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tart and the executive Possibility of demoand in framing o rvention, as we have the force of majority

e: the growth of party Perument. After the und themselves in the aly deprecated oppospirit of party.” strongly admonished his san feeling. “There # countries are useful in government, and serve "s, within certain limits, monarchical class pa107 Villi tevor, on the spirit Staracter, in governments ru. Juraged.”

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basis. They made pervision for the payment of every penny of the autron deck and the somard meest at túl van And A spite of great coỌNOL, TY Assumed the Revolutionary oba gaboos mozted by the states To carry out this pala, ther estatished & United States Bank, notwithstanding the conside tional objections urged against à by Jeferson and his mond It was Hamilton's avowed poly to gain for the n« governant the support of the capitalists by linking their interests with fate.

While providing revenues they frankly used the taxing power, at the very beginning, to protect American manufacturers against European competition. When the customs duties fated to bring in sufficient retums, it became necessary to impose some other form of taxes. By the act of 1721 Congress laid certain duties upon spirits, which stirred the distillers to rebellion; in 1704 4 tax was laid on carriages, auction sales, and certain manufac tures; and in 1708 a direct tax was laid on dwelling houses and lots and on slaves between the ages of twelve and twenty. More over, the expenditures of the new government rose rapidly, with some fluctuations, from $3.007,000 in 1701 to $7,500,000 in 1705 and to $0.205,000 in 1700.7

These measures speedily aroused large and important classes to opposition. Agriculturists and persons with no commercial or financial interests and no government bonds were greatly excited over what appeared to them to be the transference of the government into the hands of powerful commercial and financial groups. They wanted the federal government to be as inexpen sive as possible, and, therefore, they wished to restrain its operation within the narrowest limits under a strict interpretation of the Constitution. They wanted to buy their manufactured commodities as cheaply as possible from the more advanced European states where they could find also a profitable market for their own raw products. Finally, the direct taxes and the excise on whiskey were sharply resented by the taxpayers, and, as every one knows, the liquor duty brought about a brief armed opposition known as the "Whiskey Rebellion." Thus the policy of the new administration called forth a sharp antagonism based on economic interests.

See Readings, pp. 62 and 237.

'Dewey, Financial History of the United States, p. 111.

will of the electors must control the legislature and the executive was not yet accepted. Nevertheless, the possibility of democratic government was known and feared, and in framing our federal Constitution, the members of the Convention, as we have seen, had constantly in mind plans to break the force of majority rule.

The Fathers not only sought to check the growth of party control by structural devices in the government. After the new system had gone into effect, they found themselves in the possession of the offices, and they naturally deprecated opposition, which they attributed to "the factional spirit of party.” Washington, in his farewell address, strongly admonished his countrymen against cherishing this partisan feeling. "There is an opinion," he said, "that parties in free countries are useful checks upon the administration of the government, and serve to keep alive the spirit of liberty. This, within certain limits, is probably true, and in governments of a monarchical class patriotism may look with indulgence, if not with favor, on the spirit of party. But in those of a popular character, in governments purely elective, it is a spirit not to be encouraged.”

At its very inauguration, the new federal government passed largely into the hands of that powerful and conservative group of men who had been most instrumental in framing or ratifying the Constitution. Washington, the president of the Philadelphia convention, became the first President of the United States; Ellsworth, W. S. Johnson, Langdon, Paterson, Robert Morris, Bassett, and Read were among the Senators in the new Congress; Madison, Gilman, Roger Sherman, Carroll, and Elbridge Gerry were in the House of Representatives. Hamilton, who had perhaps done more than any other man to bring about the establishment of the new system, was given the important post of Secretary of the Treasury; Randolph from Virginia was made Attorney-General; John Jay of New York, John Rutledge of South Carolina, William Cushing of Massachusetts, Robert H. Harrison of Maryland, James Wilson of Pennsylvania, and John Blair of Virginia, constituted the first Supreme Court.

The new government was not in operation very long before its policies began to arouse antagonism. Under the direction of Hamilton, the administration took firm and decided measures toward establishing the credit of the United States on a sound

basis. They made provision for the payment of every penny of the national debt and the accrued interest at full value, and, in spite of great opposition, they assumed the Revolutionary obligations incurred by the states. To carry out this policy, they established a United States Bank, notwithstanding the constitutional objections urged against it by Jefferson and his friends.' It was Hamilton's avowed policy to gain for the new government the support of the capitalists by linking their interests with its fate.

While providing revenues they frankly used the taxing power, at the very beginning, to protect American manufacturers against European competition. When the customs duties failed to bring in sufficient returns, it became necessary to impose some other form of taxes. By the act of 1791 Congress laid certain duties upon spirits, which stirred the distillers to rebellion; in 1704 a tax was laid on carriages, auction sales, and certain manufactures; and in 1798 a direct tax was laid on dwelling-houses and lots and on slaves between the ages of twelve and twenty. Moreover, the expenditures of the new government rose rapidly, with some fluctuations, from $3,097,000 in 1791 to $7,309,000 in 1795 and to $9,295,000 in 1799.

These measures speedily aroused large and important classes to opposition. Agriculturists and persons with no commercial or financial interests and no government bonds were greatly excited over what appeared to them to be the transference of the government into the hands of powerful commercial and financial groups. They wanted the federal government to be as inexpensive as possible, and, therefore, they wished to restrain its operation within the narrowest limits under a strict interpretation of the Constitution. They wanted to buy their manufactured commodities as cheaply as possible from the more advanced European states where they could find also a profitable market for their own raw products. Finally, the direct taxes and the excise on whiskey were sharply resented by the taxpayers, and, as every one knows, the liquor duty brought about a brief armed opposition known as the "Whiskey Rebellion." Thus the policy of the new administration called forth a sharp antagonism based on economic interests.

1 See Readings, pp. 62 and 237.

'Dewey, Financial History of the United States, p. 111.

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The foreign policy of the new government added to the irriarted by the domestic policy. In the very spring in cratic BOYington was inaugurated with such an acclaim in Wall federal Contirates General met at Versailles and began the first seen, had cons rule cene in the great drama of the French Revolution; in 1791 a The popstitution was put into effect and the power of the king control clically destroyed; the next year the first French republic ned, and in 1793 Louis XVI was executed, and war new system m cred on England. These events were watched with sition, why by American citizens. In the beginning, the which The French people to establish constitutional government Washington countryme universally approved in the United States; but as is an opintor of the revolution followed in rapid succession, concheeks up ricans began to draw back in horror.

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to keep for radical elements of the population, however, fresh is probably own triumph over George III, recalled with satistriotism mecution of Charles I by their own ancestors, and of party page of the occasion to rejoice in the death of another purely elective each monarch. The climax came in 1793, when o the United States to fulfil the terms of the return for the assistance which had been given sts in their struggle with England. The Ad France, either openly or secretly, in her but Washington and his conservative supdrawn into the European controversy. Ellsworth, WS were divided into contending groups. Bassett, and Rue French Revolution and Paine's memoMadison, Gilman of Man, were read and debated with were in the "How and seal.

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perhaps done no circumstances led to the formation of establishment of deralists, and the opposition known in

Federalists, but later as the Republithe two terms being used synonymously together. The Federalists were deeply Harrison of Marynism to what they regarded as their paBlair of Virgil half of the nation. Chief Justice Ellsworth,

The new goyd hary in Massachusetts, denounced "the its policies begauer from the quintumvirate at Paris to the of Hamilton, the leak and the minority in Congress as the toward patebi, anarchy, bloodshed, and plunder." Hamil

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