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flood where they had to be brought out by any means of trans- me that the civilian engineer should have his full part in the portation that could be secured. I am sure the Senator from planning of the enterprise. I regret to say, Mr. President, Louisiana [Mr. RANSDELL] witnessed that some of them were that while we talk of bureaucracy and clerk-made laws, while brought out who had been marooned in treetops, on housetops, on we denounce bureaucratic control, it was bureaucratic dictarailroad embankments, and other places where they could escape tion that denied to those 250,000 civil engineers their proporthe flood, so long that they had become almost wild. I saw them tion of representation in this great plan. bring out people down in the southeast part of my State where But out of it came finally a board, and whether the plan is they had to prevent them jumping off the boat into the water a failure or a success will depend upon the kind of men who as they approached land. They came out with the scantiest of will go upon the board. The Chief of Army Engineers is to wearing apparel. Everything that they had was gone. Every be one of the commissioners. A second commissioner is desigthing that breathed in that territory, except those human beings, nated as the president of the Mississippi River Commission. had been drowned. Their livestock was gone; even their chick- This position is now held by a man who served 18 years upon ens were gone. Their household effects were gone. While they the river, a man who knows the river. Those who study the might not have had much, it was all they had.
problem of the river know that experience counts at least 50 There were stretches of country miles in width and miles in per cent with engineering skill in solving problems of that length in which there was not a single thing left that man had great stream. But unfortunately the term of office of Colonel put there. Every house, every barn, every outbuilding of every Potter, the head of this commission, a man who knows more of nature, even the fences, were swept away. It was as desolate the river than any engineer on the river, has expired. Thereas this earth was when the flood subsided. So far as their little fore, both the House and Senate committees wrote into the bill effects were concerned, it was just as destructive. Where nearly a request to the President for the reapointment of Colonel a million people who had paid their taxes, who had discharged Potter. So that there might be no misunderstanding, the inevery obligation to the Government that the Government im- tent of Congress was expressed by the unanimous vote of the posed upon them, who had shed their blood on every battle field 19 Senators on the Commerce Committee, by the unanimous where American honor was at stake, I felt then and I feel now vote of the 21 Congressmen on the Flood Control Committee, that they were and are entitled to a consideration which they and by a vast majority in the House and a unanimous vote in did not get. I am persuaded that if the President of the United the Senate, that the President should, in all fairness and to States, instead of going to South Dakota to fish, had gone preserve the philosophy of the bill, reappoint Colonel Potter down there he would have waged no fight upon this legislation, as president of the Mississippi River Commission. and he would not have been insisting that the word "addi- This is the language used in the bill : tional" should be added by way of amendment.
Provided, That the present incumbent of the office may be appointed Mr. HAWES. Mr. President, there are but a few features of the bill which I shall discuss.
a brigadier general of the Army, retired, and shall be eligible for the
I hope within the next two hours, by the same vote registered in the Senate when the bill position of president of the commission if recalled to active service
under the provisions of existing law. was originally presented, that we will send to the President the greatest peace-time domestic proposal he has been called upon That would give the people of the United States the Chief to sign.
of Engineers, who can explain and expound the Chief EngiJust a year ago the flood passed down the Mississippi River. neer's plan, and it would give the people of the United States It created damage to property of $250,000,000. Many lives were the president of the Mississippi River Commission, who could lost. It was only a repetition of floods that had preceded it, present his plan. Then the President may select a civilian totaling in all, in a period of some twenty years, a loss of engineer, who could compose the differences between the two. $400,000,000.
Mr. President, I am sure the President of the United States During the same period the States in the lower valley had understands the situation. He understands that it would be expended $292,000,000 in their own defense.
unfair to those who believe in the Mississippi River plan not to Mr. REID, chairman of the House Committee on Flood Control, have a representative of that commission appointed. All we a committee composed of 21 Congressmen, called that committee ask of him, and I am sure he will do it, is to give us an engineer together in November and they remained in session for nearly of great civil ability and experience who will reconcile the three months. The Commerce Committee of the Senate, com- differences between the two plans. posed of 19 Senators, devoted practically two months to a study Mr. KING. Mr. President, will the Senator suffer an interof the subject. There has been such agreement between the ruption? House committee and the Senate committee and the expression The PRESIDING OFFICER (Mr. SACKETT in the chair). of opinion by the whole House and the Senate that when this Does the Senator from Missouri yield to the Senator from bill shall be interpreted there are one or two phases which seem
Utah? to me should be amplified in the RECORD now.
