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drawing, the candidates selecting not more than three of these subjects, or four, if drawing be one. Successful competitors are then appointed to the Britannia," at Dartmouth, as naval cadets. The course of instruction there lasts two years, and is supplemented by a year's further training on board a special sea-going training-ship. On leaving the "Britannia" the cadets are classed according to their merits in study and conduct. Cadets having obtained one year's sea-time on leaving the training-ship, are rated as midshipmen. During the three years on board the training-ships the cadets study the following subjects: mathematics, consisting of a partial course in arithmetic, algebra, geometry, and trigonometry, with a short course in steam, elementary surveying, English, French, geography, history, and drawing. After completing five years' service, including the time on board the training-ships, and having attained the age of 19 years, they are eligible to pass for lieutenant. The Royal Naval College at Greenwich was reorganized and opened February 1, 1874, for the instruction of officers of all branches of the naval service, including captains and excluding midshipmen.

FRANCE.-Students are admitted to the Naval School on board the "Borda," at Brest, once in each year, by competitive examination. Candidates of respectable parentage are eligible for admission, provided they are native Frenchmen or have been naturalized, and are not less than 14 or more than 17 years of age on the 1st of January of the year in which they compete. Their parents are obliged to pay the equivalent of $140 a year to support them while at the school. The examinations are held in July at Paris and at seven other large cities in France, and in Corsica and Algiers. The examination, partly written and partly oral, is on the following subjects: written -French and English composition; numerical calculation of plane trigonometry, and descriptive geometry; oral-French and English, general history, geography, arithmetic, algebra, geometry, trigonometry, and descriptive geometry. To these is added drawing from nature. If the candidate pass the oral examination, he undergoes a further examination, more searching in the same subjects, for competition. A committee in Paris selects the prescribed number of candidates in order of merit. Those selected join the training-ship "Borda" on October 1, and remain there two years. The subjects of instruction are literary, scientific, and professional. An examination is held at the end of each year, and those that fail to pass in either branch of instruction are dismissed. At the end of two years those who pass successfully are sent on board the cruising-ship “Jean Bart,” where the course is strictly practical. The cruise lasts about one year, and on their return an examination is held in the following subjects: naval architecture, steam, seamanship, naval gunnery, infantry tactics, navigation and surveying, naval regulations, literature, English, drawing, naval book-keeping, international and maritime law, and naval hygiene, which finishes the course. There are also a certain number of students who pass directly from the Polytechnique School into the "Jean Bart," and during their subsequent service they are in no way distinguished from those who have been trained in the Borda." The "Jean Bart' also receives a

few students from the corps of naval constructors, and takes them to sea.

GERMANY.-The officers' corps of the Imperial navy is made up from young men that enter the service as cadets, and from sailors that are granted such a chance for advancement. Applications for admission as cadet must be made to the admiralty at Berlin during the months of August and September of the year preceding the examination for admission. The application must be accompanied by a number of papers giving a detailed account of the candidate's family, his intellectual training and physical condition. The examination is held every year, in the month of April, before an examining board at Kiel, appointed by the chief of the admiralty. The candidate must first pass a physical examination, and not be more than 17 years of age, except a graduate of a high school, who must not be more than 19 years of age. The examination for admission is in the following subjects: Latin, grammar, arithmetic, geometry, trigonometry, elements of physics, geography, history, French and English, and free-hand drawing. If the candidate has a certificate of graduation from a high school, or a school of equal rank, he is freed from an examination if his record in mathematics be good; if not, he must pass an examination in that branch. The results of this examination are sent to the chief of admiralty, who decides which ones shall be admitted. The cadets must pay their own expenses. The cadets selected for admission are embarked on board a practice-ship. They cruise during the summer and return to the station in September. Those cadets that show a want of aptitude for the service are then dismissed by order of the admiralty. The remaining cadets receive certificates signed by the commanding officer and other officers of the practice ship, and are ordered to attend the cadets' class of the naval school after taking the oath of allegiance. The instruction in the cadets' class is intended to prepare the cadets for the Naval Cadets' examination, and lasts about six months. This examination embraces the following subjects: navigation, seamanship, artillery, infantry tactics, arithmetic, trigonometry, geometry, chemistry, official reports, topography, English and French. Those failing to pass are either turned back or dismissed. Those cadets that have passed are embarked on board a practice-ship, and sent on a cruise for two years. During that time they receive practical training, and are also instructed in those branches of science more strictly professional. At the end of the cruise, those receiving a satisfactory report from the commander of a vessel are ordered to attend the first officers' examination at Kiel in the following subjects: navigation, seamanship, naval tactics, artillery, marine engines, naval architecture, knowledge of the duties of officers, French and English. Those that pass the examination are appointed second lieutenants without commissions, and are made to attend the officers' class of the Naval Academy. The course of instruction commences in October and closes the following August, and is intended to complete the theoretical education, and prepare the members for the second officers' examination, which takes place each year, in September, at Kiel, and in the following subjects: navigation, infantry tactics, artillery, naval architecture, marine engines, fortification,

