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The propriety of this appellation is farther evinced by a relation of several of his appearances recorded in the books of

Mofes; and by a particular account of the manner in which • it was originally conferred, from Exodus xxxiii. From many

passages that are here collected, our Author infers that the sacred writings attribute to the angel, who acts in the name and authority and moral character of God, the name Jehovah : and there could be no mittake, in this particular, among our forefathers, as if this angel was the Supreme God; because we find by the history, that he never acted in his own name, or by his own authority, but merely as the angel of God. He then thews the absurdity and confusion that must attend the notion

(which many Christian writers have adopted) of the appearance of the Supreme and Invisible Jehovah himself.

Having fettled these preliminaries, our Apologist proceeds to enquire, whether the Jewish and Christian revelations were carried on by the visible Jehovab; i. e. the Logos, or Word of God, as he is itiled both by Phils, and the apostles of Christ. And he apprehends, that under the character of a divine substitute of the Father, he gave the law of reason to Adam; the Jewish law to that people ; and to all the world the Christian law, or will of God. The arguments here alledged in proof of this propofition are deduced from the nature and consistency of the thing, from the words of scripture, and from the interpretations of scripture given us both by the Jews and Chriftians.

The two first of these arguments are very ably discussed in the fequel of this letter. From the scripture evidence on this head our Author draws these two conclusions : · First, that

Jefus and his disciples knew him to be the Angel-Jehovah; and revealed it sufficiently to all such as would examine, and honestly attend to what they said upon the subject; and to those who would not, the things which pertained to their peace were hidden from their eyes. Secondly, it appears, that Almighty God has from the beginning carried on the government of the world, by the ministration of one and the fame person : who hath appeared under different appellations, according to the different dispensations in which he was employed, and the different characters he bore. And this is the same Person, who chose Judah for his inheritance ; and hath from the days of Abraham been more particularly engaged, by Himself or his angels, in the care and protection of our nation'; and even in the latter days will continue to be so, till he hath performed the promise, that in Abraham's feed lhall all the families of the earth be blessed : and the completion of this prophecy constitutes the Christian religion.'


He then closes this second letter with five rules, which direct us when to apply the word God or Jehovah in the Old Testament to the Jehovah- Angel, or Angel of the Covenant.

In a Postscript our Author examines and answers the objections brought by the learned Grotius against the opinion, which is here maintained, and which ascribes the delivery of the law, to the Logas, or Word.

In the third letter, our Author applies bis extenfive learning to the illustration and proof of this proposition ; viz. " that the Lagos was the Angel of the Covenant, or visible Jehovah: And he has produced many passages from the most approved commentators, both Jewish and Christian; from the Christian Fathers, and from modern expositors and divines, in support of the same opinion. He then proceeds to vindicate the worfhip of Christ, under this character, from the charge of idolatry, by thewing, that it is of the fame kind with the wordip of the Jehovah-Angel. "We,' says be (personating a Jew) • as well as the Mahometans, have been toa hafty in accusing the Christian religion as idolatrous, and charging the Christians in general with idolatry, because they worship Chrift: as if the worship paid to the Angel of God, or the Angel of the Covenant, was the worship of another God. I allow, that, if they fupposed the Angel of the Covenant to be the Supreme God and Go, vernor of the universe, and equal to Jehovah, in whose name he acts, and whose minister he is; and worshipped him ultimately, as God of the universe; this would be idolatry, in the strict and proper sense of the word: but this is only the opinion of the Pfeudo-Athanasians : and loses ground daily among men of sense; being neither founded on fcripture nor reason, nor one single authority from the Fathers of the three first centuries. Non duos Deos introduxit CHRISTUS; quia non duos EQUALES, non PARES, æquatione in utroque ostensa, pofuit. Id enim fi fecisset, merito duorum Deorum controversiam Juscitasset; says Novatian, сар. . xxxi. And it appears, that the worship of Chrif is of the same nature, with that which was paid by the Patriarchs to the same person ; i. e. the visible Angel who appeared to them. And Abraham, when he built an altar to Jehovah that appeared to him in the plains of Moreb. (Gen. xii. 7.) and Facob, when he was commanded to build an altar to Jehovah, that appeared to him when he fed from Efau (XXXV. 1.) could have no notion that he was the Supreme God; for they knew him to be the Angel and Minister of the Supreme God, as I have already thewn: and, therefore, if there altars were built for worship, and not merely for memorials; the worship, paid the Angel of the Covenant at these, as well as at other times, was the fame with that of the Christians at present: that is, it was me


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diate and subordinate, and ultimately directed to the glory of the Father."

He farther obviates the objection of polytheism and idolatry by many very apposite quotations from the writings of the prie mitive Christians ; such as Juflin Martyr, Origen, Cyprian, Hippolitus, Eufebius, Tertullian, Lactantius, and 'Bafil. apostolic constitutions (he observes) represent it as a branch of the Gnoftic heresy; to affirm, that Jesus is the Supreme God over all ; making himself, consequently, to be his own Father.

• It is very remarkable (he says) that the title of the only true God, which Chrif has appropriated to the Father (John xvii. 3.) is never given to Chrif, even by the Poft-Nicene Fathers and the reason seems to be, that their understanding revolted at so strong and unwarranted an expression; which recals to my mind, how our dispute ended with the Popilh priests at Marseilles, by the imprudent behaviour of our friend Khaled. For they no sooner mentioned Mary, the Mother of God; but he rose up in a great heat, swearing by Mabomet, that God was neither born nor died, and had neither Jon nor daughter : and that all such as pretended to make their God were more impudent çonjurers than Jannes, and Jambres, who opposed Mofes. I mention this, for the sake of observing, that, as the Fathers feared to call Chrift by the name of the only true God: :so the Proteftants, even those who call themselves Athanafians, are afraid to call the Mother of Jefus Chrift, the Mother of God: which planely proves, that all such as refuse these titles to St. Mary and to Cbrift out of conscience, have two different senses to the word God, whatever they pretend to the contrary. One, when they speak of the invisible Jehovah; and another, when they speak of Chrift: otherwise they could not refuse to call Mary the Mother of God, and Chris the only true God: for by all the logic in the world, if the be the Mother of Chrif, and Chrisl be God, she is the Mother of God, in the same sense, in which he is called God; and if he be the only true God, then fhe is the Mother of the only true God.'