Mr. HAWES. Certainly. This is not the bill that some of us desired. It does not con- Mr. KING. Does the Senator think there is any conflict or tain the vision of the valley. It does not contain those things will be any conflict between the so-called independent board, discussed by the Senator from Nebraska [Mr. NORRIS), nor does composed of the Chief of Engineers, the head of the Mississippi it do for the tributaries the things that friends of the tribu- River Commission, and a third party to be appointed by the taries wanted done. It is a distinct compromise, a compromise President, and the Mississippi River Commission? Who will begun at the head of the flood waters of the Mississippi. The ultimately control in determining the project and the plans to legislation is confined to the States that suffered. It is confined be pursued in the execution of it? I am asking for information. to that district which must care for the overflow waters of 31 Mr. HAWES. If there is disagreement, the discretion will States and 41 per cent of the territory of the United States. lie with the civilian engineer. The so-called Jadwin plan, which
Personally I have been amazed at statements which have was an incomplete plan, called for $296,000,000. The Missisappeared in the newspapers about the supposedly stupendous sippi River Commission plan called for $406,000,000. The comsums which were to be expended by Congress in this matter. mittees of the House and Senate provided for $325,000,000 as Two plans were presented to the House committee and the the total sum to be spent. The board is appointed to compose same two plans were presented to the Senate committee. One the differences between the two plans, the limitation being was presented by the Chief of Engineers, General Jadwin. The placed at $325,000,000. other was presented by the Mississippi River Commission com- Mr. President, I have been amazed at some recent statements posed of seven members. The Jadwin plan provided one which have appeared in the newspapers. There seems to have method of flood control. The Mississippi River Commission been a confusion in the minds of men regarding the work to be provided another method of flood control. Your committee performed by the United States Government. It is not a provided a special board to reconcile the differences between the work of reclamation. It never was a work of reclamation. It two plans and if necessary, to agree upon a composite plan. was not a thing that affected the landowners. It is a work of
Mr. President, I am one of those Members of the Senate controlling flood waters. who believe there should have been greater latitude in the The great proportion of the work will be done in one State, matter of civilian engineer representation upon this board. the State of Louisiana. When men talk of profits out of a
There are over 250,000 civilian engineers in the United spillway or something wrong about the purchase of land for States, more than twice as many men as we have in the United a spillway, they confuse reclamation with a Government direcStates Army, all graduates from colleges and universities. In tion to drive over a man's land. It may interest the Senate every State in the Union there is a State college which gradu- to know that the waters from Louisiana do not flow down ates civil engineers. This great body of 250,000 engineers has the Mississippi River. They enter into the Gulf of Mexico its own special organization of 20,000 members controlled by through its rivers and its bayous. The flood that passes the highest standard of conduct. When we approach this through Louisiana is the water that comes from outside the subject, involving as it does nearly three times the amount of State of Louisiana. Both engineering plans provide for spillmoney that was spent upon the Panama Canal, it seems to I ways. They are not down the course of the river. They do not follow previous overflows. They are diversions to be cre-tically all the cost of this work, including sixty or seventy ated by man for the benefit, not of Louisiana, but for the millions to landholders for lands and rights. In short, the benefit of 31 States in the Union.
President has surrendered. There has been a difference of opinion among the engineers, This being the case, we are indeed confronted with a new and the public should understand that there is a difference to- policy respecting reclamation in this country, and I do not see day, so that the public may look forward to seeing that when how we can very well insist that the husbandman, upon the we have one tribunal, one forum, which is to decide between plains in the West and the Northwest, shall pay for the reclathe plans of the Mississippi River Commission and the plans mation that he has been afforded, or how, in the future, we can of the Chief of Engineers, it may be a fair forum composed of say to those who ask for the reclamation of dry land, “ You fair men, so that the Nation will have the best advice given must pay therefor, or else you can not expect consideration to it in both plans.
from Congress.” Mr. President, I know of no subject since my service began I accept this situation; but I represent regions that are interin Washington which has been given such careful attention by ested in dry reclamation and I should like to have it underthe committees of the Senate and House. I must not fail stood that hereafter we will be entitled to come to Congress to say before I take my seat one word for the chairman of and ask for corresponding consideration. In fact, we are enthe Senate committee, the senior Senator from Washington titled to come and ask not merely for reclamation of arid lands [Mr. JONES), for his great patience, his fairness, his persever- but of subarid lands. ance in preserving in the bill a philosophy which has gone A drought is nothing but a natural phenomenon, a lack of through it all, a philosophy of fairness, in reconciling two water in the form of rain. The trouble in the lower Mississippi plans that the American people might in the last analysis secure Valley has been a surplus of water because of rain. It is now the best plan.
