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and full of gross Absurdities, and Contradictions. And then, as a natural Consequence from this Doctrine, 1 (secondly) concluded that those Divine Perfons differed only iv toga os incípžews, in the manner of their Existence. And yet what that can signifie in the Son, according to this Doctrine, it will not, I think, be very easy intelligibly to declare.

That the Difference can be only Modal, even Dr. South bath fully demonstrated : And that this was the Opinion generally received from the fourthCentury, may be seen in the close of my first Part to Dr. Waterland. And yet the Right Reverend Bishop Bull (a) positiveZy affirms, " That this is rank Sabellianism in these Words, "A Person can't be conceived without Efence, unless you make a Person in Divine Matters : to be nothing else but a mere Mode of Existence,

which is manifest Sabellianism.' And the judicicu's Dr. Cudworth, (b) tells us, That the Orthodox ! Anti-Arian Fathers did all of them zealously con< demn Sabellianism, the Doĉtrine whereof is no oother but this, That there is but one Hypostasis, or ! single individual Elence of the Father, Son, and Holy Ghost; and consequently that they were indeed

but three Names, or Notions, or Modes, of one " and the self-Same thing. Whence such Absurdities " as these would follow, That the Father's begetting

the Son was nothing but a Name, Notion, or " Mode of one Deity begetting another ; or else the faine Deity under one Notion begetling it self under another Notion. And when again the Son, or • Word is said to be incarnate, and to have suffered { Death for us upon the Gross, that it was nothing

.'' but.

(a) Addo ego, Personam fine Essentiâ concipi non posse, nili fatueris Personam in Divinis nihil aliud esse quam merum Tpórov w dpžewg. quod plane Sabellianum, l. 4. p. 439.

(6) Cud. Syftem, ch. 4. p. 605.

s but a mere logical Notion, or Mode of the Deity i under one particular Notion or Mode only.

That the Doitrine of the Sabellians was exactly the same with that of those who stile themselves the Or'thodox, asserting that the Father, and the Son, are numerically one and the same God, is evident from the Words of Athanasius (a) and Epiphanius ; both (b) testifying, That to say the Father and the Son τωere μονούσιοι or ταυούσιον, of one and the fame Substance was Sabellianism. And surely, of Consequence to contend that this is the Do&trine of the Church of England, is to dishonour our Church, and in Effett to charge her with that Heresy, which was exploded with Scorn by the whole Church of Christ, from the third to this present Century.

In a Word, all other Notions of the Word Person, besides the plain and obvious one, signifying a real and intelligent Agent, have been already to excellently bafled and learnedly confuted * that I own I am not able to resist the mining Evidence of Truth: Nor am I ashamed to confess my former Mistakes and Errors in these Matters after such strong and irresistible Coilvi&tion, seeing, Humanum eft errare, all Men are liable to Error. And as upon this Principle, I cannot but think it the most gross Hypocrisy, after sucb Convi&tion, to persist in a Mistake ; so without Question, it is the greatest Abuse of Humility and free Thinking, to attribute such open and ingenuous Acknowledgements to a wavering Judgment, or levity of Mind.

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(al 'Outè yo vio rátspo Opovoõpsy ass ós Eubinacos Novosolov. Expos. Fidei p. 241.

(6) Και ου λέγομεν ταυτοέσιον, να μη ή λέξις τ α τισι λεγομένη · Ex Beario ásteixadlý. Anomeorum Herefis, 76. N. 7.

See Dr. Clarke, Mr' Jackson, and others.

Neithir are there wanting Examples of good and great Men amongst the Antients to bear me out in this Matter. St. Cyprian (a) frankly confelles, in bis Epistle to Antonianus, that he was formerly in the rigid Opinion of Tertullian, that the Peace of the Church was never to be given to Adulterers, to Mur. therers, and Idolaters ; and having changed bis Opinion, be apologizes for it by saying, "Mea apud

te & Persona & Caufa purganda est, ne me aliquis o existimet a proposito meo leviter decefile ; & cum Evangelicum Vigorem primo & inter initia defendecrim, postmodum videar animum meum a Disciplina

& Cenfura priore flexiße. And this honest proces dure which he praltised himself, he also approved in others, saying, (b) Non quia semel erratum eft, ideo femper errandum effe, cum magis sapientibus & Deum timentibus congruat, patefa&veritati libenter & incunétanter obfequi, quam pertinaciter, atque obsti.. natè relu&tari; That a Man's having once erred, is not a Reason why he should continue to do so, for that it becomes wise Men, and such as fear God, to yield freely and readily to Truth, whenever made known to them, rather than to persist obstinately in rejecting it.

St. Austin was not more renowned for any of his Works, than for his two Books of Retractations, in which he confesseth all the Errors be bad committed in all bis other Writings.

And this my Retractation, or Change of my Opinion, after all my former Endeavours to asert and establish a contrary Doctrine, deserves the more to be considered, because it proceeds (and indeed can proceed) from me for no other Reason, but purely from the

because it proceceron, but purely!" strong

(a) Epist. 55.
b) Epist. 73. Edit. Oxon. p. 208.

Atrong and irresistible Convictions, which are now up on me, that I was mistaken.

Nothing, I fay, but the love of Truth can be fupposed to extort such a Retractation from me, who have ing already lived so long beyond the common Period of Life, can have nothing else to do but to prepare for my great Change ; and in order thereunto to make my Peace with God, and my own Conscience before I die. To this purpose I folemnly appeal to the Searcher of Hearts, and call God to Witness, whether I have haftily, or rafhly departed from the common Opinion; or rather, whether I have not deliberately and calmly weighed the Arguments on both Sides drawn from Scripture and Antiquity?

As I have no Views for this World; so it cannot be imagined, that the Motives drawn from Interest, Ambition, or fecular Glory, can have any place with me. Or if I had, neither can it be imagined that I would choose to dillent from the receivd Opinion, the Maintainers whereof are they who grasp Honours, and Preferments, and think they have the bejt Title to those Advantages.

So that upon the whole, if I have erred in change ing my Opinion, I defire it may be observed, that my Error bath neither Prejudice, nor secular Views to support it ; and that my Mistake (if such it will be reputed) hath been all along attended with constant Prayers to the Throne of Grace, and what bath ah way appeared to me to be the strongest Reason, and most undeniable Evidence.

And even yet, if any will be so kind, as in the Spirit of Meekness, to answer the Arguments I have produced to justify my Change, if it please God to give me the fame Degree of Health, and Soundness of Mind, which, by bis Blefing and Goodness, I now enjoy, I promise sincerely to consider them, and to cEt suitably

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to the Strength of the Argument; but if any such Än: fwer is attempted with angry Invectives, and haughty Sophistry, aiming to be wise above what is Written, I mult saj, puév ape av dom ep topisy, i. e. I must remain in my present Sentiments; having in this sort Treatise seriously considered all that I had said in my Commentary to the contrary, and fully answered the most considerable Places I had then produced for Cona firmation of the Do&trines I there too haftily endeavoured to establish. . .

I conclude with those Words of St. Austin : Errare possum, hæreticus esse nolo, that is, I may err, but I will not be an Heretick : As yet I must be in St. Paul's Sense, * if I would act against the Dictates, and strong Convictions of my Conscience. He having expresy said, That a Heretick is one who is &UTOxa taxplo, condemned in his own Conscience for what be doth assert. Now that the God of Truth would give to me, and all others, a right Understanding in all things, is the Prayer of,

Your Friend,


Humble Servant,

Daniel Whitby.

* Titus, 3. 10, 11.

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