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States and Persia, shall be in force for the term of ten years from the exchange of its ratification; and if, before the expiration of the first ten years, neither of the high contracting parties shall have announced, by official notification to the other, its intention to arrest the operation of said treaty, it shall remain binding for one year beyond that time, and so on until the expiration of twelve months, which will follow a similar notification, whatever the time may be at which it may take place; and the Plenipotentiaries of the two high contracting parties further agree to exchange the ratifications of their respective governments at Constantinople in the space of six months, or earlier if practicable.

In faith of which the respective Plenipotentiaries of the two high contracting parties have signed the present treaty, and have attached their seals

to it. Done in duplicate in Persian and English, the thirteenth day of December, one thousand eight hundred and fifty-six, and of the Hijereh the fifteenth day of the moon of Rebiul Sany one thousand two hundred and seventy-three, at Constantinople. [SEAL.]




PERU (page 1386).



Concluded November 30, 1836; ratification advised by the Senate

October 10, 1837; ratified by the President October 14, 1837; ratifications exchanged May 28, 1838; proclaimed October 3, 1838.


I. Amity.
II. Most favored nation.
III. Commerce and navigation.
IV. Privileges in business affairs.

V. Asylum for vessels.
VI. Vessels captured by pirates.
VII. Shipwrecks.
VIII. Disposition of personal effects.
IX. Protection to persons and prop-

X. Religious liberty.
XI. Trading privileges.
XII. Neutral property.
XIII. Contraband.
XIV. Freedom of merchandise.

XV. Detention of vessels.
XVI. Blockade.

XVII. Search at sea.
XVIII. Sea letters in war.
XIX. Vessels under convoy.

XX. Prize courts.
XXI. Privateering prohibited.
XXII. Case of war.
XXIII. Sequestration of property of

XXIV. Immunities of public agents.

XXV. Admission of consuls.
XXVI. Commissions and exequaturs.
XXVII. Privileges of consuls.
XXVIII. Deserters.
XXIX. Consular convention.
XXX. Duration; violation of treaty;

declaration of war; ratifi-

The United States of America and the Peru-Bolivian Confederation, desiring to make firm and permanent the peace and friendship which happily subsist between them, have resolved to fix, in a clear, distinct, and positive manner, the rules which shall, in future, be religiously observed between the one and the other, by means of a treaty, or general convention of peace, friendship, commerce, and navigation.

For this desirable purpose, the President of the United States of America has conferred full powers on Samuel Larned, Chargé d'Affaires of the said States near the Government of Peru; and the Supreme Protector of the North and South Peruvian States, President of the Republic of Bolivia, encharged with the direction of the foreign relations of the Peru-Bolivian Confederation, has conferred like powers on John Garcia del Rio, Minister of State in the Department of Finance of the North Peruvian State;

This convention terminated by the dissolution of the Peru-Bolivian Confederation in 1839. See Peru, p. 1386. 24449-VOL 2-10-10


Who, after having exhibited to each other their respective full powers, found to be in due and proper form, and exchanged certified copies thereof, have agreed to the following articles, to wit:


There shall be a perfect, firm, and inviolable peace and sincere friendship, between the United States of America and the PeruBolivian Confederation, in all the extent of their respective territories and possessions, and between their people and citizens, respectively, without distinction of persons or places.


The United States of America and the Peru-Bolivian Confederation, desiring to live in peace and harmony, as well with each other as with all the nations of the earth, by means of a policy frank, and equally friendly with all, engage, mutually, not to concede any particular favor to other nations, in respect of commerce and navigation, which shall not immediately become common to the other party to this treaty; who shall enjoy the same freely, if the concession was freely made, or on allowing the same compensation, if the concession was conditional.


The two high contracting parties, being likewise desirous of placing the commerce and navigation of their respective countries on the liberal basis of perfect equality with the most favored nation, mutually agree that the citizens of each may frequent with their vessels all the coast and countries of the other, and may reside and trade there in all kinds of produce, manufactures, and merchandize, not prohibited to all; and shall pay no other or higher duties, charges or fees; whatsoever, either on their vessels or cargoes, than the citizens or subjects of the most favored [nation) are, or shall be, obliged to pay on their vessels and cargoes; and they shall enjoy, respectively, all the rights, privileges, and exemptions, in navigation and commerce, which the citizens or subjects of the most favored nation do or shall enjoy; they submitting themselves to the laws, decrees, and usages there established, to which such citizens or subjects are of right subjected.

But it is understood that the stipulations contained in this article do not include the coasting trade of either of the two countries; the regulation of this trade being reserved by the parties, respectively, according to their own separate laws.


