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The citizens of the United States of America residing within the territories of the Republic of Paraguay shall be at liberty to exercise, in private and in their own dwellings, or within the dwellings or offices of the Consuls or Vice-Consuls of the United States of America, their religious rights, services, and worship, and to assemble therein for that purpose without hindrance or molestation.

ARTICLE XV.

The present treaty shall be in force during ten years, counted from the day of the exchange of the ratifications; and, further, until the end of twelve months after the Government of the United States of America on the one part, or the Government of Paraguay on the other, shall have given notice of its intention to terminate the same.

The Paraguayan Government shall be at liberty to address to the Government of the United States of America, or to its representative in the Republic of Paraguay, the official declaration agreed upon in this article.

ARTICLE XVI.

The present treaty shall be ratified by His Excellency the President of the United States of America within the term of fifteen months, or earlier if possible, and by His Excellency the President of the Republic of Paraguay within twelve days from this date, and the ratifications shall be exchanged in Washington.

In witness whereof the respective Plenipotentiaries have signed it, and affixed thereto their seals.

Done at Assumption this fourth day of February, in the year of our Lord one thousand eight hundred and fifty-nine. (SEAL.]

JAMES B. Bowlin. SEAL.]

NICOLAS VASQUEZ.

1909.

ARBITRATION CONVENTION.

Signed at Asuncion, March 13, 1909; ratification advised by the Sen

ate, July 30, 1909; ratified by the President, August 10, 1909; ratifications exchanged at Asuncion, October 2, 1909; proclaimed, November 11, 1909.

ARTICLES.

I. Differences to be submitted. II. Special agreement.

III. Duration.
IV. Ratification.

ARBITRATION CONVENTION BETWEEN THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA

AND THE REPUBLIC OF PARAGUAY. The Government of the United States of America and the Government of the Republic of Paraguay, signatories of the convention for the pacific settlement of international disputes, concluded at The Hague on the 29th July, 1899;

Taking into consideration that by Article XIX of that Convention the High Contracting Parties have reserved to themselves the right of concluding Agreements, with a view to referring to arbitration all questions which they shall consider possible to submit to such treatment;

Have authorized the Undersigned to conclude the following Convention:

ARTICLE I.

Differences which may arise of a legal nature, or relating to the interpretation of treaties existing between the two Contracting Parties, and which it may not have been possible to settle by diplomacy, shall be referred to the Permanent Court of Arbitration established at The Hague by the Convention of the 29th July, 1899, provided, nevertheless, that they do not affect the vital interests, the independence, or the honor of the two Contracting States, and do not concern the interests of third parties.

ARTICLÈ II.

In each individual case the High Contracting Parties, before appealing to the Permanent Court of Arbitration, shall conclude a special Agreement defining clearly the matter in dispute, the scope of the powers of the arbitrators, and the periods to be fixed for the formation of the Arbitral Tribunal and the several stages of the procedure. It is understood that on the part of the United States such special agreements will be made by the President of the United States, by and with the advice and consent of the Senate thereof, and on the part of Paraguay shall be subject to the procedure required by her laws.

ARTICLE III.

The present Convention is concluded for a period of five years dating from the day of the exchange of the ratifications.

ARTICLE IV.

The present Convention shall be ratified by the President of the United States of America, by and with the advice and consent of the Senate thereof; and by the President of Paraguay, with the previous approval of the Legislative Congress. The ratifications shall be exchanged at Asuncion as soon as possible, and the Convention shall take effect on the date of the exchange of its ratifications.

Done in duplicate in the English and Spanish languages at Asuncion, this thirteenth day of March in the year one thousand nine hundred and nine.

EDWARD C. O'BRIEN SEAL
MANUEL GONDRA [SEAL)

PERSIA.

1856.

TREATY OF FRIENDSHIP AND COMMERCE.

Concluded December 13, 1856; ratification advised by the Senate

March 10, 1857; ratified by the President March 12, 1857; ratifications exchanged June 13, 1857; proclaimed August 18, 1857.

ABTICLES.

1. Amity.
II. Diplomatic privileges.
III. Most favored nation.
IV. Import, export duties.
V. Disputes.

VI. Effects of deceased persons.
VII. Consuls.
VIII. Duration.

IX. Ratification.

In the name of God, the clement and the merciful.

The President of the United States of North America, and His Majesty as exalted as the planet Saturn; the Sovereign to whom the sun serves as a standard; whose splendor and magnificence are equal to that of the skies; the Sublime Sovereign, the Monarch whose armies are as numerous as the stars; whose greatness calls to mind that of Jeinshid; whose magnificence equals that of Darius; the heir of the crown and throne of the Kayanians; the Sublime Emperor of all Persia; being both equally and sincerely desirous of establishing relations of friendship between the two Governments, which they wish to strengthen by a treaty of friendship and commerce reciprocally advantageous and useful to the citizens and subjects of the two high contracting parties, have for this purpose named for their Plenipotentiaries:

The President of the United States of North America, Carroll Spence, Minister Resident of the United States near the Sublime Porte; and His Majesty the Emperor of all Persia, His Excellency Emin ul Molk Farrukh Khan, Ambassador of His Imperial Majesty the Shah, decorated with the portrait of the Shah, with the great cordon blue, and bearer of the girdle of diamonds, &c., &c., &c., &c.

