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tempers his wisdom and his vigour with humanity.- La. vater.
CXLIX. Of Heretics, and their Conversion. The conversion of mistaken believers can neither be wrought, nor should be attempted by power or penalty. To endeavour the con. version of a heretic by force, is as absurd as to attempt storming a castle by logic. It is not the body of the he: retic we are to correct, but his wrong notions; which feel no corporeal punishment. A man may, by stripes, be com. pelled to say he sees; but no beating will give him eye. sight. Weak eyes must be cured by proper applications, sickness by suitable remedies, and erroneous opinions by argument and persuasion. Indeed the punishments for. merly used, and defended in writing, for the conversion of heretics, begin to be thought so shameful, as to require a different colouring; especially since it appears, that harsh procedure has here no other effect, than turning erroneous believers into abominable hypocrites.-Reflector.
CL. The Ancient Peruvian Government.--Manco Capac, pretending he was sent from Heaven, on purpose to in troduce virtue on earth, endeavoured, by prudent admo. nition and virtuous example, rather than force, to win over the wild natives of the southern America. If mild persuasive methods failed, he tried to reduce them by cut. ting off their provisions or means of subsistence. When they were brought to straits and necessities, he represented to them the happiness of the other part of the people, who had submitted to his government; and these very means being used by all his successors, a great tract of
South America was brought under their dominion. No wild native repented of becoming a subject to such a government, where nothing but virtue appeared, both in prince and people; and where the sway was so gentle that the governors behaved as parents, and the people as chil. dren.
The history of Guanacava, the last of the Yncas of this kingdom, shows how affectionately these kings were beloved by their subjects. Guanacava was engaged in an expedition, with his army to Quinto, in order to reduce the country, the road to which was almost impracticable, on account of high rocks and deep valleys; but having happily reduced Quinto, his subjects, to facilitate his re. turn, voluntarily undertook the immense labour of level. ling the road, by cutting through the rocks, and filling up the valleys, for many miles together. And, finding their king took delight in this province, they voluntarily and cheerfully made a new road, with the same labour and difficulty on the other side, that he might have the pleasure of going by the one and returning by the other; both of which he constantly found strewed with green branches and fresh flowers. I pass over other manifestations of the tender regard which the Peruvians had for their kings, and the numerous particulars which show low happy they both were in such a paternal government. It is scarcely possible to read, without tears, that such a country as this should be ravaged by the Spaniards. Nothing can be more moving and afflicting, than to see savage Europeans go about to reform á people, who set them a genuine example of virtue worthy of imitation.
Indeed, I should not advise other founders to use the same means as Manco Capac did; because he built upon an unwarranted and fabulous pretension. But other lau•
dable means might be used for the same purpose, capable of producing as good effects.- Ibid.
CLI. How to Reform Mankind. There is no way but one to reform men, and that is to render them happier. It is good and easy to enfeeble vice by bringing men nearer to each other, and by rendering them thus more happy. All the sciences, indeed, are still in a state of infancy; but that of rendering men happy has not so much as seen the light yet, even in Christendom.-St. Pierre's Studies of Nature.
CLII. Of Fanatics.-It appears as hopeless to reclaim a fanatic by persuasion as to convince a heretic by stripes. It is fruitless to dispute where men are not agreed upon principles. A fanatic is singly guided by his own in. ternal motive or instinct, which he terms his conscience and his call. He lays no stress upon his understanding, and therefore it is idle to reason with him. A different kind of cure is hereby required from that to be used with a heretic. A physician, in this case, may be more successful than a divine. I take fanaticism for a real disease, or a kind of bypochondriacal affection. Experience shows, that those we commonly call the enlightened, have usually their bodies overloaded with bile and corrupted humours. Many fanatics have been cured by medicines so as totally to lose their gifts of prophecy or commissions, and again become sound members of the communityReflector.
CLIII. On a Moral Sense. It is observable that the advocates VOL. 1.-8
for a moral sense, confine their ideas entirely to moral principles and conduct, imagining that moral agency is thus honoured with a peculiar faculty correspondent to its superior importance; but the arguments by which they support the tenet, are equally applicable to other mental sensations, or as it were percussions of sentiment, as well as those which are strictly moral; and these are extremely numerous. A sense of honour, the blush of shame, are as quick and vigorous as any which arise from moral causes. There is a sense of dignity, a sense of meanness, a sense of propriety, of impropriety, as instantaneous in its influence, where the action is not virtuous or vicious. A high sense of honour is sometimes in league with injustice and murder. It glows in the breast of the gamester, who defrauds an honest tradesman, in order to pay his debts of honour to a noted sharper. It calls forth the duellist into the field, and compels him to shed the blood of his intimate friend. There is also a religious sense highly injurious to human happiness, and impelling to actions which reason loudly condemns. It impels the deluded votary to submit to every horror, from an imperious sense of duty. This has inspired a persevering resolution in a Faquir to clench his fist until his nails have grown through the palm of his hand; to stiffen himself into parcular attitudes for life; to throw himself under the chariot wheels of his tremendous deity, with all the transports of animated devotion. It may also be urged that if the sudden effect produced upon a percipient, in moral subjects, be an evidence of a distinct mental sense, why may we not suspect that there may be an immoral sense ? for it frequently happens, under the impetuosity of the passion, that sentiments and sensations instantaneously arise, not without consulting, but contrary to the dictates of reason. Unchaste desires, cowardice, or a pusillanimous sense of danger, an implacable sense of revenge, calling aloud for exemplary punishment, are as prompt in their influence as the approbation of virtuous, or the disapprobation of vicious actions. And it may be that when these passions subside, they will gave place to a quick and painful sense of shame, fear, and remorse.
Thus, however specious the doctrine of a moral sense may appear, upon a partial view of it, powerful are the ob. jections which point themselves to a minute examiner. -Cogan's Ethical Questions.
CLIV. Advantages of Conversation.-Conversation calls out into light what has been lodged in all the recesses and se. cret chambers of the soul. By occasional hints and inci. dents it brings old useful notions into remembrance: it un. folds and displays the hidden treasure of knowledge, with which reading, observation, and study, had before fur. nished the mind. By mutual discourse the soul is awakened and allured to bring forth its hoards of knowledge, and it learns how to render them most useful to mankind. A man of vast reading, without conversation, is like a miser who lives only to himself._- Watts on the Mind. .
CLV. Life. Though we seem grieved at the shortness of life in general, we are wishing every period of it at an end. The minor longs to be of age; then to be a man of busi. ness; then to make up an estate; then to arrive at ho, nours; then to retire. Spectator.