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drawing, geometry, trigonometry, mechanics, and physics. Full reports of the examination are submitted to the admiralty, the relative standing of those that have passed finally determined, and commissions as second lieutenant are issued. Sailors are admitted on the recommendation of their superior officers after a service of at least twelve months on board a manof-war, and must not be over 20 years of age. The regulations for admission and examinations are the same for sailors as for those persons entering from civil life.

ITALY.-The candidates enter at Naples on the 15th of June in each year; they must be of sound body, not less than 13 nor over 17 years of age, and must give security that their expenses will be paid. The examination for admission is competitive, and is in arithmetic, elementary algebra, geometry, ancient history, grammar, French, and geography. The Royal Naval School is composed of two divisions, the first at Naples, and the second at Genoa. The course at Naples is two years, and comprises the following subjects: algebra, geometry, trigonometry, descriptive geometry, navigation, French and English, drawing, calculus, physics, descriptive and political geography, and Italian literature. The last two years of the course are passed at Genoa, and the following subjects taught: mechanics, astronomy, hydrography, history, political geography, Italian literature, French and English, theory of ships, naval construction, naval tactics, fortification, artillery and infantry tactics, torpedoes, and practical exercises, including fencing, gymnastics, swimming, and dancing. The practice-cruises are made each year from June to November, and the examinations take place before the cruise begins. Those who graduate are recommended for nomination to the grade of midshipmen, and go directly into active service.

RUSSIA. Those who are desirous of entering the naval service must pass into the Naval School at St. Petersburg. Candidates eligible for admission must be sons of hereditary noblemen, of superior civil or military officers, or of hereditary honorable citizens. The age of candidates must not be under 15 nor over 18 years. Those candidates who may wish it are allowed, before entering the school, to go through a trialcruise to test their aptitude for the service. If the trial-cruise be satisfactory the candidate must pass a physical and mental examination. The examination is held yearly, in the month of September, embracing the following subjects: religion, grammar, geography, history, arithmetic, algebra, geometry, and French. The course of instruction lasts four years, at the expense of the government. At the end of four years the students are examined in the subjects mentioned. as follows: religion, navigation and pilotage, astronomy, seamanship, naval history, naval tactics, gunnery, surveying, steam, theoretical and practical naval architecture, fortification, jurisprudence, and Russian and French languages. Having passed this examination the student is made a naval cadet, and is embarked on board a training-ship to cruise for two years, at the end of which he is subjected to a final examination in practical seamanship.