Our Author very properly specifies, in several particulars, the difference between the terms El, Elohim, Adonai and Jehovah: and observes that the latter is never given to any, but to the Self-existent and Supreme God or his Angel; and should there. fore never be translated into any other language. Toward the close of this letter he resumes the charge of idolatry, and obviates it by enquiring what worship is paid to Christ, and what is the precise meaning of idolatry: and he concludes, that the worship of Christ is free from all those offensive circumstances, which render idolatry displeasing to God, and therefore ought not to be called by that name. After all, it is candidly acknowledged, that in the whole New Testament we have no direct


and positive command to pray to Chrifl; and that it is most proper to direct our prayers to the Supreme God himself, through Jesus Christ, as the mediator between God and man; this Selfexistent and Eternal Being having an immutable claim to our "worship, even beyond the age of the Mefiah, when his king, dom Thall be delivered up to the Father. Our Lord himself, moreover, hath thus directed us to'pray.

In a Postscript to this letter our Author intimates, that Dr. Sherlock, Dr. South, and other writers, whom he calls “ the Philosophical Christians," whilft they have asserted that Christ is the Supreme God, or a meer man, have been under a necessity of denying the most essential articles of Christianity; such as his descent from heaven; his humiliation; his sufferings and death: and concludes with an apology for entering so far into this argument, which he would not have done, • had it not been (says he) absolutely necessary to clear my subject from the objections à priori, which arise from the Homösujian doctrine, before I undertook to lay before you the evidence upon which I embrace Chriftianity; for, if Christ be the Supreme God, as some divines fuppofe ; it is imposlible to ftir a single step for. · ward in proof of his descent from heaven, his conception, his bumiliation, his sufferings and death: all these things are declared of him in the New Testament; and foretold of him, in the Old : and all of them are absolutely impoflible to have been undergone by a Being, that is infinite, unchangeable, and impassable, And, therefore, instead of attempting to explane the Chriftian system by the philosophy of these divines, I shall entirely neglect them : and trust (as the Arian and Scripturarian heretics are accused of having done) to the scriptures only : following the rule of Hillary entirely-Non creditur PHILOSOPHIS ; treditur PISCATORIBUS.'

The design of the fourth and las letter in this collection is to prove that Jesus was the Mejfiah ; in which the Author has acquitted himself as a very learned and able apologist for Chriftianity.

After some previous remarks on the predictions relating to the Messiah, tending particularly to vindicate the authority of Daniel, and to elucidate the very remarkable prophecies contained in his writings; and on the general expectation which Jewish and Heathen writers feemed to entertain concerning his advent; accompanied with a critical enquiry into the source of their intelligence ;-he proceeds to examine the correspondence between the history of Christ in the New Testament, and the prophecies of the Mefiah in the Old Testameni, by four criteria ; . viz. his lineage ; the place of his birth; the time of his advent ; and his actions.


To his vindication of the prophecy of Daniel, our Author bas subjoined several observations on Profeffor Michaelis's Letter to Sir John Pringle on the LXX Weeks of Daniel, not long since published *; and they are well worthy the attention of that excellent critic. We are sorry our limits will not allow us to give more copious extracts from this very valuable performance. Those who are employed in biblical enquiries will perufe these letters with pleasure and advantage. Our Readers, however, will indulge us with one extract more, which is part of the Author's address to those for whose benefit these letters are more immediately intended.

• Give me leave, my dear friend, to expoftulate with you, and lay my whole heart before you on this most interesting of all subjects: and honestly confess, that I have been long affected with (the) heavy charge, with which I have been so often pressed by the Christians, and greatly alarmed; because it appears upon examination to be fact, and accounts for such amą. zing difficulties as, upon any other principle, are insuperable.

• The Meffiah, say they, has already been manifested to your nation : and became the son of man, by being born of the fac mily of David: he came unto you, his own peculiar people; and you received him not, but hid your faces from him; and “ denied the holy one and the just, and desired a murderer to be granted unto you; and killed the Prince of Life :” and for this fin your nation has been so long cut off from all the peculiar blessings which it so long enjoyed under the Lord Jehoyab : and you are dispersed abroad, and become an astonishment, a proverb, and a bye-word, among all nations; as your prophets foretold : nor will you ever be reinstated in his favour, till you acknowledge him to be your Lord and King; and submit yourselves to his government over you.

Elifba Levi, look back upon the days of old; and the mer. cies vouchsafed to our fathers, by the hand of this Jehovah. Angel : how often he declared his love and tender compaflion to his peculiar people ; yea, and his unchangeable determination, that he would never forget them! “ Can a woman, says he, forget her sucking child ; that she should not have comparfion on the son of her womb ? Yea, she may forget ; yet will not I forget thee. Behold, I have graven thee upon the palms of my hands; thy walls are continually before me.” And, even when it was necessary to punith us; with what love and tenderness does he compassionate our sufferings ! « How Tall I give thee up, Ephraim! how shall I deliver thee, Ifrael! how thall I make thee like Admah! how shall I set thee as Zeboim! My heart is turned within me, my repentings are kindled

• See Review for O&tober 1773, p. 263.


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