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A NAVAL ENCYCLOPEDIA.
tion of the rays of light from the principal focus
A. Abbreviation for after in the U. S. General Service Code of Signals. Contraction for at, on, or in, as, a-stern, a-shore, a-poise.
Al. The highest class of excellence in merchant vessels. See CLASSIFICATION OF MERCHANT VESSELS.
Aalborg. A city and seaport of Denmark, in Jutland, on the south shore of the Lymfiord, near its mouth, in the Cattegat. Lat. 57° 2' 46 N.; lon. 9° 55′ 38′′ E. Pop. 11,721.
Aarhuus. A seaport of Denmark, in Jutland, on the Cattegat, at the mouth of the Molle-Aue, 37 miles S. E. of Viborg. Lat. 56° 9′ 27 N.; lon. 10° 12′ 46' E. Pop. 15,000.
A. B. An abbreviation signifying Able Seaman. See ABLE.
Abab. A Turkish sailor who plies in coasting craft.
Aback. The situation of a sail when the wind acts on its forward surface. The sails are laid aback, or thrown aback, by hauling in the weatherbraces or by putting the helm down, or both. They are caught aback, or taken aback, by a shift of wind, or by inattention at the helm. Flat aback means that the wind acts nearly at a right angle to the forward surface of the sail. Taken aback is also used figuratively for being taken by surprise. All aback forward is the notice from the forecastle that the head-sails have been taken aback. Brace aback is the order given to swing the yards and lay the sails aback.
Abaft. Behind. Abaft the beam, astern of a line forming a right angle with the keel. Abaka. The fibre of which Manilla rope is made.
About. To go about is to change the course of a ship by tacking. Ready about, or 'boutship, is the order to prepare for tacking.
Abox. The position of the head-yards when they are braced aback, the after-sails remaining full. Brace-abox, the order to lay the head-yards abox. This is done in boxhauling and occasionally in heaving-to, but is more generally done to box the ship's head off from the wind after she has been caught aback, or after she has missed stays.
Abraham-men. An English cant term for vagabonds who, under pretence of being destitute mariners, beg about the dock. A malingerer wanting to go on the sick-list is said to "sham Abraham."
Abrase. To dub or smooth planks.
Abreast. Side by side; opposite to; parallel with. Line abreast, a formation in which the ships are abeam of each other.
Abri. (Fr.) Cove; shelter; under the lee; a safe anchorage on a weather shore. Abrid. A pintle-plate.
Abroach. On tap; in use.
Abroad. On a foreign station; in a foreign country. An old word for spread; as, all sail abroad.
Abrupt. Steep; broken; craggy; as, of cliffs and headlands.
Absence. State of being absent. Leave of absence, permission of the proper authority to be absent from post or duty for a specified time. Absence without leave, with manifest intention not to return, is desertion. When there is a probability that the party intends to return, he
A DICTIONARY OF NAUTICAL WORDS AND PHRASES; BIOGRAPHICAL
SPECIAL ARTICLES ON NAVAL ART AND SCIENCE,
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