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INTERNATIONAL CONVENTIONS AND ACTS TO WHICH THE
UNITED STATES IS A PARTY.
1864. AMELIORATION OF THE CONDITION OF THE WOUNDED IN TIME OF WAR. Concluded at Geneva, Switzerland, August 22, 1864; ratifications
exchanged by original signatories June 22, 1865; adhesion declared by the President March 1, 1882; accession advised by the Senate March 16, 1882; adhesion accepted by the Swiss Confederation June 9, 1882; proclaimed July 26, 1882.
(The President's ratification of the act of accession, as transmitted to Berne and exchanged for the ratifications of the other signatory and adhesory powers, embraces the French text of the convention of August 22, 1864, and the additional articles of October 20, 1868. The French text is, therefore, for all international purposes, the standard one. The text printed here is from the proclamation of the President.
The adhesion of the following States has been communicated: Sweden and Norway, December 13, 1864; Greece, January 5–17, 1865; Great Britain, February 18, 1865; Mecklenburg-Schwerin, March 9, 1865; Turkey, July 5, 1865; Württemberg, June 2, 1866; Hesse, June 22, 1866; Bavaria, June 30, 1866; Austria, July 21, 1866; Portugal, August 9, 1866; Saxony, October 25, 1866 ; Russia, May 10–22, 1867 ; Persia, December 5, 1874; Roumania, November 18-30, 1874; Salvador, December 30, 1874; Montenegro, November, 17-29, 1875; Servia, March 24, 1876; Bolivia, October 16, 1879; Chile, November 15, 1879; Argentine Republic, November 23, 1879;
Peru, April 22, 1880; Bulgaria, May 27, 1884 : Japan, June 11, 1886; Kongo Free State, January 25, 1889; Venezuela, August 2, 1894; Uruguay, June 20, 1900; Korea, January 8, 1903; Guatemala, April 13, 1903; China, June 29, 1904; Mexico, June 24, 1905; Colombia, June 7, 1906; Brazil, January 26, 1907. Paraguay, Cuba, Dominican Republic, and Haiti: Notice of adhesion given by the Swiss minister at Washington on July 15, 1907; the date of the respective adhesions not given. Panama, notice of adhesion given by Swiss minister at Washington August 5, 1907; Ecuador adhered August 3, 1907.)
ABTICLES. 1. Neutrality of ambulances and hos- VI. Care of sick and wounded; evacpitals.
uations. II. Neutrality of hospital employees. VII. Flag and arm-badge. III. Extent of neutrality.
VIII. Regulation of details of execuIV. Equipment.
tion. V. Neutrality of persons caring for IX. Accession of other countries. the wounded.
The Swiss Confederation; His Royal Highness the Grand-Duke of Baden; His Majesty the King of the Belgians; His Majesty the King of Denmark; Her Majesty the Queen of Spain; His Majesty the Emperor of the French; His Royal Highness the Grand-Duke of Hesse;
& Article 31 of convention of July 6, 1906, provides :
“ The present convention, when duly ratified, shall supersede the convention of August 22, 1864, in the relations between the contracting States.
