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James Madison, jun'r.
Richard Dobbs Spaight,
Carolina South. Richard Bassett,
J. Rutledge, Jacob Broom.
Charles Colesworth Pinckney, Mary land.
William Few, John Blair,
WILLIAM JACKSON, Secretary.
CONGRESS OF THE UNITED STATES,
Begun and AELD AT THE CITY OF New York, ON WEDNESDAY THE
FOURTH OF MARCH, ONE THOUSAND SEVEN HUNDRED AND EIGHTY NINE.
The conventions of a number of the states, having at the time of their adopting the constitution, expressed a desire, in order to prevent misconstruction, or abuse of its powers, that further declaratory and restrictive clauses should be added: and as extending the ground of public confidence in the government will best ensure the beneficent ends of its institution
RESOLVED, by the senate and house of representatives of the United States of America in congress assembled, two thirds of both houses concurring, that the following articles de proposed to the legislatures of the several states as amendments to the constitution of the United States, all or any of which articles, when ratified by three fourths of the said legislatures, to be valid to all intents and purposes, as a part of the said constitution : viz.
Articles in addition to, and amendment of the constitution of the
United States of America, proposed by congress, and ratified by the legislatures of the several states, pursuant to the fifth article of the original constitution.
After the first enumeration required by the first ai
ticle of the constitution, there shall be one representative for every thirty thousand, until the number shall amount to one hundred, after which the proportion shall be so regulated by congress, that there shall be not less than one hundred representatives, nor less than one representative for every forty thousand persons, until the number of representatives shall amount to two hundred; after which the proportion shall be so regulated by con- '. gress, that there shall be not less than two hundred representatives, por more than one representative for every fifty thousand persons.
ARTICLE II. No law varying the compensation for the services of the senators and representatives shall take effect, until an election of representatives shall have intervened.
ARTICLE III. Congress shall make no law respecting an establishment of religion, or prohibiting the free exercise thereof; or abridging the freedom of speech, or of the press; or of the right of the people peaceably to assemble, and to petition the government for a redress of grievances.
ARTICLE IV. A well regulated militia being necessary to the securily of a free state, the right of the people to keep and bear arms shall not be infringed.
ARTICLE V. No soldier shall in time of peace be quartered in any house, without the consent of the owner; nor in time of war , but in a manner to be prescribed by law.
ARTICLE VI. The right of the people to be secure in their persons, houses , papers and effects, against unreasonable searches
and seizures, shall not be violated, and no warrants shall issue, but on probable cause, supported by oath or affirmation, and particularly describing the place to be searched, and the persons or things to be seized.
No person shall be held to answer for a capital or otherwise infamous crime, unless on a presentment or indictment of a grand jury, except in cases arising in the land or naval forces, or in the militia when in actual service in time of war or public danger; nor shall any person be subject for the same offence to be twice put in jeopardy of life or limb; nor shall be compelled, in any
criminal case, to be witness against himself, nor be de· prived of life, liberly, or property, without due process of law; nor shall private property be taken for public use without just compensation.
versy shall exceed twenly dollars, the right of trial by .jury shall be preserved, and no fact, tried by i jury,
shall be otherwise re-examined in any court of the United States, than according to the rules of the common law.
ARTICLE X. Excessive bail shall not be required, nor excessive fines imposed, nor cruel and unusual punishment inflicted.
ARTICLE XI. The enumeration in the constitution, of certain rights, shall not be construed to deny or disparage others retained by the people.
The powers not delegated to the United States by the constitution, nor prohibiled by it to the states, are reserved to the states respectively, or to the people.
FREDERICK A. MUHLENBERG,
of the Senate. Attest,
SAMUEL A. OTIS,
Note. The ten last articles of amendments have been adopted by three fourths of the legislatures of the .several states in the Union and are become a part of the constitution of the United States. The two first articles have not been adopted.