proposed to reclaim and prevent the suffering that results from Mr. HOWELL. Mr. President, this bill proposes a great in- an excess of water due to such cause. Have not our western ternal improvement. I am in favor of the Government under settlers the same right to come to Congress and ask relief betaking such great works of improvement. However, this bill cause of the lack of rain? These are simply two natural reverses policies that have been heretofore in effect recog- phenomena quite akin. That is what this is to lead to, and nized by Congress; and I feel that we should all realize that
Congress can not fairly refuse to consider favorably our as a consequence readjustments in connection with other simi
requests. lar public improvements will be demanded and can not well be
In my State there are three counties that up to last year for refused.
three or four years had practically no crops whatever. The From time immemorial the Mississippi River and its tribu- people were practically wiped out so far as their fortunes were taries have been making a pathway to the sea. We recognize, concerned. Under similar circumstances again they will have under the common law, that the use of a track after a certain a right to appeal to Congress. We have in the past appealed to number of years entitles the public to travel over the same Congress and asked that a reclamation project should be authoras a highway without restraint. In other words, the right to
ized in this region, but up to the present time have been refused, use the track as a highway is secured by proscription. If there
because the reclamation project might involve the expenditure ever was a right by proscription obtained, certainly that right of some $15,000,000. has been secured by the Mississippi River for its course to Mr. KING. Mr. President, will the Senator suffer an interthe sea.
ruption? Man has been infringing upon that right, gradually contract- The PRESIDING OFFICER. Does the Senator from Neing this pathway, and as a result now and then the Mississippi braska yield to the Senator from Utah? has reasserted its full title. to this route to the sea and has Mr. HOWELL. Certainly. occupied it. The consequence is that we are now confronted Mr. KING. I was interested in the statement made by my with a demand for flood control because man wants per- able friend from Missouri [Mr. HAWES). It seemed to me a manently a part of the pathway of the Mississippi River for his very proper one-namely, that we ought not to confuse this own use.
project, dealing with the flood waters of the Mississippi River, This occupation has been developing for a long time. It has with the sources of streams and irrigation projects. been urged, however, that even though these infringements In this case it is claimed that 41 per cent of the area of the upon this right of way have taken place, the necessity of United States is involved; that the waters of 21 States are flood control has been accentuated by the fact that forests have sent into the Mississippi River; and that the effect of those been removed from upper tributary areas. However, we have waters is to work serious injury in a few States. The States but to go back over history to find that in 1881 there was an that are inundated and damaged are not at fault. Their situaequivalent flood, and still further back to 1844, before praction is caused, perhaps, by the sins of omission or commission, tically any forest was removed from the upper regions, to find whichever view may be taken, of a large part of the United that there was a corresponding flood to that which was sus- States. Does not the Senator differentiate such a situation as tained in the last year. Therefore, so far as deforestation is that from propositions to irrigate private land? concerned, it is probable that it does not greatly affect this May I say that I was in the House when the so-called Newproblem,
lands bill was passed, and I wrote a minority report concurring As a matter of fact, this bill provides for reclamation-a generally in the proposition that Congress had the right to great reclamation project. We have to deal with two classes reclaim its own lands, though it was paternalism that might of reclamation. The first class of reclamation is leading water be carried to an extreme, and we could justify appropriations on dry land to make it livable. A second class is keeping water from the Treasury of the United States to irrigate the lands from wet land, thus making it livable. In connection with which were owned by the Government, because by so doing we legislation for reclamation of the first character, we have would facilitate the sale of those lands; but I believe the comrecognized this principle: That it was an economic problem, mittee were unanimous in the opinion that it was not within practically in its entirety. The question being, Is Congress the power of the Federal Government to irrigate private lands. justified in providing for a particular reclamation? And Con- I express no opinion now. I wanted simply to ask the Senator gress has had to be shown that if it spent, on an average, a if he did not differentiate between this project and the project hundred dollars for the reclamation of an acre of land, it would of the Federal Government going into States and building be worth at least a hundred dollars after reclamation was reservoirs for the purpose of irrigating the lands of private accomplished; and if that could not be demonstrated, reclama- persons ? tion has been denied.
Mr. HOWELL. Mr. President, of course this project of reclaFurthermore, it has been provided that those who were the mation as proposed in this bill is not identical with one where beneficiaries of reclamation should pay for reclamation. At it is necessary to lead water upon dry land. However, as the least they should pay the cost of reclamation, if not interest Senator from Arkansas [Mr. CARAWAY] stated, 17,000 square upon that cost during the repayment period.
miles in his State were submerged as the result of last year's That has been the policy of Congress. Under that policy flood. If works are provided that enable these 17,000 square Congress has expended or authorized the expenditure of about miles to be freed from subsequent flooding so that they may be $170,000,000; and, as a result of these expenditures, certain utilized for the raising of crops without interference, is not repayments are being made each year. Now, however, it is that a form of reclamation? There can be no question about proposed that in connection with this great reclamation proj- it; and the necessity for reclamation in both cases is due to ect there shall be practically no contribution by the owners of water-too little or too much. the lands that are benefited.
