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and with men, and hast prevailed.' After asking his name, and receiving a blessing from him (upon which he departed,) • Jacob called the name of the place Peniel ; for, said he, I have seen God face to face, and my life is preserved.'
This Person is called by Hosea, God, the Angel, and Jehovah. “He had power with God; yea, he had power over the Angel, and prevailed. He wept, and made supplication unto him. He found him in Bethel ; and there he spake with us, even Jehovah, God of Hosts.' Horsley, whose biblical opinions will rarely be disputed with success, has the following observations on this subject : “ This Mun, therefore, of the book of Genesis, this Angel of Hosea, who wrestled with Jacob, could be no other than the Jehovah-Angel, of whom we so often read in the English Bible, under the name of the Angel of the Lord.” A phrase of an unfortunate structure, and so ill conformed to the Original, that, it is to be feared, it has led many into the error of conceiving of the Lord' as one person, and of the Angel' as another. The word of the Hebrew, ill rendered the Lord,' is not, like the English word, an appellative, expressing rank or condition ; but it is the proper name Jehovah.
And this proper name Jehovah is not in the Hebrew a genitive after the noun substantive * Angel,' as the English represent it; but the words 1 and 785 Jehovah,' and Angel,' are two substantive nouns, in apposition ; both speaking of the same person, the one by the appropriate name of the essence ; the other by a title of office. Jehovah-Angel would be a better rendering. The JehovahAngel of the Old Testament is no other than He who, in the fulness of time,' was incarnate by the Holy Ghost of the virgin Mary.'
According to the scheme of these observations, Manoah understood the character of the Angel who appeared unto him:' for he said unto his wife, verse 22, “We shall surely die, because we have seen God. In the same manner is the same person presented to us, Mal. iii. 1. • Behold, I will send my Messenger, and he shall prepare the way before me; and the Lord, whom ye seek, shall suddenly come to his temple; even the Angel of the covenant, whom ye delight in : behold, he shall come, saith the Lord of Hosts.' In Luke vii. 27. Christ, speaking of John the Baptist, says, “ This is he, of whom it is written, Behold I send my Messenger before thy face, who shall prepare thy way before thee.' John the Baptist was, therefore, the Messenger, who was to prepare the way;' and 'the Lord, even the Angel of the covenant,' was Christ. The person also speaking, who is here called • Jehovah of Hosts,' and who says, this Messenger shall prepare the way before bimself, is also Christ.
(5) Christ is called the God of Israel.
Exodus xxiv. 9, 10. · Then went up Moses and Aaron, Nadab and Abihu, and seventy of the elders of Israel. And they saw the God of Israel.' Psalm lxviii. 17, 18. "The chariots of God are twenty thousand, even thousands of angels. The Lord is among them, as in Sinai, in the holy place. Thou hast ascended on high, thou hast led captivity captive, thou hast received gifts for men.' Ephesians iv. 8. • Wherefore he saith, When he ascended on high, he led captivity captive, and gave gifts unto men. Now that he ascended, what is it, but that he descended first into the lower parts of the earth. He that descended is the same also that ascended up far above all heavens, that he might fill all things : and he gave some apostles, and some prophets,' &c. Here the apostle informs us, that the Person who ascended on high, and led captivity captive,' is Christ. The Psalmist informs us, that the Person who • ascended on high, and led captivity captive,' is the Lord, ' who appeared in Sinai.' And Moses informs us, that the Lord who appeared in Sinai,' was • the God of Israel.' We also know, that no man hath seen God, the Father, ' at any time.' Christ therefore is the God of Israel. Of course, the God of Israel,' so often mentioned in the Old Testament, is everywhere, peculiarly, Christ.
(6) Christ is called Jehovah.
On this subject Horsley observes, “ The word Jehovah, being descriptive of the Divine Essence, is equally the name of every one of the Three Persons in that Essence. The compound Jehovah-Sabaoth belongs properly to the second Person, being his appropriate demiurgic title; describing, not merely the Lord of such armies as military leaders bring into the field, but the unmade, self-existent Maker and Sustainer of the whole array and order of the universe.” Isaiah vi. 1, and 3, . In the year that king Uzziah died, I saw Jehovah* sitting on his throne, high and lifted up, and his train filled the temple ; and one of the seraphim cried to another, and said, Holy, Holy, Holy, is Jehovah of Hosts ;' and again, in the 5th, 8th, 11th, and 12th verses of the same chapter. St. John, quoting the 9th and 10th verses of this chapter, in his Gospel, chapter xii. 40, says, “ These things said Esaias, when he saw his (that is, Christ's) glory, and spake of him.' To prove beyond controversy, that Christ is the Jehovah of Hosts here mentioned, I observe, that no person is spoken of in the chapter, except Uzziah, Jehovah of Hosts, the seraphim, the prophet Isaiah, and the people of Israel. The seraphim and the people of Israel being mentioned only in the aggregate, must be laid out of the question. Christ, therefore, being, by the decision of the Evangelist, spoken of in this chapter, must be either the prophet himself, king Uzziah, or Jehovah of Hosts. It happens also, unfortunately for Unitarians, that the prophet saw the glory of no other person
but Jehovah of Hosts; yet St. John assures us, he saw the glory of Christ. St. John's opinion on this subject we cannot mistake, if we remember, that he commences his Gospel in this manner: 'In the beginning was the Word, and the Word was with God, and the Word was God.