“ The convention of 1864 remains in force in the relations between the parties who signed it, but who may not also ratify the present convention.” 24449-VOL 2—10—-43
His Majesty the King of Italy; His Majesty the King of the Netherlands; His Majesty the King of Portugal and of the Algarves; His Majesty the King of Prussia ; His Majesty the King of Würtemberg, being equally animated with the desire to soften, as much as depends on them, the evils of warfare, to suppress its useless hardships and improve the fate of wounded soldiers on the field of battle, have resolved to conclude a convention to that effect, and have named for their plenipotentiaries, viz:
The Swiss Confederation:
Guillaume Henri Dufour, Grand Officer of the Imperial Order of the Legion of Honor, General in Chief of the federal army, Member of the Council of the State;
Gustave Moynier, President of the International Relief Committee for wounded soldiers and of the Geneva Society of Public Utility; and
Samuel Lehmann, federal Colonel, Doctor in Chief of the federal army, Member of the National Council;
His Royal Highness the Grand Duke of Baden:
Robert Volz, Knight of the Order of the Lion of Zahringen, M. D., Medical Councillor at the Direction of Medical Affairs; and
Adolphe Steiner, Knight of the Order of the Lion of Zæhringen, Chief Staff Physician;
His Majesty the King of the Belgians:
Auguste Visschers, Officer of the Order of Leopold, Councillor at the Council of Mines;
His Majesty the King of Denmark:
Charles Emile Fenger, Commander of the Order of Danebrog, decorated with the silver cross of the same Order; Grand Cross of the Order of Leopold of Belgium, &c., &c., His Councillor of State;
Her Majesty the Queen of Spain:
Don José Heriberto García de Quevedo, Gentleman of her Chamber on active service, Knight of the Grand Cross of Isabella-the-Catholic, Numerary Commander of the Order of Charles III, Knight of the first class of the Royal and Military Order of St. Ferdinand, Officer of the Legion of Honor of France, Her Minister-Resident to the Swiss Confederation;
His Majesty the Emperor of the French:
Georges Charles Jagerschmidt, Officer of the Imperial Order of the Legion of Honor, Officer of the Order of Leopold of Belgium, Knight of the Order of the Red Eagle of Prussia of the third class, &c., &c., Sub-Director at the Ministry of Foreign Affairs;
Henri Eugène Séguineau de Préval, Knight of the Imperial Order of the Legion of Honor, decorated with the Imperial Order of the Medjidié of fourth class, Knight of the Order of Saints Maurice and Lazarus of Italy, &c., &c., military Sub-Commissioner of first class, and
Martin François Boudier, Officer of the Imperial Order of the Legion of Honor, decorated with the Imperial Order of the Medjidié of the fourth class, decorated with the Medal of Military Valor of Italy, &c., &c., doctor in chief of second class;
His Royal Highness the Grand-Duke of Hesse:
Charles Auguste Brodrück, Knight of the Order of Philip the Magnanimous, of the Order of St. Michael of Bavaria, Officer of the Royal Order of the Holy Savior, &c., &c., Chief of Battalion, Staff Officer;
Alis Majesty the King of Italy:
Jean Capello, Knight of the Order of Saints Maurice and Lazarus, his Consul-General to Switzerland, and
Felix Baroffio, Knight of the Order of Saints Maurice and Lazarus, Doctor in Chief of medical division;
His Majesty the King of the Netherlands :
Bernard Ortuinus Theodore Henri Westenberg, Officer of His Order of the Crown of Oak, Knight of the Orders of Charles III of Spain, of the Crown of Prussia, of Adolphe of Nassau, L. D., His Secretary of Legation at Frankfort;
His Majesty the King of Portugal and of the Algarves :
José Antonio Marques, Knight of the Order of Christ, of Our Lady of the Conception of Villa Vixiosa, of Saint Benedict of Aviz, of Leopold of Belgium, etc., M. D. Surgeon of Brigade, Sub-Chief to the Department of Health at the Ministry of War;
His Majesty the King of Prussia: Charles Albert de Kamptz, Knight of the Order of the Red Eagle of second class, &c., &c., &c., His Envoy Extraordinary and Minister Plenipotentiary to the Swiss Confederation, Private Councillor of Legation;
Godefroi Frederic François Loeffler, Knight of the Order of the Red Eagle of third class, etc., etc., M. D. Physician in Chief of the fourth Army Corps;
Georges Hermann Jules Ritter, Knight of the Order of the Crown of third class, etc., etc., Private Councillor at the Ministry of War; His Majesty the King of Würtemberg:
Christophe Ulric Hahn, Knight of the Order of Saints Maurice and Lazarus, etc., Doctor of Philosophy and Theology, Member of the Central Royal Direction for Charitable Institutions,
Who, after having exchanged their powers, and found them in good and due form, agree to the following articles:
ARTICLE I. Ambulances and Military hospitals shall be acknowledged to be neuter, and, as such, shall be protected and respected by belligerents so long as any sick or wounded may be therein.