It is likewise agreed that it shall be wholly free for all merchants commanders of ships, and other citizen of both countries, to manage themselves their own business in all the ports, and places subject to the jurisdiction of the other, as well with respect to the consignment and sale of their goods and merchandize, as to the purchase of their returns, unloading, loading, and sending off of their vessels. The citizens of neither of the contracting parties shall be liable to any embargo, nor to be detained with their vessels, cargoes, merchandize, or effects, for any military expedition, nor for any public or private purpose whatever, without being allowed therefor a sufficient indemnification. Neither shall they be called upon for any forced loan, or

, occasional contributions; nor be subject to military service on land or



Whenever the citizens of either of the contracting parties shall be forced to seek refuge, shelter, or relief, in the rivers, bay, ports, and dominions of other, with their vessels, whether of war, (public or private,) of trade, or employed in the fisheries, through stress of weather, want of water or provisions, pursuit of pirates or enemies, they shall be received and treated with

humanity; and all favor and protection shall be given to them, in the repairing of their vessels, procuring of supplies, and placing of themselves in a condition tó pursue their voyage, without obstacle or hindrance.


All ships, merchandize, and effects belonging to citizens of one of the contracting parties, which may be captured by pirates, whether on the high seas, or within the limits of its jurisdiction, and may be carried or found in the rivers, roads, bays, ports, or dominions of the other, shall be delivered up to the owners, they proving, in due and proper form, their rights before the competent tribunals; it being understood that the claim should be made within the term of two years, by the parties themselves, their attornies, or the agents of their respective Governments.


Whenever any vessel belonging to the citizens of either of the contracting parties shall be wrecked, founder, or suffer damage, on the coast, or within the dominions of the other, all assistance and protection shall be given to the said vessel, her crew, and the merchandise on board, in the same manner as is usual and customary with vessels of the nation where the accident happens, in like cases; and it shall be permitted to her, if necessary, to unload the merchandize and effects on board, with the proper precautions to prevent their illicit introduction, without exacting, in this case, any duty, impost, or contribu- . tion whatever, provided the same be exported.


The citizens of each of the contracting parties shall have power to dispose of their personal effects, within the jurisdiction of the other, by sale, donation, testament, or otherwise; and their representatives, being citizens of the other party, shall succeed to their said personal effects, whether by testament or ab intestato, and may take possession thereof, either themselves, or by others acting for them, and dispose of the same at their will, paying such dues only as the inhabitants of the country wherein said effects are shall be subject to pay in like cases. And if, in the case of real estate, the said heirs should be pre

vented from entering into possession of the inheritance on account of their character as aliens, there shall be granted to them the term of three years in which to dispose of the same, as they may think proper, and to withdraw the proceeds, which they may do without obstacle, and exempt from all charges, save those which are imposed by the laws of the country.

ARTICLE IX. Both the contracting parties solemnly promise and engage to give their special protection to the persons and property of the citizens of each other, of all classes and occupations, who may be in the territories subject to the jurisdiction of the one or the other, transient or dwelling therein, leaving open and free to them the tribunals of justice, for their judicial recourse, on the same terms as are usual and customary with the natives or citizens of the country in which they may be; for which purpose they may employ, in defence of their rights, such advocates, solicitors, notaries, agents, and factors, as they may judge proper, in all their trials at law; and such citizens or agents shall have free opportunity to be present at the decisions and sentences of the tribunals, in all cases that may concern them, and likewise at the taking of all evidence and examinations that may be exhibited in the said trials.

And, to render more explicit, and make more effectual, the solemn promise and engagement hereinbefore mentioned, under circumstances to which one of the parties thereto has heretofore been exposed, it is hereby further stipulated and declared, that all the rights and privileges which are now enjoyed by, or may hereafter be conferred on, the citizens of one of the contracting parties, by or in virtue of the constitution and laws of the other, respectively, shall be deemed and held to belong to, and inhere in, them, until such rights and privileges shall have been abrogated or withdrawn by an authority constitutionally or lawfully competent thereto.


It is likewise agreed, that perfect and entire liberty of conscience shall be enjoyed, by the citizens of both the contracting parties, in the countries subject to the jurisdiction of the one and the other, without their being liable to be disturbed or molested on account of their religious belief, so long as they respect the laws and established usages of the country.

Moreover, the bodies of the citizens of one of the contracting parties who may die in the territories of the other, shall be buried in the usual burying-grounds, or in other decent and suitable places, and shall be protected from violation or disturbance.


It shall be lawful for the citizens of the United States of America and of the Peru-Bolivian Confederation to sail with their ships with all manner of liberty and security; no distinction being to be made who are the proprietors of the merchandise laden therein, from any port or place whatever, to the ports and places of those who are now, or hereafter shall be, at enmity with either of the contracting parties.

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