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Reward, Ten Pounds',
360 | Brownes from asking me 'To Indian Society,

94
Robbery at Richfield, the, 318 Come in the Evening,' How I Jail, Melibæus in,

185
Savage, Richard,
172 stopped the,

220 Javasu, Caraboo, Princess of, 289
Speculation, a Little,
342 Bumboats and Bumboatmen, 175 Jetsam and Flotsam,

296
Strange Way to a Legacy, a, - 4 Business, Soldiers',

17 Jews, the First Bonaparte and the, 87
Swedenborg, Emanuel,

357 Caraboo, Princess of Javasu, 289 Jorgensen-A King for Six Weeks, 143
T'en Pounds' Reward,
360 Chap-books,

72 Kindergarten Playing and
Terrible Patient, a,
241 Charity, Curiosities of,

59 Learning,

243
Tête à Tête with a Lion,
409 China, Captive in,
119 King for Six Weeks, a,

143
Tide-caught,
335 Chronicle, the Monthly,

388 Lady's Adventure on the At.
Tight-rope, á Duel on the, 100 Circumstances under which an lantic, a,

15
Too Late,

385 Englishman's House is not his Lake-dwellers of Old, the, 193
Voiceless One, the,
81 Castle,
337 Lamp-accidents,

223
Wild Night, a,
234 City of the Saints, the,
29 Lapidaries of the Ural,

76
Wine, the Marked,
369 Clubs, Melibæus on the,
122 Larks,

61
Witch, a Little,
190 Coaches, Old Roads and Slow, 151 Last of the Condés, the,

56
Witness, the,
209, 227, 248 Coal-pit-Below the Surface, 215 Words,

202
Coffee Mountains, Frankincense Lavater on Physiognomy, 257
and,
378 Law, Travellers’,

315
Colonies, Home from the, - 398, 404 Leaf, the Natural History of a, 366
Commercial World of London, Learning and Playing,

243
NOTICES OF BOOKS.
Melibæus upon the,

79 Legacy, a Strange Way to a, - 4
Condés, the Last of the,

56 Leigh Hunt's Correspondence, : 266
Appia's Ambulance Surgeon, 287 Correspondence, Leigh Hunt's, : 266 Leopold II. 1849, Austrian Rule
Boner's Forest Creatures, 104 Cosmetics-Painting the Lily, 124 in Tuscany under the Grand
Browning's Last Poems,
363 Cruden-Alexander the Corrector, 47 Duke,

130
Burton's City of the Saints, 29 | Daily Flambeau, the Rise and Fall Life, the Proudest Moment of My, 9
Chap-books,

72
of the,
353 Lily, Painting the,

124
Collyns's Wild Deer in Devon, 348 Day with Our Ancestors, a, 218 Lime-light, the,

291
Correspondence of Leigh Hunt, 266 Derby 'of the River, the, 305 Lion, Tête à Tête with a,

409
Dobell's Lectures on the Germs Devon, Wild Deer in,

348 London and Paris, Between, 177
and Vestiges of Disease, &c., • 102 Dietetics of Old,

373 Londoners, Last Homes of the, 406
Edward's History of the Opera, 245 Disease versus Vitality,

102 Long Ago,

273
Hislop's Proverbs of Scotland, 184 Dispatches, Carrying,

88 Lulli,

197
Lowell's Biglow Papers,
293 Double Glo'ster,
161 Malays, a Glance at the,

138
Memoirs of Baron Larrey, - 158 | Dress,

395 Marrying Man, Why I am not a, 74
Trollope, Anthony, on the United Drill under Difficulties,

375 Matches and Match-makers, 156
States,
408 Duel on the Tight-rope, a, 100 Materials, Paper,

415
Wright's History of Domestic Earning Promotion,

65 Medieval Blondins,

264
Manners and Sentiments in Earth-oil in America,

35 Melibæus in Jail,

185
England during the Middle Eddystone, the Story of the, 91

on the Clubs,

122
Ages,
218 Emanuel Swedenborg,

357
Underground,

26
Englishman's House is not his

upon the Commercial
Castle, Circumstances under World of London,

79
337 | Mercator with the Muse,

363
Epitaphs, Ancient and Modern, 141 Mexican Tangle, the,

362
MISCELLANEOUS ARTICLES OF Exhibition of 1862, the,

12 Midnight Sun, the,

44
INSTRUCTION AND ENTERTAIN-
of 1862, the Great: Mishaps at the Post-office,

54
MENT.

the Pictures,
114 Mistaken Identity,

310
Exhibition, Reminiscences of the Modern and Ancient Epitaplis, 141
Absence, My Leave of,
37 Site of the Great,
321 Monkey v. Blondin, the,

