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sand of their Indians into captivity, the greater part of wbom, were sold and distributed as slaves. The Jesuits complained to the king of Spain and to the pope; the latter fulminated his excommunication. The Paulistas attacked the Jesuits in their college, and put their principal to death, expelled the remainder, and set up a religion of their own; at least no longer acknowledged the supremacy of the pope. In consequence of the interruption of the African trade during the Dutch war, the demand for Indian slaves was very much increased. The Paulistas redoubled their exertions, and traversed every part of the Brazils in armed troops, to the great terror of the Indians; who were on some of the principal rivers numerous, and established in villages. The foundation was laid of enmity to the Portuguese, which continues to this day, although a complete stop was put to the infamous practice in the year 1756..

Tbis little republic like all others, was continually distracted by internal factions. Two families, the Piratiningo and the Thaubatenos, were continually struggling for a monopoly of power, and actually engaged in a civil war; but a reconciliation was brought about by the interposition of some ecclesiastics, who proposed that the governor should be alternately elected from the members of the rival families. This continued for nearly a century. When the house of Braganza in 1640, ascended the throne, the Paulistas instead of acknowledging him, conceived the idea of electing a king for themselves.* They actually

* Every thing facilitated such a revolution. Their habits of obedience to any legitimate authority hung loosely about them and might easily be shaken off. There was but one road whereby they

elected a distinguished citizen of the name of Bueno, who persisted in refusing to accept, upon which, they were induced to acknowledge Joam IV. It was not until long afterwards, that they came under the Por. tuguese government. The history of these people is doubtless replete with interesting incidents; such is always the case with an independent nation, and especially if republican. T'he important part they have acted in South America, and their connexion with the history of La Plata, have induced me to take this notice of them.

The next province to St. Paul is that of Rio Grande. * It is about five hundred miles in length, and three hundred in depth, according to the treaty of '78, which excludes the Banda Oriental, but which is claimed in Portuguese books of geography. The Uruguay has its sources in the province to the west of St. Catherines, and flows several hundred miles through it bem? fore entering the Banda Oriental. It is an inclined plain like the province of St. Paul, but more level; it has a considerable ridge of mountains which separates the waters of the Rio Negro, the main branch of the

could be attacked, and this which was difficult for a single travel. ler, for an army would be inaccessible. They might defend themselves merely by rolling down stones if they were attacked; while on the other hand the whole interior was open to their enterprise. The promoters of this scheme easily induced the people to join in it with enthusiasm, and if they could have found a leader to their wish, it is more than probable that the Paulistas would have become an independent people, who would soon have made themselves the most formidable in South America.”-Southey, vol. 2, p. 327.

* St. Cathene is usually considered a distinct province, but erroneously on VOL. 1.


Uruguay, from the streams which fall into the lake dos Patos. T'he climate is mild, but during winter a good deal subject to the south-west winds. The greater part of the country to the southward, bordering on the Banda Oriental consists of extensive grassy plains, and is almost exclusively devoted to raising herds. Agriculture is comparatively but little attended to, although the soil is extremely well adapted to grain of every kind.

The island of St. Catherine in the northern part of this district, is a place of considerable note. The barbor is one of the best along the coast. The town contains about ten thousand inhabitants, and is beautifully situated. The surrounding country is very fine, and in a better state of cultivation and improvement, than is usual in Brazil. From the abundant supply of wood, water, and stores of every kind, it is a very common stopping place. Few places offer greater advantages for ship building. The country and climate are so delightful, that many persons come here from other provinces, in order to regain their health; and gentlemen of fortune sometimes choose it as an agreeable residence. Formerly there was a very important whale fishery here; but of late years the whales have very much diminished in numbers along this coast. Commodore Porter, who touched at this place in his cruise, speaks of it in the following manner. “The houses are generally neatly built, and the coun-try at the back of the town in a state of considerable improvement. But nothing can exceed the beauty of the great bay to the north, formed by the island of St. Catherines and the continent; there is every variety to give beauty to the scene; handsome kd ages and


houses built around; shores which gradually ascend in mountains, covered to their summits with trees which remain in constant verdure; a climate always temperate and healthy; small islands scattered here and there, equally covered with verdure; the soil extremely productive; all combine to render it in appearance the most delightful country in the world."

We had at length reached the yawning estuary of La Plata, whose width estimated from the Cape St. Mary's to Cape St. Antonio on the southern side, is one hundred and fifty miles. It would perhaps be more proper to give this great opening the name of bay or gulf. Its waters though not fresh, are much discolored, but not much affected by the tides above Buenos Ayres. Except the isle of Lobos, which can hardly be considered in its channel, there are no islands but that of Goriti, which forms the harbor of · Maldonado, and the isle of Flores about fifty miles above. There are, however, a considerable number of islands above Buenos Ayres, where the river properly begins; at the mouth of the Uruguay there is the island of Martin Garcia, and at the entrance of the Parana there are a great many islands of various sizes. Rio La Plata here loses its name; it is in fact, properly speaking but a bay or gulf, into which the Uruguay and Parana discharge themselves. It was originally called the river of Solis, from the name of its first discoverer; but was changed by Cabot, who de. feated a party of Indians on its borders, and among whom he found some silver ornaments, from which he was induced to believe, that there were mines of this metal in the vicinity. The entrance of this river was formerly considered extremely dangerous and difficult, but since it has been frequented by the English, it has become much better known, and the dangers have in consequence diminished as far as an acquaintance with the situation and nautical skill can diminish them. But there are still serious dangers to be encountered, . and which are beyond the power of man to obviate. The principal, perhaps, is the south-west wind, which blows during the winter months, May, June, July, and August, with dreadful violence, while the harbors on its shores, afford but a very imperfect security. On the north side, the shore is rocky and dangerous; on the south it is flat, and the water extremely shoal; the channel is therefore on the north side, between what is called the English bank and the island of Flores, about ten miles in width; the largest vessels may pass with little danger unless the wind be very violent. Between Monte Video and Buenos Ayres, the navigation is still more difficult on account of what is called Ortiz banks, which render the channel narrow and intricate. These banks consist of bard sand, and it is almost as dangerous for vessels to strike upon them as to strike upon a rock; but the channel is generally of soft mud, in which a vessel may sink several inches without experiencing any injury.*

* The pamphlet of captain Haywood, an English officer, contains many excellent observations. While the commissioners were at Buenos Ayres, commodore Sinclair and the officers of the Congress, occupied themselves in acquiring an acquaintance with the dangerous navigation of this river in which so many vessels have been wrecked. I have in my possession a copy of a memoir, accompanied with a chart, drawn up by commodore Sinclair, which would be highly useful to persons navigating this river.

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