Mr. GEORGE, Mr. President, let me ask the Senator if that The President recognized this great change in policy and is not merely an incidental result? Is not the reclamation of a has opposed it; but I understand that now he has finally portion of the land along the Mississippi merely incidental in agreed that the people of the United States shall pay prac- this case ?
Mr. HOWELL. If it were not for the advantages of recla- since I have been a Member of Congress I have voted quite mation there would be no urgency for this measure.
frequently to supply certain things needed for drought-stricken Mr. GEORGE. For reclamation?
areas in the West. The committee of which I am a member, Mr. HOWELL. For reclamation.
and of which the Senator sitting in front of me [Mr. GEORGE] Mr. GEORGE. Is that the Senator's idea about this bill? is a member, reports bills to buy seed, to furnish food and feed Mr. HOWELL. I have no question about it.
and seeds to enable people to make crops where there has been Mr. GEORGE. If I entertained it I should vote against the damage caused by a local drought. bill.
Mr. HOWELL. Just as has been done for flood-stricken Mr. HOWELL. There is no question about it.
regions. Mr. GEORGE The Senator contends that that is the urgent Mr. CARAWAY. Absolutely not. There has not been one reason for the passage of this bill?
single thing of the kind done for a single acre of land or a single Mr. HOWELL. That is the urgent reason for its passage. individual living in the valley. It is wholly different. You can Reclamation is necessary, and permanent reclamation.
search the records from beginning to end, and you will find that Mr. GEORGE. I have not thought so, Mr. President. If the we never asked for it. All we have said was that if you origiConstitution of the United States gives to the Federal Govern- nate a flood beyond our borders, it is a national situation, it ment power to control the navigation and commerce upon this comes down a national stream, and you ought to take care of great stream-and the United States, of course, will brook no your water. There is a law, wise or otherwise, in every cominterference with commerce and navigation upon this stream- munity on earth, that you can not even keep a vicious dog and it seems to me that there is a national obligation that grows outlet it bite your neighbor without answering for it. The Govof that power, and that the reclamation which benefits the land ernment controls the Mississippi River and owns it. You can adjacent to the river, derived from the proper control of flood not put an obstruction in it, you can not dig a channel in it, waters in that river, is purely incidental to the duty and obli- without the Government's permission. It would not seem to be tion that rests upon us under the Constitution.
exceedingly unfair, then, to ask it to maintain its property in Mr. HOWELL. Mr. President, if the purpose, or if the ad- such a way that it would not destroy the people along its banks. vantage, to be achieved by this measure were merely naviga- Mr. HOWELL. Mr. President, I called attention not long ago tion this measure, meaning the ultimate expenditure of $1,000,- in my remarks to the fact that the Mississippi River from time 000,000, would not now be before Congress.
immemorial has been cutting a pathway to the sea ; that it had Mr. CARAWAY. Mr. President, may I ask the Senator a a right to that pathway by proscription; that man was interferquestion?
ing with that pathway, and has interfered with it; and that the The PRESIDING OFFICER (Mr. VANDENBERG in the chair). | Mississippi has merely retaliated. Does the Senator from Nebraska yield to the Senator from I recognize that this bill is to pass. I recognize that we are Arkansas?
taking a new position respecting certain internal improvements. Mr. HOWELL. I yield.
I recognize that this new position means that tremendous areas Mr. CARAWAY. The very word "reclamation ” carries with of private property are to be benefited without contribution at it what meaning to the Senator?
the expense of all the people of the country. The purpose of Mr. HOWELL. It means making land livable and useful my remarks is to call to the attention of the Senate that necesthat otherwise is not livable and useful.
sarily, in justice to ourselves, we, from the arid and semiarid Mr. CARAWAY. It means to change the conditions of that regions, must come here and ask for similar assistance when we land, does it not?
are threatened or affeeted by natural phenomena, and especially Mr. HOWELL. It does.
that phenomenon, drought. Mr. CARAWAY. Did it ever occur to the Senator that there
Therefore, Mr. President, I trust that when we do come, as might be this difference between his idea of reclaiming desert we will, we will be treated in the same generous spirit which is land and preventing overflows? To take the water off land now the lot of the great Mississippi Valley. does not reclaim it. It does not take care of local conditions. Mr. GEORGE. Mr. President, I do not intend to discuss It simply prevents a moving body of water that originates in the conference report, because I know the important step is the another section, much of it a thousand miles away, from taking of the vote on the measure. I merely wish to say that destroying what already exists.
