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* In like manner did I not stick upon having this commision inrolled or assented' unto by his Council, nor indeed the seal to be put onto it in an ordinary manner, but as Mr. Endymion Porter and I could perform it, with rollers and no screw-press.

“ One thing I beseech your Lordship to observe, that though I had power by ic to erect a mint any where, and to dispose of his Ma. jesty's revenues and delinquents'eftates, yet I never did either to the value of a farthing, notwithstanding my own necessities, acknowledging that the intention of those powers given me, was to make use of them when the armies should be afoot; which design being broken by my commitment in Ireland, I made no use of those powers ; and confequently, repaying now whatever was disbursed by any for patents of honour, as now I am -contented to do, it will evidently appear that nothing hath ftuck to my fingers in order to benefit or felt-interett ; which I humbly submit to his Majesty's princely confideration, and the management of my concerns therein to your Lordship's grave judgment, and to the care of me, which your Lord. fhip was pleased to own was recommended unto you by the late King, my most gracious Mafter, of glorious memory; and the continuance thereof is molt humbly implored and begged by me who am really and freely at your iordfhip’s disposal, firit, in order to his Majetty's fervice, and next to the approving mylelf,

My Lord,

Your Lordship's most really affectionate June 11, 1660.

and most humble Servant,

WORCESTER." Dr. Scrope observes, in a note, that this letter is decisive of the dispute concerning the authenticity of the commission granted to the Earl of Glamorgan. But, in the preface, he retracts this assertion, as too inconsiderately expressed. The letter, he says, does not prove the commiffion to be authentic, the proof there refting solely upon the veracity of the writer, a very interelied person. The Doctor takes norice, however, that the authenticity of the commission is abundantly confirmed by two letters from Sir Edward Hyde to Secretary Nicholas, and by a letter of Mons. Montreuil's to the King, all of which are inserted in this volume. The general fact, therefore, is now ascertained beyond contradiction, whatever credit be paid to some of the particular circumstances mentioned by the Earl of Glamorgan.

We thall close the present article, with a spirited letter of Lord Culpeper's, concerning the state of his Majesty's affairs in 1645.6.

The Lord Culpeper to Mr. John Alhburnham. “ This is again moft earnestly to intreat you to bend all your wits to advance the Scotch treaty. It is the only way left to save the crown and three kingdoms; all other tricks will deceive you. This is no age for miracles; and certainly the King's condition is such, that less than a miracle cannot save him without a treaty, nor any treaty (probably) but that. If this take, the King will be in London in peace before Christmas. Therefore, if the opportunity I left in

your

your power be loft

, give not over till you find another; and if you find it not, make it. It is no time to dally upon diftinctions and criticisms. All the world will laugh at them when a crown is in question. If you can make the Scots your friends upon any honeft terms, do it. Remember, that kingdom United, and the North, and the King's friends at London, will quickly mafter any opposition which the independents can make. The question ought not to be, Whether, but how, you should do it. If you can engage a treaty, get a pass for me, I will quickly be with you. Whether the King take my advice, or not, he will believe it to be the best counsel that ever was given him. The best you can hope for in the West is a reprieve; Midsummer-day will not leave the King one town in it : Ireland will be a broken reed; neither can I believe much in Scotland without a treaty. As for foreign force, it is a vain dream. As soon as Fairfax advanceth, all the horse here are in a net, without poffibility ei. ther to break through, or to save themselves in our garrisons. The horse lost, it will be impossible ever to get up an army again: and if you faw us, you would believe we are not in condition to fight. The daily venture of the King's person will be great; fo will the hazard be of the Prince's escaping beyond fea, if he fould be put to it : and if he were there, it would be a fad condition ; and if he were to fall into the rebels' hands, the King were undone, undone. If half your Scots news be true, the interest of that nation is clearly of your fide; and you may gain them, and thereby certainly save the crown, if you will. But you must not stick upon circumftances, nor part unwillingly with what you cannot keep. Your treaty must not be an underhand one, (that will deceive you) but an avowed one with Ler ley and Calander. As foon as they have promised to protect the King's person and his prerogative, he is safer with them than in Newcalle. All that they can ak, or the King part with, is a trifle in respect of the price of a crown. Dispute not whilft you hould refolve ; nor spend in debate that precious time which is only fit for action. This opportunity loft is not to be recovered. Vse this bearer kindly. If there be a Scotch creary, his Lord must be at one end of it, and will be very useful. He believeth this letter is wholly concerning his Lord. Send him speedily back ;'and write at large by him and all other ways to, &c. February.