SPAIN. The Naval College for midshipmen was created by royal decree, September 18, 1844,


in order that young men who desire to become naval officers may learn, theoretically and practically, their profession. It is situated in San Carlos, department of Cadiz. The personnel is composed of, besides the commanding officer and staff, 11 professors of mathematics, I of physics, and 10 for drawing, seamanship, ship-building, English and French, fencing, gymnastics, and dancing, 2 chaplains, and 8 lieutenants, who, besides their duties as officers, give military instruction to the cadets. By a royal decree of February 20, 1864, only 60 can enter yearly. The candidate must be between 13 and 16 years of age. All the vacancies, except four, are filled by competitive examination in the following subjects: religion, reading, writing, grammar, arithmetic, algebra, geometry, French and English, geography, and drawing. By the last-mentioned decree the time in the college has been reduced from two and a half years to one year and a half, and the students study the following subjects: trigonometry, geometrical analysis, astronomy, navigation, physics, meteorology, chemistry, gunnery, French and English, naval tactics, infantry tactics, seamanship, geography, history (sacred, profane, and naval), religion and morals, drawing, fencing, gymnastics, swimming, and dancing.-F. W. Dickins, Lieutenant-Commander


Academite. A graduate of the Royal Naval Academy at Portsmouth, England.

Acair-phuill. A safe anchorage.

Acalephæ. A class of marine animals of low organization, having a translucent jelly-like structure, and frequently possessing the property of stinging; as, the Portuguese man-of-war (Physalia), and the common jelly-fish (Medusa).

Acapulco. A seaport of Mexico, on the Pacific. Lat. 16° 50′ N.; lon. 99° 48′ W. It has a magnificent landlocked harbor, and is 302 miles S.S.W. of Mexico. Pop. 5000.

Acast. An old word for lost or cast away. Abox; as, the head-yards were said to be braced acast.

Acater. Purveyor of victuals, whence caterer.

Acatium. A word used by the Romans for a small boat, and also for the mainmast of a ship.

Acceleration. The increase of velocity in a moving body. A planet is said to be accelerated when its actual diurnal motion exceeds its mean. In the fixed stars this acceleration is the mean time by which they anticipate the sun's diurnal motion. Acceleration of the moon is the increase of her mean motion, caused by a slow change in the eccentricity of the terrestrial orbit.

Access. Means of entry or approach. Accessible, approachable by land or sea.

Acclivity. The upward slope of an inclined


Accoil. To coil together.

Accommodations. Fittings, conveniences. Accommodation ladder, a convenient flight of steps shipped at the gangway. When shipped on both sides, the starboard ladder is reserved for the use of commissioned officers and their visit


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Achernar. a Eridani, a star of the first magnitude in the constellation Eridanus, called by navigators the "Spring of the River."

Achromatic. A term applied to optical instruments in which aberration and the colors dependent thereon are partially corrected. Achromatic condenser, a lens used to concentrate the Faye of light on an object in a microscope.

Achronical. An old term signifying the rising of a heavenly body at sunset, or its setting at


Acker. An eddying ripple on the surface of Booded walera, A tide swelling above another Arda NOG KAOKK, Bour.

Askush, or Ack-pirates. Fresh-water thieves. ▲ cockbill, A yard is a-cockbill when by acciавтор design on yard-arm is topped up more than bothor (9466 MOURNING.) The anchor is Full when it hangs from the cat-head by the In the navy Topper ready for letting go. ths and how 14 not cockbilled except in special




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An engagement; a battle. Clear ship for action, to prepare for battle by removing everything that obstructs the working of the battery or hinders the handling of the ship; by removing all fixtures and appliances, not needed for action, but which might cause the enemy's shot to create havoc and confusion; by removing articles liable to injury by exposure; and by providing articles necessary to the security of rigging and spars.

Active. Requiring or implying action or exertion; practical; operative.

ACTIVE LIST. The list of officers liable to be called upon for active duty, in contradistinction to the Retired List (which see).

ACTIVE SERVICE. Duty before the enemy, or operations in his presence. Any duty under the orders of the Navy Department.

Actuaire. (Fr.) An open transport propelled by oars and sails.

Actuairole. (Fr.) A small galley propelled by oars.

Acumba. Oakum; the hards or coarse parts of flax and unplucked wool.

Acuña, Christopher. Jesuit and explorer, b. Burgos, 1597, d. Lima about 1675. He was one of the early explorers of the river Amazon, and was sent to report the incidents of the expedition of 1639. On his return to Spain he published at Madrid, in 1641, "Nuevo Descubrimiento del gran Rio de las Amazonas." He subsequently went to the East Indies, returned to South America, and died on the way from Panama to Lima. Adamant. The loadstone; the magnet:-the sense in which it was held by early voyagers.