I do not regard flood control on the Mississippi River as standThere is no such thing as something moving down on the arid | ing upon the same basis or being in anywise analogous to lands. Your condition is local. You are not protesting against reclamation. The two seem to me to be wholly apart. There is something that occurs outside your region. You are asking, no ground of similarity between the two. Flood control on the when you ask for reclamation, that a changed condition may Mississippi River, a great channel of interstate and internatake place within your local area. You are fighting a local tional commerce, over which the United States has complete condition. The idea of flood control does not look to taking jurisdiction under the Constitution, presents, of course, a diflocal water to change a local condition. It is to prevent a flood ferent picture from any that can be presented by or on behalf rising in anther section from sweeping down and destroying the of the irrigation of land anywhere in the country. section to be protected.
The recognition of the problem as national is not coming Does not that appeal to the Senator as a difference?
too soon; it is coming all too late. It requires some great Mr. HOWELL. West of the one hundredth meridian there catastrophe, some great flood, as the flood of last year, to bring is a region about 150 or 200 miles in width that has been us to a realization of the fact that this is a national problem. called semiarid. Some years we have crops, and splendid Before the vote is taken I merely wish to say that my vote is crops. Other years Nature does not smile on us; she frowns not placed upon the basis that this is a reclamation project. upon us, and then we suffer. Sometimes those years succeed Wholly incidental is the benefit that flows to landowners and each other and leave the land practically barren. That is property owners along the Mississippi. The national obligation exactly what takes place in the Mississippi Valley. People springs from other considerations, and rests upon the basis settle upon its low, fertile lands. Suddenly, after several years which I have indicated; that is, the national power over this of successful cultivation, they are overwhelmed by flood water, stream as an artery of interstate and foreign commerce. just as our people are overwhelmed-by what? Lack of water. The PRESIDING OFFICER. The question is on agreeing
Mr. CARAWAY. Mr. President, if the Senator will pardon to the conference report. me, let us take New England. There came a flood there last The conference report was agreed to. spring that washed away their roads and bridges. This bill Mr. JONES. Mr. President, there have been many proposicarries a provision that the Government shall help restore tions advanced during the debate on the conference report them. Suppose these bridges had crumbled on account of some to which I may not agree, and about which there is much difpurely local condition. Does anybody in the Senate believe that | ference of opinion. It may not be important at all, but I there would have been an appropriation in this bill to build wanted it to appear in the Record that the mere fact that I am them up? Suppose the concrete out of which they were made not discussing these propositions, or attempting to controvert had proven faulty, and they had crumbled and the bridges had them, can not be taken as an indication of an agreeement on fallen down, Nobody would have said that the Government my part with the contentions made. I have been interested in ought to go in there and rebuild them. We undertake to do the passage of this bill, and so have refrained from discussing it, wise or otherwise, because of a condition which does not any of these proposals about which there may be an honest originate with them.
difference of opinion. A great flood of water comes down the valley and destroys There has been considerable said in the papers about the property. It seems to me to be so obvious that I certainly just cost of this project. Where these estimates came from I do not miss the Senator's point. If we were to have a drought, I do know; but I have here a letter from the Chief of Engineers of not think there would be any obligation resting upon the Gov- the United States Army in answer to a letter from me with refernment or anybody else to take care of the damage, although erence to the probable cost under these two plans, and I desire
to have it printed in the RECORD so as to show what the esti- | purposes, which were, on page 2,"line 6, to strike out the word mate of the Chief of Engineers with reference to the cost of this is” and insert "shall be”; on page 2, line 7, to strike out the project is.
words " the Army Music School and "; on page 2, line 20, after There being no objection, the letter was ordered to be printed the word "commissioned,” to insert "warrant"; on page 2, in the RECORD, as follows:
lines 23 and 24, to strike out "and eight additional band WAR DEPARTMENT,
masters for duty with the Army Music School as instructors "; OFFICE OF THE CHIEF OF ENGINEERS,
and on page 3, line 1, after the word “physically,” to insert Washington, March 2, 1928.
