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inspectors who examine the manufacturing establishments of the State and compel the observance of the laws passed for the safety and comfort of employees and the proper employment of minors.

2. The Collection of Labor Statistics with a view to ascertain the commercial, industrial and sanitary condition of laboring men and the industrial productiveness of the State.

3. Mediation and Arbitration, by which he endeavors to adjust differences between employer and employee, to settle strikes and remove the differences between "Capital" and "Labor."

He receives an annual salary of $3,500.

Commissioner of Excise, whose term is five years. He is charged with the enforcement of the laws relative to the sale of liquors, and for this purpose appoints deputies for New York, Kings and Erie Counties, and sixty special agents to assist him in other sections of the State. It is his duty to see that the provisions of the law are observed, and in case of violation to bring actions to take away liquor licenses and to collect the fines fixed by law.

State Board of Charities, consisting of twelve members, whose terms are eight years each. The chief officers are the President and Vice-President elected annually by the Board. The principal duties of the Board are stated in the Constitution to be to

visit and inspect all institutions, whether State, county, municipal, incorporated or not incorporated, which are of a charitable, eleemosynary, correctional or reformatory character, including all reformatories, except those in which adult males convicted of felony shall be confined. (Art. VIII., Sec. 11.)

They make rules and may approve or disapprove all matters pertaining to the management of such institutions, investigate the conduct of officers, devise means to promote the health, the industrial education and moral training of inmates, and investigate and report to the Legislature measures to relieve pauperism. Each Commissioner receives $10 for each day he serves, but the amount must not exceed $500 per year. A Commissioner may be removed by the Governor, for cause, after a hearing in his defense.

Lunacy Commission, consisting of three members, whose terms are six years. The president of the commission must be a practicing physician, and at least one of the other members a practicing lawyer. It is their duty to

visit and inspect all institutions, either public or private, used for the care and treatment of the insane (not including institutions for epileptics or idiots); (Id.)

and over them the Commission possesses exclusive control. They also pass upon all expenditures and appoint agents whose duty it is to secure from relatives and friends of patients, who are financially competent, compensation for their support and attendance. Each Commissioner receives an annual salary of $5,000, besides $1,200 for expenses, and may be removed by the Governor, for cause, after a hearing in his defense.

Prison Commission, consisting of three members, whose terms are four years. It is their duty to

visit and inspect all institutions used for the detention of sane adults charged with or convicted of crime, or detained as witnesses or debtors. (Id.)

These include jails and penitentiaries (but not state prisons). The Commission is also empowered to devise a system for the proper employment of prisoners, and to provide for the disposition of articles manufactured by them. The president of the Board, only, receives compensation-an annual salary of $2,500. Any commissioner may be removed by the Governor, for cause, after hearing.

Railroad Commission, consisting of three members, whose terms are five years. It has general supervision of all railroads of the State, with power to inquire into their construction and operation, to investigate accidents, to inspect books and business affairs of railroad companies and to require from each company an annual report of its transactions. An incident of its work is the gradual removal of grade crossings by changing the level of highway or railroad, the expense of which is borne jointly by the State, the company and the locality. Each Commissioner receives an annual salary of $8,000.

Tax Commission, consisting of three members, whose terms are three years. It is their duty to visit each county once in two years, to inquire into the assessment of property, and ascertain such facts as to values as will aid the Board for the Equalization of Assessments, of which the Commissioners are ex-officio members, in the discharge of its duties. Each Commissioner receives an annual salary of $2,500 and $500 for expenses.

Quarantine Commission, consisting of three members, whose terms are three years. In connection with the Health Officer of the Port of New York (appointed by the Governor for four years with an annual salary of

$12,500) the Commission has control of the quarantine establishment of the port of New York, and may inspect incoming vessels, detain persons suffering with contagious diseases, and make and enforce regulations to prevent the introduction of diseases into that port. Each Commissioner receives an annual salary of $2,500.

Civil Service Commission, consisting of three members, who serve until their successors are appointed. It is the duty of the Commissioners to assist the Governor in carrying out the provisions of the Constitution requiring that:

Appointments and promotions in the civil service of the State, and all the civil divisions thereof, including cities and villages, shall be made according to merit and fitness to be ascertained, so far as practicable, by examinations, which, so far as practicable, shall be competitive; provided, however, that honorably discharged soldiers and sailors from the army and navy of the United States in the late Civil War, who are citizens and residents of this State, shall be entitled to preference in appointment and promotion, without regard to their standing on any list from which such appointment or promotion may be made. Laws shall be made to provide for the enforcement of this section. (Art. V., Sec. 9.)

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In the "Civil Service" are included all state employees other than those in the militia. The powers and duties of the Commission are similar to those of the United States Civil Service Commission (see Book I., page 130), with the additional duty of supervising local civil service boards and compelling them to perform their duties. Each Commissioner receives an annual salary of $2,000 and expenses, and the Chief Examiner appointed by the Commission, an annual salary of $3,600.


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Commissioners of the Land Office, consisting of the Lieutenant-Governor, Speaker of the Assembly, Secretary of State, Comptroller, Treasurer, Attorney-General and State Engineer and Surveyor. They have power to make grants of waste and unappropriated state lands, other than those included in state forests, or "the Forest Preserve," as they are called.

Commissioners of the Canal Fund, consisting of the Lieutenant-Governor, Secretary of State, Comptroller, State Treasurer and Attorney-General. They are charged with the management of the Canal Fund-direct payments for repairs and borrow money for canal purposes when authorized by law.

Canal Board, consisting of the Commissioners of the Canal Fund with the State Engineer and Surveyor and Superintendent of Public Works. It has general supervision of canals, the examination of the plans of the State Engineer for their improvement, the sale and abandonment of canal lands, and the investigation of charges against canal officials.

Board of State Canvassers, consisting of the Secretary of State, Comptroller, Attorney-General, Treasurer, and State Engineer and Surveyor, and in case there is not a majority at a meeting, of the Mayor and Recorder of the City of Albany. Its duties will be considered under the subject of Election (see page 145).

Board of Equalization of Assessments, consisting of the Tax Commissioners and the Commissioners of the Land Office. Its duties will be considered under the subject of Taxation (see page 125).

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