129
Agriculture-The Fold and the Expedition, the Australian Ex- Month in my Life, the Longest, 135
Stall,
43 ploration,

108

the: Science and Arts-
Alexander the Corrector,
47 Eyrie, Scaling the,

104

62, 127, 206, 270, 350, 413
America, Earth-oil in,
35 Family, With an Old,
326 Monthly Chronicle, the,

388
American Agricultural Address, an, 52 Feathered Visitants, Our, 236 Morganatic Marriages,
Civil War, British Flotsam and Jetsam,

296 Mormons—The City of the Saints, 29
Feelings on the,

171 Foeless Fight, the: from Our Mountains, Frankincense and
Ancestors, A Day with Our,

218
Special Correspondent, 330

Coffee,

378
Ancient and Modern Epitaphs, 141 Fold and the Stall, the,

43 Native Industry in India,

333
Anthony Trollope on the United Forecasts, Weather,

307 Natural History of a Leaf, the 366
States,

408 Frankincense and Coffee Moun- Newspaper, a Sandwich Islands', 279
Arts and Science-

tains,
378 Night, a Wild,

234
62, 127, 206, 270, 350, 413 Free-and-easy Forum, the, 316 Non-combatant Hero, &,

158
Atlantic, a Lady's Adventure on Fyfe's, Miss, Adventure,

391 Notes on British Birds, Wayside, 280
the,
15 Gardens, Town-,
188 Obelisks,

225
Atmosphere, the Sun's, - 239 Glance at the Malays, a,

138 Off-farm, the Squire's,

195
Australian Exploration Expedi- Glo’ster, Double,

161 Old Family, With an,

326
tion, the,
108 Gunshot Wounds, -

287 Roads and Slow Coaches, 151
Austrian Rule in Tuscany under Hero, a Non-combatant,

158 Omnibuses, We Girls in those, 33
the Grand Duke Leopold II. Home from the Colonies-

Our Feathered Visitants,

236
1849,

Contrasts,
398 Painting the Lily, -

124
Behind the Scenes,
245 Mr Frith's Railway Station,' 404 Paper Materials,

415
Below the Surface,
215 Homes of the Londoners, Last, 406 Papers, the Biglow,

293
Biglow Papers, the,

293 Honolulu-A Sandwich Islands' Paris and London, Between, 177
Birds and Bird-keeping, Pet, 401 Newspaper,

279 Patient, a Terrible,

241
--, Wayside Notes on British, 280 How I got it Stamped at Last, 113 Pet Birds and Bird-keeping, 401
Blondin v. the Monkey,

129 How I Stopped the Brownes from Physician, How I became a, 411
Blondins, Medieval,

264 asking me .To Come in the Physiognomy, Lavater on, 257
Bonaparte and the Jews, the First, 87 Evening,