"and professionally." Hon. WESLEY L. JONES,
Mr. BINGHAM. I move that the Senate concur in the House United States Senate, Washington, D. 0.
amendments. DEAR SENATOR : In response to your letter requesting certain esti
The motion was agreed to. mates pertaining to your flood-control bill, I give the following:
TERRITORY OF HAWAII The local contribution required to construct the main-river levees
The PRESIDING OFFICER laid before the Senate the to the 1914 grade is estimated at $4,200,000. This assumes that the amendments of the House of Representatives to the bill (S. 757) Army engineer project is adopted as to the scope of the levee work
to extend the benefits of certain acts of Congress to the Terriand that tributary flood control contained in the commission plan is
tory of Hawaii, which were, on page 2, line 23, to strike out not to be done. If the commission plans are adopted to the extent of
* 1929” and insert “1930"; on page 2, line 24, to strike out including tributaries and work above Cape Girardeau then the local
“ 1930" and insert "1931"; on page 2, line 25, to strike out contributions would be $15,447,357.
"1931” and insert "1932"; on page 3, line 1, to strike out In view of the uncertainties about the project that the bill leaves to
“1932” and insert “1933"; on page 3, line 2, to strike out be settled later, it is very difficult to make any estimate of what it
“1933” and insert "1934"; on page 3, line 3, to strike cut might cost. However, the attached statement indicates what might
“1934" and insert “ 1935 on page 3, line 4, to strike out occur. The minimum is $305,000,000 and the maximum is over
“1935" and insert “1936 $502,400,000.
on page 3, line 5, to strike out
“ 1936" and insert 1937 on page 3, line 5, to strike cut Trusting that this is what you desire, I am,
"1937" and insert “1938 Yours very sincerely,
; on page 3, line 6, to strike out "1938 ” and insert "1939"; on page 3, line 7, to strike out EDGAR JADWIN,
“ 1939" and insert “ 1910"; and on page 3, line 8, to strike vut Major General, Chief of Engineers.
"1940” and insert "1941."
Mr. BINGHAM. Mr. President, I move that the Senate con-
cur in the House amendments. Army engineer estimate--
$296, 400, 000
Mr. SMOOT. What is the nature of the amendments? Land and damages Bonnet Carre
3, 300, 000 Land and damages Atchafalaya flood way if fuse-plug
Mr. BINGHAM. The amendments propose to change the levees are removed.
37,000,000 date when the agricultural aid acts, with which the Senator is Land and damages Bayou Des Glaizes Loop
1,000,000 familiar, will become available for the Territory by pushing Land and damages Boeuf flood way if masonry spillway replaces fuse-plug levees.
80, 000, 000 the dates forward one year. It would take some time to read Masonry spillway Boeuf flood way.
20,000,000 all the amendments. Land and damages Birds Point-New Madrid
Mr. SMOOT. If that is the only change, I have no objection. Rights of way food way levees-
1, 400, 000
Mr. BINGHAM. I ask to have inserted at this point an
441, 600, 000 extract from the House report on the bill, which includes a Less local contributions------
4, 200, 000 letter from the Secretary of Agriculture, explaining that this Net total
437, 400, 000 proposed legislation would not be out of harmony with the The following items in Mississippi River
financial program of the President. Commission estimate might be added to
There being no objection, the matter referred to was ordered above: Above Cape Girardeau..
to be printed in the RECORD, as follows: Tributaries
50, 000, 000 Atchafalaya revetments4, 500, 000
MARCH 15, 1928. 65, 000, 000 Hon. G. N. HAUGEN, Grand total.-
Chairman Committee on Agriculture, House of Representatives. 502, 400, 000
DDAR MR, HAUGEN : Under date of February 7 the department submitNOTE.--If certain features of the Mississippi River Commission plan, ted a report to your committee on H. R. 6070, a bill to extend the such as narrower flood ways, are adopted, greater levee · raising will benefits of certain acts of Congress to the Territory of Hawaii. The acts be required on the main river and the grand total will exceed the $502, referred to were those commonly known as the Hatch Act and supple400,000 above.
mentary acts, Adams Act, and Purnell Act, providing for the establishMr. KING. Mr. President, I was called from the Chamber ment and maintenance of agricultural experiment stations, and the act for a moment to answer the telephone when the Senator from of May 8, 1914, known as the Smith-Lever Act, which provides for Georgia (Mr. GEORGE] was speaking. I supposed there would cooperative agricultural extension work between the agricultural colbe some further debate on the flood-control conference report. leges receiving the benefits of the act of Congress approved July 2, 1862, Coming into the Chamber a moment ago I discovered that the which is the Morrill Act, and acts supplementary thereto. In the report report had been adopted. I only want to say that if there had of February 7 it was stated that upon submission of this proposed legisbeen a record vote I should have voted “nay,” for the reasons lation to the Bureau of the Budget, as required by Circular No. 49 of I very briefly outlined a few moments ago when I addressed the that bureau, the Department of Agriculture was advised under date of Senate. If there had been a viva voce vote, I should likewise February 3, 1928, that the legislation proposed in II. R. 6070 would be have voted “no.”
in conflict with the financial program of the President. EMERY RIVER RIDGE, ROANE COUNTY, TENN.
