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of them, reserve to themselves the right, where any nation restrains the transportation of merchandize to the vessels of the country of which it is the growth or manufacture, to establish against such nations retaliating regulations; and also the right to prohibit, in their respective countries, the importation and exportation of all merchandize whatsoever, when reasons of state shall require it. In this case, the subjects or citizens of either of the contracting parties shall not import nor export the merchandize prohibited by the other; but if one of the contracting parties permits any other nation to import or export the same merchandize, the citizens or subjects of the other shall immediately enjoy the same liberty.
The merchants, commanders of vessels, or other subjects or citizens of either party, shall not within the ports of jurisdiction of the other be forced to unload any sort of merchandize into any other vessels, nor to receive them into their own, nor to wait for their being loaded longer than they please.
That the vessels of either party loading within the ports or jurisdiction of the other may not be uselessly harassed or detained, it is agreed that all examinations of goods required by the laws shall be made before they are laden on board the vessel, and that there shall be no examination after; nor shall the vessel be searched at any time, unless articles shall have been laden therein clandestinely and illegally, in which case the person by whose order they were carried on board, or who carried them without order, shall be liable to the laws of the land in which he is; but no other person shall be molested, nor shall any other groods, nor the vessel, be seized or detained for that cause.
Each party shall endeavour, by all the means in their power, to protect and desend [defend) all vessels and other effects belonging to the citizens or subjects of the other, which shall be within the extent of their jurisdiction, by sea or by land; and shall use all their efforts to recover, and cause to be restored to the right owners, their vessels and effects which shall be taken from them within the extent of their said jurisdiction.
The vessels of the subjects or citizens of either party, coming on any coast belonging to the other, but not willing to enter into port, or being entered into port, and not willing to unload their cargoes or break bulk, shall have liberty to depart and to pursue their voyage without molestation, and without being obliged to render account of their cargo, or to pay any duties, charges, or fees whatsoever, except those established for vessels entered into port, and appropriated to the maintenance of the port itself, or of other establishments for the safety and convenience of navigators, which duties, charges, and fees shall be the same, and shall be paid on the same footing as in the case of subjects or citizens of the country where they are established.
When any vessel of either party shall be wrecked, foundered, or otherwise damaged on the coasts, or within the dominion of the other, their respective subjects or citizens shall receive, as well for themselves as for their vessels and effects, the same assistance which would be due to the inhabitants of the country where the damage happens, and shall pay the same charges and dues only as the said inhabitants would be subject to pay in a like case; and if the operations of repair shall require that the whole or any part of their cargo be unladed, they shall pay no duties, charges, or fees on the part which they shall relade and carry away. The ancient and barbarous right to wrecks of the sea shall be entirely abolished, with respect to the subjects or citizens of the two contracting parties.
The citizens or subjects of each party shall have power to dispose of their personal goods within the jurisdiction of the other, by testament, donation, or otherwise; and their representatives, being subjects or citizens of the other party, shall succeed to their said personal goods, whether by testament or ab intestato, and may take possession thereof either by themselves or by others acting for them, and dispose of the same at their will, paying such dues only as the inhabitants of the country wherein the said goods are shall be subject to pay in like cases. And in case of the absence of the representative, such care shall be taken of the said goods, and for so long a time as would be taken of the goods of a native in like case, until the lawful owner may take measures for receiving them. And if question shall arise among several claimants to which of them the said goods belong, the same shall be decided finally by the laws and judges of the land wherein the said goods are. And where, on the death of any person holding real estate within the territories of the one party, such real estate would by the laws of the land descend on a citizen or subject of the other, were he not disqualified by alienage, such subject shall be allowed a reasonable time to sell the same, and to withdraw the proce[e]ds without molestation, and exempt from all rights of detraction on the part of the Government of the respective States. But this article shall not derogate in any manner from the force of the laws already published or hereafter to be published, by His Majesty the King of Prussia, to prevent the emigration of his subjects.
The most perfect freedom of conscience and of worship is granted to the citizens or subjects of either party within the jurisdiction of the other, without being liable to molestation in that respect for any cause other than an insult on the religion of others. Moreover, when the subjects or citizens of the one party shall die within the juris
diction of the other, their bodies shall be buried in the usual burying-grounds or other decent and suitable places, and shall be protected from violation or disturbance.
If one of the contracting parties should be engaged in war with any other Power, the free intercourse and commerce of the subjects or citizens of the party remaining neuter with the belligerent Powers shall not be interrupted. On the contrary, in that case, as in full peace, the vessels of the neutral party may navigate freely to and from the ports and on the coasts of the belligerent parties, free vessels making free goods, insomuch that all things shall be adjudged free which shall be on board any vessel belonging to the neutral party, although such things belong to an enemy of the other; and the same freedom shall be extended to persons who shall be on bourd a free vessel, although they should be enemies to the other party, unless they be soldiers in actual service of such enemy.