Isaiah xl. 3. · The voice of him that crieth in the wilderness, Prepare ye the way of Jehovah, make straight in the desert a highway for our God.' John the Baptist, when asked by the messengers of the Sanhedrim. · Who art thou?' answered, John i. 23, “ I am the voice of one crying in the wilderness, Make straight the way of the Lord, as saith the prophet Esaias.' St. Matthew, speaking of John the Baptist, chapter iii. 3, says, “ This is he that was spoken of by Esaias the prophet, saying, The voice of one crying in the wilderness, Prepare ye the way of the Lord, make his paths straight.' From these passages compared, it is evident that Christ, before whom John cried, was the Lord' whose way he directed thus to be prepared in the wilderness; the Jehovah,' spoken of by the prophet: 'the Jehovah of Hosts,' who said, Malachi iii. 1, Behold, I will send my messenger before My face, and he shall prepare the way before me.'
Exodus iï. 2-6. And the Angel-Jehovah appeared unto him, in a flame of firé, out of the midst of a bush : and he looked, and behold the bush burned with fire, and the bush was not consumed. And Moses said, I will now turn aside, and see this great sight, why the bush is not burned. And when Jehovah saw that he turned aside to see, God called unto him, out of the midst of the bush, and said, Moses, Moses! And he said, Here am I. And he said, Draw not nigh hither ; put off thy shoes from off thy feet; for the place whereon thou standest is holy ground. Moreover he said, I am the God of thy Father, the God of Abraham, the God of Isaac, and the God of Jacob. And Moses hid his face, for he was afraid to look upon God.' In this passage we are informed, that the Angel-Jehovah appeared' to Moses in the burning bush,' and said to him, “I am the God of Abraham, the God of Isaac, and the God of Jacob. The word Angel, as you well know, denotes a person sent; and, of course, implies a person sending. The Person here sent is called Jehovah, and styles himself the God of Abraham.' It needs no words to show, that the Person sent cannot be God the Father, or that he must be the Angel of the Covenant, God the Son. Christ therefore is the Jehovah mentioned in this passage as 'the God of Abraham, the God of Isaac, and the God of Jacob.'
* Low th's Notes on this Verse.
The application of these peculiar names of the Godhead to our Saviour furnishes, in my view, an unanswerable argument to prove his divinity: for,
1. In Isaiah xlii. 8, God says, “ I am Jehovah, that is my name, and my glory I will not give to another.'
In this passage, God declares, that he will not give his name, or glory, both terms meaning here the same thing, ' to another. Yet, in the word of this same God, his several peculiar and distinguishing names are given to Jesus Christ; not indeed communicated to him, but applied to him, as his own original, proper appellations. This we are taught at large, Exodus xxiii. 20, 21. Behold I send an Angel before thee, to keep thee in the way, and to bring thee into the place which I have prepared. Beware of him, and obey his voice; provoke him not; for he will not pardon your transgressions, for my name is in him.' Here we are informed, that the · Angel,' sent before the Israelites, would not 'pardon their
Thus shall ye
transgressions, if they provoked him ;' and are thus certainly taught, that he possessed the right and the power of pardoning sin. • But who can forgive sins, except God?' farther informed, that the name' of God is 'in' this Angel ; not that it is given or communicated to him, but that it existed in him, and belongs to him, originally. What this name is, the passage last quoted from Isaiah, declares to us : · I am Jehovah, that is my name. It is also declared in the same manner to Moses, when asking of God, Exodus iii. 13, what
name, that he might declare it to the children of Israel: And God said unto Moses, I am that I am. say unto the children of Israel, I am hath sent me unto you.' It is hardly necessary to remark, that the name, I am, has the same import with Jehovah. All this is rendered perfectly consistent and obvious by the scriptural accounts of Christ. • I and my Father are one,' said our Saviour to the Jews.
For God, therefore, in his own word to give or apply his name, or glory, to Christ, is not to give it to another ; but to apply to Christ names which are his own proper appellations. But, according to the Unitarian doctrine, this assertion on the part of God cannot be true. The doctrine therefore is false; for · Let God be true, but every man a liar ;' that is, every man who
opposes God. 2. In Deuteronomy xxxii. 39; in Isaiah xliii. 10; xliv. 6, 8; xlv. 5, 14, 21; and in various other places, God says, that there is no God beside him ; that there is none else ; and that he knows not any. Yet Christ is called God, and an. nounced by other names of the Deity, in the several passages above mentioned, and in many others; and this by the samo God who made this declaration. That he is not so called in a subordinate, delegated, or derived sense, is unquestionably evident. First, from the titles given to him, viz. The True God; The Mighty God; the Great God; The God of Israel ; Je
and I am ; all of them names never given in the Scriptures to any being but the Deity. Secondly, from the things ascribed to Christ in the same passages, many of which, as you must have observed, cannot be predicated of any being, except the one living and true God.
If it be admitted, then, that the Scriptures speak language which is to be understood in its customary sense, the only sense