manner the Diplomatic Agents and Consuls of the United States in Nicaragua shall enjoy, according to the strictest reciprocity, whatever privileges, exemptions, and immunities are or may be granted in the Republic of Nicaragua to the Diplomatic Agents and Consuls of the most favored nations.
For the better security of commerce between the citizens of the United States and the citizens of Nicaragua, it is agreed, that if at any time any interruption of friendly intercourse, or any rupture, should unfortunately take place between the two high contracting parties, the citizens of either, who may be within the territories of the other, shall, if residing on the coast, be allowed six months, and if in the interior, a whole year, to wind up their accounts, and dispose of their property; and a safe-conduct shall be given to them to embark at any port they themselves may select. Even in case of rupture, all such citizens of either of the high contracting parties, who are established in any of the territories of the other, in trade or other employment, shall have the privilege of remaining and of continuing such trade or employment, without any manner of interruption, in the full enjoyment of liberty and property, so long as they behave peaceably, and commit no offence against the laws; and their goods and effects, of whatever description they may be, whether in their