The department is now in receipt of a communication from the
Director of the Bureau of the Budget, dated March 7, 1928, in which he The PRESIDING OFFICER (Mr. VANDENBERG in the chair) laid before the Senate the amendments of the House of Repre introduced February 14, 1928, by Mr. Houston, the Delegate from
states that the legislation proposed in H. R. 10959 for the same purpose, sentatives to the bill (S. 3571) granting the consent of Congress Hawaii, would not be in conflict with the financial program of the Presito the county court of Roane County, Tenn., to construct a bridge across the Emery River at Suddaths Ferry, in Roane priations in the fiscal year 1930 instead of the fiscal year 1929.
dent if it were amended so as to start the program of progressive approCounty, Tenn., which were, on page line 5, after the word
Sincerely yours, “a,” to insert “ free highway"; on page 1, line 6, to strike out
WM. M, JARDINE, Secretary. the word " Emory" and insert "Emery"; and to amend the title so as to read: "Granting the consent of Congress to the
From the above it will be seen that the Bureau of the Budget and county court of Roane County, Tenn., to construct a bridge the Department of Agriculture approved of H. R. 10959, with the underacross the Emery River at Suddaths Ferry, in Roane County, standing that the start of the program should be in 1930 instead of the Tenn."
fiscal year 1929. Mr. TYSON. I move that the Senate concur in the House u. R. 10959. S. 757 is being reported amended so as to start the pro
The Senate has already passed s. 757, which is an identical bill with amendments. The motion was agreed to.
gram appropriations in the fiscal year 1930 instead of the fiscal year
1929. THE NATIONAL DEFENSE The PRESIDING OFFICER laid before the Senate the Between the years 1917 and 1927 the Territory of Hawaii has paid amendments of the House of Representatives to the bill (S. 750) into the Federal Treasury, through internal revenue and the customto amend the act entitled "An act for making further and more house, a total of $107,628,451.64. effectual provision for the national defense, and for other The Federal Congress has recognized Hawaii's right to share in Fedpurposes," approved June 3, 1916, as amended, and for other 'eral aid laws relating to highways, farm loans, vocational education, and
child welfare, and maternity, and now asks that similar recognition be but a provision for simple justice to one class of officers who, in disaccorded her in respect to the Federal aid for agricultural purposes. regard of the Government's pledges in 1917 when they were needed, Hawaii has a greater population than three States and is at the present have been discriminated against and neglected. For over eight years time paying into the Federal Treasury more than 13 States.
these disabled officers have asked for consideration, yet there is danger It is in no sense a possession, as possessions do not carry the burdens that the House of Congress will deny this act of justice, long overwhich States and Territories do. Neither Porto Rico nor the Philip- due, and put the Government in the position of repudiating a warpines contribute to the Federal income by reason of the income tax, nor time pledge. do they pay into the Federal Treasury by reason of the customs.
In the World War the United States had nine classes of officers. The intent of this bill is to eventually give to the Territory of Hawaii There were the regular, provisional, and emergency officers of Army, all of the Federal aid for agricultural colleges enjoyed by the States, no Navy, and Marine Corps-three classes of officers in each of the three more and no less.
branches of the service. In the service act of May, 1917, Congress In view of all of the above facts, but principally in view of the fact provided that all officers and men of the provisional and emergency that there is a large need for this aid by reason of the agricultural classes should in all respects be upon the same footing as to pay, industry of the Territory, the importance of the college work (where allowances, and pensions as those of the Regular Army. there are 840 pupils at present), and by reason of section 5 of the There is the country's pledge. Let us see how it has been kept. organic act, the committee recommends that the bill do pass.
For illustration, stand nine men in a row, all of them officers who The PRESIDING OFFICER. The question is on agreeing to served in the war, three from each branch of the service. Imagine the motion of the Senator from Connecticut to concur in the that everyone has suffered the identical disability, say the loss of amendments of the House of Representatives to the bill.
the right arm. Congress comes along, puts eight of them in an The motion was agreed to.