Adapter. A ring or tube to adapt or fit any accessory apparatus to an instrument.

Addel, or Addle. The putrid water in casks, Addice. An adze. The addled eggs of seafowl.

Addlings. Accumulated pay.

Address. Bearing. To consign or intrust to another as an agent.

Adelaide, Port, six miles from the capital of South Australia. Lat. 34° 49′ S.; lon. 138° 38' E. It is a free port, and accessible for vessels drawing 18 feet of water.

Adit. An air-hole or drift. The aperture by which a mine is dug and charged. The aperture by which a ship in ancient times was entered.

Adjourn. To put off to another day; to discontinue a while; to intermit proceedings; as, of a court-martial, a board of examination, etc. When no certain day is fixed to which the adjournment is to extend, it is said to be sine die.

Adjudication. The act of adjudging prizes by legal decree. Captors are compelled to submit the adjudication of their prizes to a competent tribunal.

Adjust. To set the frame of a ship. To regulate an instrument for use. To adjust the compasses is to ascertain the deviation of the needle due to local attraction.

Adjustment, in marine insurance, is the ascertaining and settling of the amount of indemnity, whether of average or salvage, which the insured is entitled to receive. The nature and amount of damage being ascertained, an endorsement is made on the back of the policy, declaring the proportion of loss falling on each underwriter; and when this endorsement is signed by the latter, the loss is said to have been adjusted. After an adjustment has been made, it

is usual for the underwriter at once to pay the loss. As a question of law, however, it does not appear how far the adjustment is conclusive and binding on the underwriters. In the opinion of some lawyers the adjustment is merely presumptive evidence against an insurer, and it is, notwithstanding, open to the underwriter to show facts which, if proved, would have the effect of relieving him from liability.

ADJUSTMENTS OF INSTRUMENTS. All nautical instruments are liable to get out of order, their several parts not retaining their relative positions, owing to unequal expansion, violence, or like causes. To guard before observing against resulting errors, there are methods of testing whether the instrument is in order in the several points subject to be affected; and the instrument is provided with means of adjustment, chiefly in the form of screws or sliding weights, by which it may be restored to its correct state. Adjusting screws and weights ought not to be touched more than is absolutely necessary, and then with great care. When two such screws work oppositely to each other, one must not be tightened without the other being at the same time loosened. Sometimes, instead of making the adjustment, the error may be acknowledged and allowed for in observing. The term "adjustments" is often loosely applied to all sources of incorrectness, and means of obviating their effects, in using instruments. These are, however, properly of three distinct kinds: imperfections in the instrument, which should cause its rejection; adjustments for parts of the instrument liable to temporary derangement, but which can be restored to order by the machinery attached; and errors of the instrument, which are acknowledged, determined by experiment, and allowed for. See COMPASS and SEXTANT.

Adjutant. See MARINE CORPS.

Admeasurement. The calculation of the proportions of a ship according to assumed rules.

Administration, Naval (Lat. ad, "to," and ministro, ministratum, "to serve," management, conduct of business), relates to the management of that part of the executive branch of the government which includes the navy, or military marine. The Chief Executive is generally the constitutional or hereditary head of the navy. James I., of England, assumed the title of Lord High Admiral and Lord General; in other words, he declared himself to be the commander-in-chief of the army and navy. This was subsequently confirmed to the reigning sovereign by act of Parliament (13 Car. II., c. 6). In the United States the President is the Commander-in-Chief of the Army and Navy, "and he may require the opinion in writing of the principal officer in each of the executive departments upon any subject relating to the duties of their respective offices." (Constitution of the United States, Art. II., Sec. 2.) One of these "executive departments" is styled, by the act of April 30, 1798, which creates the office, the Department of the Navy, and the "principal officer" the Secretary of the Navy, whose duty it is "to execute such orders as he shall receive from the President of the United States relative to the procurement of naval stores and materials, and the construction, armament, equipment of vessels of war, as well as all other matters connected with the naval establishment