Such neutrality shall cease if the ambulances or hospitals should be held by a military force.
Art. IŤ. Persons employed in hospitals and ambulances, comprising the staff for superintendence, medical service, administration, transport of wounded, as well as chaplains, shall participate in the benefit of neutrality, whilst so employed, and so long as there remain any wounded to bring in or to succor.
ART. III. The persons designated in the preceding article may, even after occupation by the enemy, continue to fulfill their duties in the hospital or ambulance which they serve, or may withdraw in order to rejoin the corps to which they belong.
Under such circumstances, when these persons shall cease from their functions, they shall be delivered by the occupying army to the outposts of the enemy.
ART. IV. As the equipment of military hospitals remains subject to the laws of war, persons attached to such hospitals cannot, in withdrawing, carry away any articles but such as are their private property.
Under the same circumstances an ambulance shall, on the contrary, retain its equipment.
ART. V. Inhabitants of the country who may bring help to the wounded shall be respected, and shall remain free. The generals of the belligerent Powers shall make it their care to inform the inhabitants of the appeal addressed to their humanity, and of the neutrality which will be the consequence of it.
Any wounded man entertained and taken care of in a house shall be considered as a protection thereto. Any inhabitant who shall have entertained wounded men in his house shall be exempted from the quartering of troops, as well as from a part of the contributions of war which may be imposed.
ART. VI. Wounded or sick soldiers shall be entertained and taken care of, to whatever nation they may belong.
Commanders-in-chief shall have the power to deliver immediately to the outposts of the enemy soldiers who have been wounded in an engagement when circumstances permit this to be done, and with the consent of both parties.
Those who are recognized, after their wounds are healed, as incapable of serving, shall be sent back to their country.
The others may also be sent back, on condition of not again bearing arms during the continuance of the war.
Evacuations, together with the persons under whose directions they take place, shall be protected by an absolute neutrality.
ART. VII. A distinctive and uniform flag shall be adopted for hospitals, ambulances and evacuations. It must, on every occasion, be accompanied by the national flag. An arm-badge (brassard) shall also be allowed for individuals neutralized, but the delivery thereof shall be left to military authority.
The flag and the arm-badge shall bear a red cross on a white ground.
Art. VIII. The details of execution of the present convention shall be regulated by the commanders-in-chief of belligerent armies, according to the instructions of their respective governments, and in conformity with the general principles laid down in this convention.
ART. IX. The high contracting Powers have agreed to communicate the present convention to those Governments which have not found it convenient to send plenipotentiaries to the International Conference at Geneva, with an invitation to accede thereto; the protocol is for that purpose left open.
Art. X. The present convention shall be ratified, and the ratifications shall be exchanged at Berne in four months, or sooner, if possible.
In faith whereof the respective Plenipotentiaries have signed it and have affixed their seals thereto.
Done at Geneva, the twenty-second day of the month of August of the year one thousand eight hundred and sixty-four. [L. s.] G’l G. H. DUFOUR.
[L. s.] BOUDIER. [L. s.] G. MOYNIER.
BRODRÜCK. [L. s.] Dr. LEHMANN.
CAPELLO. [L. s.] Dr. ROBERT Volz.
L. S. F. BAROFFIO. L. s.] STEINER.
WESTENBERG. (L. s.] VISSCHERS.
(L. S. JOSÉ ANTONIO MARQUES. (L. S.] FENGER.
L. S. DE KAMPTZ.
RITTER. [L. .] CH. JAGERSCHMIDT.
[L. S. Dr. HAHN. (L. s.) S. DE PRÉVAL.