220 Plagues of India, the,

145
Brighton Review—The Foeless Hunt's, Leigh, Correspondence, 266 Playing and Learning,

243
Fight,
330 Identity, Mistaken,
310 | Ploughing-match, At a, -

381
British Feelings on the American India, Native Industry in, 333 | Police,

84
Civil War,
171 the Plagues of,
145 | Post before Railways, the,

302

which an,

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130

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153

Page
Page

Pago
Post-office, Mishaps at the, 54 Science and Arts-

Trade,

164
Pressed Man, the,
62, 127, 206, 270, 350, 413 Travellers' Law,

315
Promotion, Earning, -
65 Scotch Proverbs,

184 Trollope on the United States,
Proudest Moment of My Life, the, 9 Servitude,

97
Anthony,

408
Proverbs, Scotch,
184 Sight-seeing,

49 Tuscany under the Grand Duke
Punishment and Reward, 339 Society, Indian,

94 Leopold II. 1849, Austrian Rule
Python, the,
233 Soldiers' Business,

17 in,

130
Railways, the Post before, 302 Speculation, a Little,

342 Underground, Melibæus,

26
Reminiscences of the Site of the Squire's Off-farm, the,

195 United States, Anthony Trollope
Great Exhibition,
321 Stall, the Fold and the, -

43 on the,

408
Reward and Punishment, 339 Stamped at Last, How I got it, 113 Ural, Lapidaries of the,

76
Ten Pounds',

360 Story of the Eddystone, the, 91 | Visitants, Our Feathered, 236
Richard Savage,
172 Sun, the Midnight,

44 Vitality versus Disease,

102
Rise and Fall of the Daily Flam- Sun's Atmosphere, the,

239 War-Soldiers' Business,

17
beau, the,
353 Surface, Below the,

215 Wayside Notes on British Birds, 280
River, the Derby' of the, 305 Swedenborg, Emanuel,

357 Weather Forecasts,

307
Roads and Slow Coaches, Old, 151 Tangle, the Mexican,

362 Why I am not a Marrying Man, 74
Robbery at Richfield, the, 318 Ten Pounds' Reward,

360 Wild Deer in Devon,

348
Robin-redbreast,
21 Terrible Patient, a,

241
- Night, a,

234
Saints, the City of the,
29 | Tête à Tête with a Lion,
409 Wind,

255
Sandwich Islands' Newspaper, a, 279 Tide-caught,

335 With an Old Family,
Savage, Richard,
172 Tight-rope, a Duel on the, - 100 Words, Last, -

202
Scaling the Eyrie, -
104 Too Late,
385 Work,

276
Scenes, Behind the,
245 | Town-gardens,
188 | Wounds, Gunshot,

287

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No. 418.
SATURDAY, JANUARY 4, 1862.

PRICE 11d.

eldest brother remained a bachelor, and the others MORGANATIC MARRIAGES.

took refuge in vulgar alliances ad morgengabam. The The ancient Romans had three forms of marriage—the fourth son, Prince Frederick, was fortunate in his confarreatio, the coemtio, and the usus. The first was choice, for, marrying the beautiful daughter of his pria civil as well as religious contract, effected in the vate secretary, he had a numerous family, the descendpresence of a priest and of ten witnesses, and the ants of which prosper to this day, as Barons von offspring of such union were patrimi et matrimi. Less Lüneburg. As customs gradually become law, so did dignified and important in the eyes of the law was the system of morganatic marriages in course of time the coemtio. It was a merely civil engagement, produce a royal code of matrimony, in which the completely binding, yet conferring not the honour of marriage of princes with persons of lower rank, in the patrimi and matrimi on the children. Still less other than morganatic form, was subjected to high honourable was the third form of matrimonial union, penalties, particularly as respected the fair sex thus the usus. To constitute it binding in law, no forms aspiring. The barbaric law was not unfrequently or ceremonies whatever were required, but merely carried into execution. Duke Ernest of Bavaria, twelve months' uninterrupted cohabitation.

in the year 1416, had a beautiful girl, Agnes BerWith the overturn of the mighty empire of the nauer' of Straubingen, condemned to death, for Cæsars, Roman laws and customs were diffused all over daring to marry his son, Prince Albert; and all Europe, and while the confarreatio was adopted by the tears and entreaties of his family did not save nearly all the rest of Christendom, the coemtio got into the fair young creature from the scaffold. The fashion with German princes and nobles. The Roman princely tyranny so created soon shewed its fatal secondary form of marriage was found to be extremely effects on the morals of the high-born class itself. convenient to counteract the effects of the lex salica, Flatterers argued that if crowned heads were allowed and the absence of a law of primogeniture; and to adopt a particular form of marriage, not legal with thus there arose, not long after the fall of Rome, subjects, they also were not bound to conform to the first among the Lombards, and afterwards in the monogamic principles of the lower classes, but might Teutonic empire north of the Alps, the matrimonium marry in morganatic fashion over and above the ad morgengabam, or, as subsequently called, ad ordinary way. The insidious advice was listened morganaticam. The barbaric word was of Lombard to with pleasure by several princes, who forthwith origin; an allusion to the ancient German custom carried out the new doctrine by taking second wives of making a present to the newly married wife the ad legem morganaticam. Landgrave Philip of Hesse, morning after the celebration of the nuptials—literally, one of the champions of the Reformation, was among a ‘morning-gift.' According to this new form of the first to inaugurate the new fashion. This was matrimonial union, a revival of the coemtio, a before he had been made acquainted with the German prince or great noble, when allying himself teachings of Luther; for he had no sooner become to a person of inferior rank, conferred only his hand, a Protestant than he began to feel scruples as to the but not his title and fortune ; or at least not more righteousness of the second marriage. He accordingly than was conveyed of the latter in the Morgengabe, consulted the most eminent of the new Reformers, the free gift on or after the wedding-day.