of the United States. From the language of the act it will be seen that the Secretary of the Navy is, in all matters pertaining to his branch of the public service, the exponent of the President; and his acts are to be considered the acts of the President, and have full force and effect as such. The official duties of the heads of executive departments, however, are not merely ministerial; they involve the exercise of judgment and discretion. (Decatur v. Paulding, 14 Pet., 515.) The Secretary of the Navy is appointed by the President, by and with the advice and consent of the Senate, from civil life, and is one of the members of his Cabinet. He is authorized by law to prescribe regulations, not inconsistent with law, for the government of his department, the conduct of its officers and clerks, the distribution and performance of its business, and the custody, use, and preservation of the records, papers, and prop erty appertaining to it. He is required to make an annual report to Congress of the operations of the navy for the preceding year, its general condition, etc. The business of the Department is distributed among eight bureaus, to wit: (1) Bureau of Yards and Docks, (2) Equipment and Recruiting, (3) Navigation, (4) Ordnance, (5) Construction and Repair, (6) Steam Engineering, (7) Provisions and Clothing, (8) Medicine and Surgery. The chiefs of bureaus are appointed by the President, by and with the advice and consent of the Senate. All the duties of the bureaus are performed under the authority of the Secretary of the Navy, and "their orders are considered as emanating from him and have full force and effect as such" (act of August 31, 1842). There are 63 clerks, draughtsmen, etc., in the Department, 17 of whom belong to the Secretariat, the remainder to the several bureaus. The chiefs of four bureaus (1, 2, 3, and 4) are selected from the line-officers not below the rank of commander. During the time of holding office they have the relative rank of commodore, if below that grade. The chiefs of the other bureaus are selected from the several corps which they represent, and while holding office have the relative rank of commodore, with the title respectively of surgeon-general, paymastergeneral, engineer-in-chief, and chief construcChiefs of bureaus hold their offices for the term of four years. Any staff officer who has performed the duty of a chief of a bureau for a full term is exempt thereafter from sea-duty, except in time of war, and retires with the relative rank of commodore.


It will be perceived from the foregoing that the Navy Department, and consequently the navy itself, is without a professional head. The civil branch is well provided for in the constitu tional commander-in-chief and his constitutional adviser, the Secretary of the Navy. But regarding the navy in its true character of a sea army, there is no professional head in our naval administration to govern its purely military operations. This is a great, and, in time of war, would be likely to prove a fatal, defect. It would be difficult, indeed, to find a civilian in whom were combined the political training essential to a Cabinet officer and the technical knowledge necessary to an intelligent and energetic administration of naval affairs even in times of profound peace.

The history of our naval administration is curious. The infant navy was ushered into ex


istence by spasmodic resolutions of the Continental Congress. On the 5th of October, 1775, a resolution directed the fitting out of two armed schooners to cruise for a vessel known to have left England with munitions of war for the enemy. A week later another resolution directed the equipping of a swift vessel of 10 guns, and three members of Congress-Messrs. Deane, Langdon, and Gadsden-were chosen a committee to superintend this "naval force." October 20 four members-Hopkins, Hewes, Lee, and John Adams-were added, when it was resolved that "these seven be a committee to carry into execution with all possible expedition the resolutions of Congress for fitting out armed vessels." The committee immediately procured a room in a public-house in Philadelphia, and agreed to meet every evening at 6 o'clock for the dispatch of business. January 25, it was resolved that the direction of the fleet fitted out by order of Congress be left to the Naval Committee. In subsequent resolutions this committee was styled the Marine Committee, and was empowered to give names to ships, to order them on service, purchase materials, etc. June 9, 1779, it was resolved that the management of all business relating to the marine of the United States be vested in commissioners. October 28, 1779, a Board of Admiralty was established to superintend the naval and marine affairs. February 7, 1781, the office of a Secretary of Marine was created. August 20, on the report of a committee, it was resolved that "for the present an agent of marine be appointed," who should absorb all the duties that had devolved upon the Board of Admiralty. On the termination of the war of the Revolution (1783) the navy was disbanded. The present government went into operation under the Constitution March 4, 1789, and on the 7th of August following an act was passed establishing the Department of War, the Secretary of which was to have a general supervision of the land and naval forces. April 30, 1798, the act was passed creating the Department of the Navy, a Secretary of the Navy, a principal clerk and such other clerks as he (the Secretary) thought necessary. The act of February 7, 1815, added to the Department a Board of Navy Commissioners, consisting of three officers of the navy not below the rank of post-captain. The act provided that "the board so constituted should be attached to the office of the Secretary, and under his superintendence discharge all the ministerial duties of that office relative to the procurement of naval stores and materials, and the construction, armament, equipment, and employment of vessels of war, as well as other matters connected with the naval establishment." The act of August 31, 1842, abolished the naval commissioners and substituted five bureaus, since increased, by act of July 5, 1862, to eight. By act of July 31, 1861, the office of Assistant Secretary of the Navy was authorized, the exigencies of war showing its necessity. The office was abolished soon after the war (March 3, 1869).