[To be concluded in our next.)

ART. VII. Philofophical Tranja:ons. Vol. LXII. 4to. 148 fewed.

Davies. 1773.
E find, by an advertisement prefixed to this volume,

that, in consequence of a resolution, at a council of the Royal Society, Jan. 28, 1773, the Philosophical Transactions will be publithed twice in each year. Aceordinuly the volume before us, and the ist part * of vol. Ixiii. have appeared

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• The volume for each year is for the future, to be published in two parts, under the distinct titles of “ Firt Part," and " second Part, ' of the volume.

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within the space of a few months past. The fixty-second vo-
lume, however, has the first claim to a place in our Review;
and we shall begin with those articles which relate to

ASTRONOMY.
Article 4. Extral of a Letter from Mr. George Witchell, F.R.S.

and Master of the Royal Academy at Portsmouth, to Charles Mor-
ton, M. D. Sec. R. S. int.fing fome Account of a Solar Eclipse
observed at George's Island, by Captain Wallis ; and several aflio-
nomical Observations made at Portsmouth.

This eclipse was observed, on the 25th of July 1767, from a point of land, the latitude of which, deduced from ihe mean of many observations, is 19° 30' South ; and the longitude, determinéd, by various observations of the diftance of the fun from the moon, between 149° 30 and 149° 50' West from London. Mr. Witchell computes the longitude from the end of the eclipse, which seems to have been more exactly ascertained than the beginning, and finds it 9 h. $5'55" West from Greenwich, or 148° 58' \ which is 41' lels than the mean result of the lunar observations ; a difference, all circumstances considered, not very great, as these were the first občervations that were ever made on this island.

The other observations contained in this article are those of meridian transits for determining the rolstices and the oppofitions of the three superior planets. They were partly made by Mr. Bradley, and partly by Mr. IVitchell. From a comparison of the former obfervations it appears that the true zenith dirtance of the sun's center At the winter solstice is

74° 16 13."4 And at the summer solstice

27 19 51.6

Therefore, the distance of the Tropics
The half of which is
By Mr. Mayer's tables, the decrement of

the obliquity in three months is

46 56 21.8 23 28 10.9

0.1

10.8

Hence the mean obliquity, Dec. 21,1770, is 23 28 11.0

June 21,1771, 23 28
And from these observations the latitude of their observatory at
Portsmouth appears to be 50° 48' 2" 4 North.
Article 6. Directions for using the common Micrometer, taken from

a Paper in the late Dr. Bradley's Hand-writing : Communicated
by Nevil Maskelyne, Aflronomer Royal, and F. R. S.

The first use of micrometers was only that of measuring small angles, such as the diameters of the fun and moon, and other planets, and taking the diftance of fuch objects, as appeared within the aperture of the celescope at the fame time, but they have since been contrived for more general use; and, in their 5

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later construction, answer the end of taking the difference of right afcenfion and declination of thofe objects, which, in their apparent diurnal motion follow one another through the telescope, provided it be kept in the same situation. This paper contains very useful instructions for applying the micrometer to every kind of observation, of which it is capable. It does not admit of an abridgment, and our limits will not allow us to insert the whole of it. Article 9. A Deduction of the quantity of the sun's parallax from

the Comparison of the several Observations of the late Transit of Venus, made in Europe, with those made in George Island in the South Seas : Communicated by Mr. Euler, jun. Secretary of the Imperial Açademy at Petersburg ; in à Letter to Charles Morton, M. D. & C. An abridgment of a dissertation on this subject written by M. Lexell, a member of the imperial academy, and to be inserted in the 16th volume of their Commentaries. By comparing several observations and applying the necessary corrections, he makes the sun's parallax 8." 55. Article 14. A Letter from Mr. Peter Dollond to Nevil Maskelyne,

F. R. S. and Astronomer Royal ; defcribing fome Additions and Alterations made to Hadley's Quadrant, to render it more serviceable at Sea.