soliciting them to state their opinion on the subject; In Germany, about the fifteenth century, the matri- and Dr Martin Luther, Melancthon, Bucer, Corvinus, monia ad legem morganaticam contracta came to be Adam, and Melander, replied to the appeal in the greatly in fashion with younger sons of royal and following curious declaration, dated July 1539, and princely houses. At the death of Duke William of signed by all of them : Brunswick-Lüneburg, in 1430, his seven sons, among We cannot advise that the licence of marrying whom, according to custom, the land was to be divided, more wives than one be publicly introduced, and, as it made a common agreement, to the effect that only one were, ratified by law. If anything were allowed to should take unto himself a princely consort, and the be known on the subject, your Highness easily comrest be content with morganatic spouses. The lot for prehends that it would be understood and received as a royal bride fell on the sixth son, Prince George, who a precept, whence much scandal and many difficulties accordingly married a high-born princess; while his would arise. Your Highness should be pleased to

VOL. XVIL

The emperor,

consider the excessive scandal; that the enemies of of legitimate offspring; and seeing their advice to his the Gospel would exclaim that we are like the Ana- Highness disregarded, they concluded a family pact baptists, who have adopted the practice of polygamy, among themselves, declaring all morganatic marriages and that the Evangelicals, as the Turks, allow them ineffectual, even if changed into ordinary alliances, selves the licence of a plurality of wives. . . . . But and pledging each other to oppose, if necessary by in certain cases, there is room for dispensation. For arms, the advent of any of the children of Elizabeth example, if any one, detained captive in a foreign Schurman. Against this decidedly illegal pact, the country, should there take to himself a second wife, duke appealed to the emperor, reiterating at the for the good of his body and health. In this and same time his demand for the grant of a title to his like cases, we do not know by what reason a man wife. The emperor wavered long in giving his reply. could be condemned who marries an additional wife, The most eminent lawyers of Europe were unaniwith the advice of his pastor; not with the purpose mous in asserting for Ďuke Anton Ulrich the full of introducing a new law, but of satisfying his own power to marry either princess or commoner, and to necessity. Nevertheless, even in this case, the mar. instal his consort in all the rights and privileges of a riage ought to take place secretly, so that no scandal real wife, as well as to give the same rights to the may arise.' The upshot was, that Landgrave Philip children of such union. The sovereign princes of the of Hesse kept his second morganatic spouse, and empire, on the other side, energetically opposed this induced others to do the like.