The act of March 2, 1865, created the office of Solicitor and Judge-Advocate-General. June 22, 1870, it was transferred to the Department of Justice, as Naval Solicitor (Sec. 249, Revised Statutes). For that important factor of the navy, the Marine Corps, see article under that head. GREAT BRITAIN.-Immediately after the rev

olution of 1688 Parliament passed an act (2 Sess. William and Mary) establishing a Board of Admiralty; thus giving the sanction of law to the practice that had long prevailed, of placing the control of the navy in the hands of experienced officers. By this act it was "declared and enacted that all and singular authorities, jurisdictions, and powers which, by any act of Parliament or otherwise, have been and are lawfully vested... in the Lord High Admiral of England for the time being, have always appertained to, and may be exercised by, the Commissioners for executing the office of High Admiral of England for the time being according to their commissions." Two years later, it was resolved in the House of Commons that "His Majesty be advised to constitute a commission of the Admiralty of such persons as are of known experience in maritime affairs; that for the future all orders for the management of the fleet do pass through the Admiralty that shall be so constituted."

The Admiralty patent, as it is called, places in the hands of "Our Commissioners for executing the office of Our High Admiral" full power to administer the affairs of the navy. It enjoins upon all persons belonging to the navy to observe all such orders as "Our said Commissioners, or any two or more of them, give," . . . "as if Our High Admiral had given it.” According to the patent, all the members are equal, with co-ordinate powers, and with joint responsibility. According to usage the responsibility rests almost entirely with the First Lord. He nominates the other members "at his pleasure." He is, therefore, practically supreme; if opposed by the other members he may break up the board. Besides the First Lord, who is a cabinet officer appointed almost invariably from civil life by the Prime Minister, there are three naval members, and one other, who is always taken from among the members of the House of Commons. The board meets every week-day at noon, except Saturdays, and two lords and a secretary form a quorum for business. Certain orders may be signed by the secretary of the board alone, and are regarded as the order of the board collectively; but an order that authorizes the payment of money requires the signatures of two lords. The secretaries have jointly charge of the Secretariat, and the First Secretary has important duties in Parliament in connection with the board. See ADMIRALTY.

It will be seen from the foregoing that the First Lord has general control of the navy in the name of his sovereign, to whom he is responsible for its management. But he represents the civil power, and concerns himself more immediately with the civil affairs of the navy. Associated with this civil office, but subordinate to it, is the military branch of the establishment. This is presided over by professionals, the senior Sea Lord and his coadjutors, the other Sea Lords and the Naval Secretary.

No form of naval administration can hope for entire immunity from public criticism; the Board of Admiralty forms no exception to the rule. The slightest mishap in the navy is sufficient to call down the thunders of the press on the heads of the Lords of the Admiralty. Discussions in Parliament led (March, 1861) to the appointment of a committee "to inquire into the con

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