And the said Plenipotentiaries, having exchanged their full powers, which were found to be in proper and due form, have agreed upon the following articles:

ARTICLE I.

There shall be hereafter a sincere and constant good understanding between the Government and citizens of the United States of North America and the Persian Empire and all Persian subjects.

ARTICLE II.

The Ambassadors or Diplomatic Agents whom it may please either of the two high contracting parties to send and maintain near the other shall be received and treated, they and all those composing their missions, as the Ambassadors and Diplomatic Agents of the most favored nations are received and treated in the two respective countries; and they shall enjoy there, in all respects, the same prerogatives and immunities.

ARTICLE III.

The citizens and subjects of the two high contracting parties travellers, merchants, manufacturers, and others—who may reside in the territory of either country, shall be respected and efficiently protected by the authorities of the country and their agents, and treated in all respects as the subjects and citizens of the most favored nation are treated.

They may reciprocally bring, by land or by sea, into either country, and export from it, all kinds of merchandise and products, and sell, exchange, or buy, and transport them to all places in the territories of either of the high contracting parties. It being, however, understood that the merchants of either nation who shall engage in the internal commerce of either country shall be governed, in respect to such commerce, by the laws of the country in which such commerce is carried on; and in case either of the high contracting Powers shall hereafter grant other privileges concerning such internal commerce to the citizens or subjects of

other Governments, the same shall be equally granted to the merchants of either nation engaged in such internal commerce within the territories of the other.

ARTICLE IV.

The merchandise imported or exported by the respective citizens or subjects of the two high contracting parties shall not pay in either country, on their arrival or departure, other duties than those which are charged in either of the countries on the merchandise or products imported or exported by the merchants and subjects of the most favored nation, and no exceptional tax, under any name or pretext whatever, shall be collected on them in either of the two countries.

ARTICLE V.

All suits and disputes arising in Persia between Persian subjects and citizens of the United States shall be carried before the Persian tribunal to which such matters are usually referred at the place where a Consul or Agent of the United States may reside, and shall be discussed and decided according to equity, in the presence of an employé of the Consul or Agent of the United States.

All suits and disputes which may arise in the Empire of Persia between citizens of the United States shall be referred entirely for trial and for adjudication to the Consul or Agent of the United States residing in the province wherein such suits and disputes may have arisen, or in the province nearest to it, who shall decide them accord. ing to the laws of the United States.

All suits and disputes occurring in Persia between the citizens of the United States and the subjects of other foreign Powers, shall be tried and adjudicated by the intermediation of their respective Consuls or agents.

In the United States, Persian subjects, in all disputes arising between themselves, or between them and citizens of the United States or foreigners, shall be judged according to the rules adopted in the United States respecting the subjects of the most favored nation.

Persian subjects residing in the United States, and citizens of the United States, residing in Persia, shall, when charged with criminal offences, be tried and judged in Persia and the United States in the same manner as are the subjects and citizens of the most favored nation residing in either of the above-mentioned countries.

ARTICLE VI.

In case of a citizen or subject of either of the contracting parties dying within the territories of the other, his effects shall be delivered up integrally to the family or partners in business of the deceased; and in case he has no relations or partners, his effects in either country shall be delivered up to the Consul or agent of the nation of which the deceased was a subject or citizen, so that he may dispose of them in accordance with the laws of his country.

ARTICLE VII.

For the protection of their citizens or subjects, and their commerce respectively, and in order to facilitate good and equitable relations between the citizens. and subjects of the two countries, the two high contracting parties reserve the right to maintain a Diplomatic Agent at either seat of government, and to name each three Consuls in either country; those of the United States shall reside at Teheran, Bender-Bushir, and Tauris; those of Persia, at Washington, New York, and New Orleans.

The Consuls of the high contracting parties shall reciprocally enjoy in the territories of the other, where their residences shall be estahlished, the respect, priviledges, and immunities granted in either country to the Consuls of the most favored nation.

The Diplomatic Agent or Consuls of the United States shall not protect, secretly or publicly, the subjects of the Persian Government, and they shall never suffer a departure from the principles here laid down and agreed to by mutual consent.

And it is further understood, that if any of those Consuls shall engage in trade, they shall be subjected to the same laws and usages to which private individuals of their nation engaged in commercial pursuits in the same place are subjected.

And it is also understood by the high contracting parties, that the Diplomatic and Consular Agents of the United States shall not employ a greater number of domestics than is allowed by treaty to those of Russia residing in Persia.

ARTICLE VIII.

And the high contracting parties agree that the present treaty of friendship and commerce, cemented by the sincerest good feeling and confidence which exists between the Governments of the United

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