The principal improvements introduced by Mr. Dollond in the construction of Hadley's quadrant, relate to the methods of adjusting the glasses for the back observation. For this purpose he applies an index to the back horizon glass, by which it may be moved into a parallel position to the index glass : and by moving this index exactly 90°, the glass is set at right angles to the index glass, and is properly adjusted for use. In order to fix the horizon glasses in a perpendicular position to the plane of the instrument, he has contrived to move each of them by a single screw, that goes through the frame of the quadrant, and which may be turned by means of a milled head at the back, while the observer is looking at the object. Mr. D. has likewise placed the darkening glasses, proposed by the Astronomer Royal, in such a manner, that they may be easily turned behind either of the two horizon glasses, and of these there are three different shades.

* Remarks on the Hadley's Quadrant, tending princially to remove the Difficulties which have hitherto attended the Use of the Back-Obseivation, and to obuiate the Errors that might arise from a Want of Parallelism in the two. Surfaces of the Index-Glass. By Nevil Maskelyne, F. R. S. &c.

Article 15.

. See the Nautical Almanack for 1774.

Some

Some method of facilitating the back-observation in the use of Hadley's quadrant, is absolutely necessary to the perfection of this useful inftrument. In order to this, the back horizon-glass must be carefully adjusted and the fight must be directed parallel to the plane of the quadrant. Mr. Dollond has contrived to obviate the first difficulty by a new construction, of which we have given a brief account in the preceding article. The proper adjustment of the line of sight, or axis of the telescope, is the. subject of this article. If the quadrant be not fitted with a telescope, a director of the fight fhould by no means be omitted: but when a telescope is used, the exact position of it is a matter of great importance; and therefore Mr. M. has suggested several directions for this purpose. He recommends an adjusts ing piece to be applied to the telescope, in order to make its axis parallel to the plane of the quadrant; the silvering of the back horizon-glass; and the placing of two filver thick wires within the eye-cube in the focus of the eye glass, parallel to one another and to the plane of the quadrant. He then proposes two methods for bringing the axis of the telescope into a pofirion parallel to the plane of the quadrant. In the sequel of the paper there are many instructions and remarks, that may be of great use, both to those who make and to those who use this instrument. Article 24. A Letter from John Call, Esq; to Nevil Makelyne,

F. R. S. Astronomer Royal, containing a Sketch of the Signs of the Zodiac, found in a Pagoda, near Cape Comorin in India.

This letter is attended with a drawing, taken from the cieling of a Choultry or Pagoda at Verdapettah in the Madurab country. The cieling is of a square figure, from the center of which is suspended by two hooks a throne on which the Deity or Swamy, fits, when exhibited to the worshippers. In the fides and at the angular points are delineated the figures of the 12 figns of the Zodiac : Aries and Taurus are to the East; Gemini in the South East angle; Cancer and Leo to the South ; Virgo in the South-West corner; Libra and Scorpio to the Weft; Sagittarius to the North-West; Capricornus and Aquarius to the North, and Pifcis to the North-East. Mr. Call in. forms us, that he has often met with detached pieces of this kind, but with only one so complete. And he conjectures, that the Signs of the Zodiac now in use among Europeans were ori, ginally derived from the Indians by Zoroaster and Pythagoras; and as these philosophers are still spoken of in India under the names of Zerdhurft and Pyttagore, he suggests the idea, that the worship of the cow, which ftill prevails in that country, was transplanted from thence into Egypt. He thinks ' it may be safely pronounced that no part of the world has more marks of antiquity for arts, sciences, and cultivation, than the Penin 2

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