And in the same case of one of the contracting parties being engaged in war with any other Power, to prevent all the difficulties and misunderstandings that usually arise respecting the merchandize heretofore called contraband, such as arms, ammunition, and military stores of every kind, no such articles carried in the vessels, or by the subjects or citizens of one of the parties to the enemies of the other, shall be deemed contraband, so as to induce confiscation or condemnation and a loss of property to individuals. Nevertheless, it shall be lawful to stop such vessels and articles, and to detain them for such length of time as the captors may think necessary to prevent the inconvenience or damage that might ensue from their proceeding, paying, however, a reasonable compensation for the loss such arrest shall occasion to the proprietors: And it shall further be allowed to use in the service of the captors the whole or any part of the military stores so detained, paying the owners the full value of the same, to be ascertained by the current price at the place of its destination. But in the case supposed, of a vessel stopped for articles heretofore deemed contraband, if the master of the vessel stopped will deliver out the goods supposed to be of contraband nature, he shall be admitted to do it, and the vessel shall not in that case be carried into any port, nor further detained, but shall be allowed to proceed on her voyage.
ARTICLE XIV. And in the same case where one of the parties is engaged in war with another Power, that the vessels of the neutral party may be readily and certainly known, it is agreed that they shall be provided with sea-letters or passports, which shall express the name, the property, and burthen of the vessel, as also the name and dwelling of the master; which passports shall be made out in good and due forms, (to be settled by conventions between the parties whenever occasion shall require,) shall be renewed as often as the vessel shall return
& Revived by treaty of 1828.
into port, and shall be exhibited whensoever required, as well in the open sea as in port. But if the said vessel be under convoy of one or more vessels of war belonging to the neutral party, the simple declaration of the officer commanding the convoy, that the said vessel belongs to the party of which he is, shall be considered as establishing the fact, and shall relieve both parties from the trouble of further examination.
And to prevent entirely all disorder and violence in such cases, it is stipulated, that when the vessels of the neutral party, sailing without convoy, shall be met by any vessel of war, public or private, of the other party, such vessel of war shall not approach within cannon-shot of the said neutral vessel, nor send more than two or three men in their boat on board the same, to examine her sea-letters or passports. And all persons belonging to any vessel of war, public or private, who shall molest or injure in any manner whatever the people, vessels, or effects of the other party, shall be responsible in their persons and property for damages and interest, sufficient security for which shall be given by all commanders of private armed vessels before they are commissioned.
It is agreed that the subjects or citizens of each of the contracting parties, their vessels and effects, shall not be liable to any embargo or detention on the part of the other, for any military expedition, or other public or private purpose whatsoever. And in all cases of seizure, detention, or arrest for debts contracted or offences committed by any citizen or subject of the one party, within the jurisdiction of the other, the same shall be made and prosecuted by order and authority of law only, and according to the regular course of proceedings usual in such cases.
If any vessel or effects of the neutral Power be taken by an enemy of the other, or by a pirate, and retaken by that other, they shall be brought into some port of one of the parties, and delivered into the custody of the oflicers of that port, in order to be restored entire to the true proprietor, as soon as due proof shall be made concerning the property thereof.
If the citizens or subjects of either party, in danger from tempests, pirates, enemies, or other accident, shall take refuge with their vessels or effects, within the harbours or jurisdiction of the other, they shall be received, protected, and treated with humanity and kindness, and shall be permitted to furnish themselves, at reasonable prices, with all refreshments, provisions, and other things necessary for their sustenance, hea [l]th, and accommodation, and for the repair of their vessels.
The vessels of war, public and private, of both parties, shall carry freely wheresoever they please the vessels and effects taken from their enemies, without being obliged to pay any duties, charges, or fees to officers of admiralty, of the customs, or any others; nor shall such prizes be arrested, searched, or put under legal process, when they come to and enter the ports of the other party, but may freely be carried out again at any time by their captors to the places expressed in their commissions, which the commanding officer of such vessel shall be obliged to shew. But no vessel which shall have made prises on the subjects of His Most Christian Majesty the King of France shall have a right of asylum in the ports or havens of the said United States; and if any such be forced therein by tempest or dangers of the sea, they shall be obliged to depart as soon as possible, according to the tenor of the treaties existing between his said Most Christian Majesty and the said United States.
No citizen or subject of either of the contracting parties shall take from any Power with which the other may be at war any commission or letter of marque for arming any vessel to act as a privateer against the other, on pain of being punished as a pirate; nor shall either party hire, lend, or give any part of their naval or military force to the enemy of the other, to aid them offensively or defensively against that other.
If the two contracting parties should be engaged in war against a common enemy, the following points shall be observed between them:
1. If a vessel of one of the parties retaken by a privateer of the other shall not have been in possession of the enemy more than twenty-four hours, she shall be restored to the first owner for onethird of the value of the vessel and cargo; but if she shall have been more than twenty-four hours in possession of the enemy, she shall belong wholly to the recaptor.
2. If in the same case the recapture were by a public vessel of war of the one party, restitution shall be made to the owner for onethirtieth part of the value of the vessel and cargo, if she shall not have been in possession of the enemy more than twenty-four hours, and one-tenth of the said value where she shall have been longer; which sums shall be distributed in gratuities to the recaptors.
3. The restitution in the cases a foresaid shall be after due proof of property, and surety given for the part to which the recaptors are entitled.
4. The vessels of war, public and private, of the two parties, shall be reciprocally admitted with their prizes into the respective ports of each; but the said prizes shall not be discharged nor sold there, until their legality shall have been decided, according to the laws and regulations of the States to which the captor belongs, but by the judicatures of the place into which the prize shall have been conducted.
5. It shall be free to each party to make such regulations as they shall judge necessary for the conduct of their respective vessels of