declaration of principle, stating it as the basis of The above strange document, the genuineness of princely law in matrimony that there should be which has been often doubted, but with no show of Ebenbürtigkeit (equality of birth), and protesting reason, was published for the first time in 1679, by against any infringement of this law as utterly pernithe Elector Palatine, Charles Ludwig, son of the cious to the welfare of the realm. unhappy winter-king' of Bohemia, and brother of though leaning personally towards the cause of Duke famous Prince Rupert. Even at this period, the Anton Ulrich, was forced at length to give way to custom of marrying a morganatic spouse, over and the pressure exercised upon him by the body of above the first wife, had not fallen entirely into abey- electors and sovereign princes, and declared against ance; but being in bad repute, the elector thought of the rights of succession of the duke's children. propitiating public opinion by an appeal to the Fathers The German kaiser having vanished from the world, of the Protestant Church. His Highness had been and the empire being dead, this decision, though conmarried for several years to the Princess Charlotte of firmed by the diet of 1747, is probably at present but Hesse, when he fell in love with her lady of honour, a piece of waste paper. The important question of Maria von Degenfeld, and resolved to unite himself the validity of morganatic marriages, as regards to her in morganatic fashion. He did so with con. the claim of children to the rank and property of siderable solemnity, notwithstanding the protest of the father, bas in reality never yet been definitely his wife and her friends ; but maintaining to the last settled. George I. himself, it is certain, was marthat his second union was perfectly legal, according ried in morganatic fashion to Fräulein Schulento the ancient laws of Germany in respect to princes. berg, afterwards Duchess of Kendal; and though Maria von Degenfeld brought her morganatic hus- the offspring of this union, represented in Lord band fourteen children, nearly all boys, who bore the Chesterfield's descendants, has no claim to legitititle of Counts of the Palatinate. But the son of macy, the same cannot be said of other royal the elector by Charlotte of Hesse succeeded to the marriages of the same kind. Without speaking of throne without protest. Public opinion, meanwhile, the morganatic marriage of William Henry, Duke of had declared itself strongly against the open bigamy Gloucester, with the Countess-Dowager of Waldeof Prince Charles Ludwig; and though morganatic grave, September 6, 1766, which is of no particular marriages continued to flourish in Germany, his importance, or of that of his brother, the Duke of was the last involving a plurality of wives. Out of Cumberland, with Lady Ann Luttrell, on October 2, the empire, the custom was not more successful. 1771, which is scarcely more conseqnential, although Several Polish kings tried the practice of morganatic in virtue of it a certain lady continues to claim bigamy, but became very unpopular in consequence : some ten million sterling from the British crown, and King Emmanuel of Portugal

, who died in 1580, there remains the notable match between the sixth and left a son by a morganatic union, utterly failed son of George III., the Duke of Sussex, and Lady in getting him adopted by the states of the realm. Augusta Murray, daughter of the Earl of Dunmore.

At the beginning of the eighteenth century, the The marriage-ceremony took place at Rome, in the matrimonium ad legem morganalicam came to attract presence of an English clergyman, April 4, 1793, the attention of the highest legal authorities in and, to leave no doubt of its legality, was repeated Europe, owing to an attempt, on the part of a at St George's, Hanover Square, December 5, 1794. German prince, to destroy the civil consequences of The union, which only became known some time such marriage-contract, and to give it the same value afterwards, was declared illegal and invalid by the as that of the ordinary matrimonial union. Duke English ecclesiastical court, as being contrary to Anton Ulrich of Saxe-Meiningen, in the year 1711, the Royal Marriage Act of 1772; but the question united himself ad morganaticam to Elizabeth Schur having been revived in later times, great doubts man, the beautiful daughter of a captain in the army, were expressed by the most eminent jurists whether a lady of superior education, and exquisite tenderness the annulment of the union was not the most of mind. Becoming more and more enamoured of his illegal part of the whole proceeding. The offspring young wife, the duke after a while determined to of the duke's marriage were two children, Augustus make her his full and real consort, so as to lift her Frederick, born June 13, 1794, and Angusta Emma, up to the rank of duchess, and enable her and his born August 11, 1801. The former entered the army children to succeed him on the throne. As a first at an early age, under the name of Augustus d'Este, step to this effect, he petitioned the emperor, Charles and gradually rose to the rank of colonel. He VI., to grant the title of Princess of the Empire to lived at first a very retired life; but the successive her; and while the appeal was pending, he made such deaths of the elder sons of George III. opening the arrangements as he thought would secure the succes- perspective of the throne of Great Britain to the sion to his children. Thereupon a violent storm arose Duke of Sussex, he put his claim to legitimacy promiin the princely world of Germany, every family pro- nently forward. He did so particularly in the year testing against the contemplated desecration of high. 1830, during the season of general political agitation. born privileges. Loudest in their protests were the The claim excited great interest among continental princes of Saxe-Gotha, Saxe-Anhalt, and Saxe-Eisenach, jurists, on account of the involved succession to the the nearest heirs to Duke Anton Ulrich, in the absence | kingdom of Hanover; and a whole legion of books

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