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friendly character, shall lend their good and impartial offices toward the realization of the purposes of the Conference.
ARTICLE III. While the Conference is in session and discharging the high mission entrusted to it, the five Central American Republics—that is to say, Costa Rica, Salvador, Guatemala, Honduras, and Nicaraguaagree to maintain among themselves peace and good relations, and they assume, respectively, the obligation not to commit, nor to permit to be committed, any act that can disturb the mutual tranquility. To such end, all display of arms on the respective frontiers shall cease and the maritime forces shall be withdrawn to their jurisdictional waters.
ARTICLE IV. İf, unfortunately, any unforeseen question should arise between any of the said Republics while the Conference is in session, and if it can not be settled by amicable diplomatic course, it is mutually agreed that the interested parties shall submit the difference to the friendly advice of His Excellency the President of the United States of America, or of the United Mexican States, or of both Presidents conjointly, according to the case, and in conformity with the agreement to this effect which may be reached.
J. B. Calvo,
GENERAL TREATY OF PEACE AND AMITY CONCLUDED AT THE CENTRAL
AMERICAN PEACE CONFERENCE, OF 1907, BETWEEN Costa Rica, GUATEMALA, HONDURAS, NICARAGUA, AND SALVADOR.
Concluded December 20, 1907.
ARTICLES. I. Differences to be submitted to XII. National merchant marines
the Central American Court. XIII. Exchange of publications. II. Alteration of constitutional or- XIV. Public instruments. ganization.
XV. Judicial commissions, etc. III. Neutrality of Honduras.
XVI. Political refugees. IV. Establishment of schools rec- XVII. Revolutionary movements. ommended.
XVIII. Bureau of Central America V. Permanent legations.
Republics. VI. Reciprocal treatment of citizens. XIX. Duration. VII. Practice of learned professions. XX. Modification of subsequent VIII. Industrial property rights.
treaties. IX. Merchants' ships.
matic agents in foreign coun
GENERAL TREATY OF PEACE AND AMITY. The Governments of the Republics of Costa Rica, Guatemala, Honduras, Nicaragua, and Salvador, being desirous of establishing the foundations which fix the general relations of said countries, have seen fit to conclude a general Treaty of Peace and Amity which will attain said end, and for that purpose have named as Delegates:
COSTA RICA: Their Excellencies Doctor Don Luis Anderson and Don Joaquín B. Calvo;
GUATEMALA: Their Excellencies Doctor Don Antonio Batres Jáuregui, Doctor Don Luis Toledo Herrarte, and Don Víctor Sánchez Ocaña ;
HONDURAS: Their Excellencies Doctor Don Policarpo Bonilla, Doctor Don Angel Ugarte, and Don E. Constantino Fiallos;
NICARAGUA: Their Excellencies Doctors Don José Madriz and Don Luis F. Corea; and
SALVADOR: Their Excellencies Doctor Don Salvador Gallegos, Doctor Don Salvador Rodríguez González, and Don Federico Mejía.
By virtue of the invitation sent in accordance with Article II of the protocol signed at Washington on September 17, 1907, by the Plenipotentiary Representatives of the five Central American Republics, their excellencies, the Representative of the Government of the United Mexican States, Ambassador Don Enrique C. Creel, and the Representative of the Government of the United States of America, Mr. William I. Buchanan, were present at all the deliberations.
The Delegates, assembled in the Central American Peace Conference at Washington, after having communicated to one another their respective full powers, which they found to be in due form, have agreed to carry out the said purpose in the following manner:
ARTICLE I. The Republics of Central America consider as one of their first duties, in their mutual relations, the maintenance of peace; and they bind themselves to always observe the most complete harmony, and decide every difference or difficulty that may arise amongst them, of whatsoever nature it may be, by means of the Central American Court of Justice, created by the Convention which they have concluded for that purpose on this date.
ARTICLE II. Desiring to secure in the Republics of Central America the benefits which are derived from the maintenance of their institutions, and to contribute at the same time in strengthening their stability and the prestige with which they ought to be surrounded, it is declared that every disposition or measure which may tend to alter the constitutional organization in any of them is to be deemed a menace to the peace of said Republics.
Taking into account the central geographical position of Honduras and the facilities which owing to this circumstance have made its territory most often the theater of Central American conflicts, Honduras declares from now on its absolute neutrality in event of any conflict between the other Republics; and the latter, in their turn, provided such neutrality be observed, bind themselves to respect it and in no case to violate the Honduranean territory.
Bearing in mind the advantages which must be gained from the creation of Central American institutions for the development of their most vital interests, besides the Pedagogical Institute and the International Central American Bureau which are to be established according to the Conventions concluded to that end by this Conference, the creation of a practical Agricultural School in the Republic of Salvador, one of Mines and Mechanics in that of Honduras, and another of Arts and Trades in that of Nicaragua, is especially recommended to the Governments.