automobile, drives away with them, and provides for them. It over
looks the ninth man, refuses to go back for him, and for over eight HEARINGS ON BILLS ABOLISHING CAPITAL PUNISHMENT IN THE
years leaves him standing there alone waiting for that pledge to be DISTRICT
redeemed. The PRESIDING OFFICER laid before the Senate a concur- Now name those who have been cared for, To one in each of the rent resolution from the House of Representatives (H. Con. Army and Navy corps give the name of Regular, another Provisional, Res. 30), which was read as follows:
and another Emergency, then call the forgotten one Army Emergency, Resolved by the House of Representatives (the Senate concurring), and you have the case. That, in accordance with paragraph 3 of section 2 of the printing act Why should eight be taken and one ignored ? In the summer of approved March 1, 1907, the Committee on the District of Columbia 1918 we would have said that it would be impossible to forget any of the House of Representatives be, and is hereby, empowered to have
of those men. Yet, in less than 10 years St. Mihiel, Belleau Wood,
These emergency printed for its use 2,000 additional copies of the hearings held before Chateau-Thierry, and the Argonne are forgotten. the committee during the Sixty-ninth Congress, first session, on the officers were among those who led the American forces in the great bills (H. R. 349 and H. R. 4498) to abolish capital punishment in the battles that turned the tide of war. District of Columbia.
War Department records show that proportionally the battle-field
mortality was 55 per cent greater for officers than for the men ; that Mr. SHIPSTEAD. I ask that the Senate agree to the concur
of the officers who laid down their lives on those fields 93 per cent rent resolution.
were the emergency officers of the Army. The disabled survivors of The concurrent resolution was considered by unanimous con
this class of officers are those represented by the ninth man left sent and agreed to.
standing Will the country forget its pledge and permit that ninth PROCEEDINGS UPON ACCEPTANCE OF STATUE OF ANDREW JACKSON man to be left alone any longer? The PRESIDING OFFICER laid before the Senate a concur
TAX REDUCTION rent resolution from the House of Representatives (H. Con, Res. 33), which was read, as follows:
The Senate, as in Committee of the Whole, resumed the
consideration of the bill (H. R. 1) to reduce and equalize taxaResolved by the House of Representatives (the Senate concurring), tion, provide revenue, and for other purposes. That there be printed and bound, with illustrations, the proceedings in
Mr. SMOOT. Mr. President, at the request of a number of Congress, together with the proceedings at the unveiling in Statuary
of Senators that I call for a quorum before the resumption of Hall, upon the acceptance of the statue of Andrew Jackson, the seventh
the consideration of the revenue bill, so that the Senator from President of the United States, presented by the State of Tennessee, North Carolina [Mr. Simmons] and some others might be 10,000 copies, of which 2,000 shall be for the use of the Senate and here, I wish to suggest the absence of a quorum. 5,000 for the use of the House of Representatives, and the remaining
Mr. CARAWAY. Will not the Senator withhold that sug3,000 copies shall be for the use and distribution of the Senators and gestion for a moment? Representatives in Congress from the State of Tennessee.
Mr. SMOOT. Yes; I withhold it. The Joint Committee on Printing is hereby authorized to have the
Mr. CARAWAY. I want to ask the Senator a question. I copy prepared for the Public Printer, who shall provide suitable illus
wish to offer an amendment on page 27, line 7. I do not know trations to be bound with these proceedings.
whether there is some amendment to that provision now pendMr. SHIPSTEAD. I ask that the Senate agree to the con- ing or not. current resolution of the House.
Mr. SMOOT. There is no amendment pending, but I will ask The concurrent resolution was considered by unanimous con- the Senator to kindly withhold his amendment until we get sent and agreed to.
through with the committee amendments. There is a unani
mous-consent agreement that we consider committee amendLANDS OF CERTAIN MEMBERS OF THE FIVE CIVILIZED TRIBES
ments first. Mr. FRAZIER. I submit a concurrent resolution and ask Mr. CARAWAY. That is all right. I just wanted to ascerfor its immediate consideration. It provides for the recall oftain whether there was an amendment pending. a bill from the President which has, unfortunately, one word Mr. SMOOT. I suggest the absence of a quorum. wrong, and I want to bring it back so that the change may be The PRESIDING OFFICER. The clerk will call the roll. made.
The Chief Clerk called the roll, and the following Senators The concurrent resolution (s. Con. Res. 19), was read, con- answered to their names: sidered by unanimous consent, and agreed to, as follows: Ashurst
Black entitled "An act to extend the period of restriction in lands of
Steck certain members of the Five Civilized Tribes, and for other purposes," Blease
Tydings serted in the RECORD an article appearing in the Wall Street Bruce
Walsh, Mass. ordered.
Walsh, Mont. The article referred to is as follows:
Waterman [From the Wall Street Journal, May 8, 1928)
Sheppard abled emergency Army officers of the World War is on the calendar The PRESIDING OFFICER. Eighty-five Senators having of the House of Representatives. This is no pension-grabbing scheme answered to their names, a quorum is present.
BEFORE AND AFTER WAR