In order to cultivate the relations between the States, the contracting Parties obligate themselves each to accredit to the others a permanent Legation.
The citizens of one of the contracting Parties, residing in the territory of any of the others, shall enjoy the same civil rights as are enjoyed by nationals, and shall be considered as citizens in the country of their residence if they fulfil the conditions which the respective constituent laws provide. Those that are not naturalized shall be exempt from obligatory military service, either on sea or land, and from every forced loan or military requisition, and ther shall not be obliged on any account to pay greater contributions or ordinary or extraordinary imposts than those which natives pay.
The individuals who have acquired a professional degree in any of the contracting Republics, may, without special exaction, practice their professions, in accordance with the respective laws, in any one of the others, without other requirements than those of presenting the respective degree or diploma properly authenticated and of proring, in case of necessity, their personal identity and of obtaining a permit from the Executive Power where the law so requires.
In like manner shall validity attach to the scientific studies pursued in the universities, professional schools, and the schools of higher education of any one of the contracting countries, provided the documents which evidence such studies have been authenticated, and the identity of the person proved.
Citizens of the signatory countries who reside in the territory of the others shall enjoy the right of literary, artistic or industrial property in the same manner and subject to the same requirements as natives.
The merchant ships of the signatory countries shall be considered upon the sea, along the coasts, and in the ports of said countries as national vessels; they shall enjoy the same exemptions, immunities and concessions as the latter, and shall not pay other dues nor be suhject to further taxes than those imposed upon and paid by the vessels of the country.
The Governments of the contracting Republics bind themselves to respect the inviolability of the right of asylum aboard the merchant vessels of whatsoever nationality anchored in their ports. Therefore, only persons accused of common crimes can be taken from them after due legal procedure and by order of the competent judge. Those prosecuted on account of political crimes or common crimes in connection with political ones, can only be taken therefrom in case they have embarked in a port of the State which claims them, during their stay in its jurisdictional waters, and after the requirements hereinbefore set forth in the case of common crimes have been fulfilled.
The Diplomatic and Consular Agents of the contracting Republics in foreign cities, towns and ports shall afford to the persons, vessels and other property of the citizens of any one of them, the same protection as to the persons, ships and other properties of their compatriots, without demanding for their services other or higher charges than those usually made with respect to their nationals.
In the desire of promoting commerce between the contracting Republics, their respective Governments shall agree upon the establishment of national merchant marines engaged in coastwise commerce and the arrangements to be made with and the subsidies to be granted to steamship companies engaged in the trade between national and foreign ports.
There shall be a complete and regular exchange of every class of official publications between the contracting Parties.
Public instruments executed in one of the contracting Republics shall be valid in the others, provided they shall have been properly authenticated and in their execution the laws of the Republic whence they issue shall have been observed.
The judicial authorities of the contracting Republics shall carry out the judicial commissions and warrants in civil, commercial or criminal matters, with regard to citations, interrogatories and other acts of procedure or judicial function.
Other judicial acts, in civil or commercial matters, arising out of a personal suit, shall have in the territory of any one of the contracting Parties equal force with those of the local tribunals and shall be executed in the same manner, provided always that they shall first have been declared executory by the Supreme Tribunal of the Republic wherein they are to be executed, which shall be done if they meet the essential requirements of their respective legislation and they shall be carried out in accordance with the laws enacted in each country for the execution of judgments.
Desiring to prevent one of the most frequent causes of disturbances in the Republics, the contracting Governments shall not permit the leaders or principal chiefs of political refugees, nor their agents, to reside in the departments bordering on the countries whose peace they might disturb.
Those who may have established their permanent residence in a frontier department may remain in the place of their residence under the immediate surveillance of the Government affording them an asylum, but from the moment when they become a menace to public order they shall be included in the rule of the preceding paragraph.
Every person, no matter what his nationality, who, within the territory of one of the contracting Parties, shall initiate or foster revolutionary movements against any of the others, shall be immediately brought to the capital of the Republic, where he shall be submitted to trial according to law.
With respect to the Bureau of Central American Republics which shall be established in Guatemala, and with respect to the Pedagogical Institute which is to be created in Costa Rica, the Conventions celebrated to that end, shall be observed, and those that refer to Extradition, Communications, and Annual Conferences, shall remain in full force for the unification of Central American interests.
ARTICLE XIX, The present Treaty shall remain in force for the term of ten years counted from the day of the exchange of ratifications. Nevertheless, if one year before the expiration of said term, none of the contracting Parties shall have given special notice to the others concerning its intention to terminate it, it shall remain in force until one year after such notification shall have been made.
The stipulations of the Treaties heretofore concluded among the contracting Countries, being comprised or suitably modified in this,