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Germany-Great Britain, modus vivendi between, proposed by United States. 18, 22, 27
Germany-United States correspondence:
Declaration of London.....

203
- Flag, neutral.....

. 18), 280-282
Frye, William P., steamship..
Neutrals' attitude........

170-176
Senate action ....

169
- Severance of diplomatic relations.

164
Submarine warfare...............

37, 38–39, 52, 55, 65, 114, 155, 157, 169
War zone.......

........ 8, 10, 13, 38–52, 114-132, 155-157
Great Britain:
Blockade of Germany, March 1, 1915.

. 287
Order in council, March 11, 1915..
Contraband of war, lists of.

... 205, 229-234
Cotton included......

319
Declaration of London, orders in council
August 20, 1914..

204
October 29, 1914..

209–214
October 20, 1915......

340–343
March 30, 1916..

372
July 7, 1916.....

372
Requisition of ships........

............... 30, 293. 342
Trading with the enemy act...

............ 340-343, 345–372
Great Britain-United States correspondence:
Armed merchant vessels.....

.. 75-88
Blacklist.........

. 340-372
Blockade........

327-339
Ineffectual, illegal, and indefensible ...

.. 327-338
Censorship of cables....
Contraband of war.......

, 205, 229-234
Classes absolute ...

. 215-224
Conditional ....

225–228
Declaration of London........

... 203
Detention of American cargoes..

346-350
Flag, neutral.................

280-282
Foodstuffs into Germany......

95, 157, 274–280
Gulflight, steamship, attack on....
*** Importations in the United States..

........ 309-313
Interference with mails.......

...... 182–183, 385-401
Neches, steamship, detention of...

. 314, 319
Submarines and armed neutral vessels..

... 17, 112, 172
-Trading with the enemy act...

.. 340-343-346
Wilhelmina, steamship, detention of.

274-280
Hague Conference, its findings....

... 182–203
Leelanaw, steamship, sinking of....

.. 55, 60
Legislation to protect neutral rights

377
Lusitania, steamship, sinking of.....

German warning ...
German sympathy ..............
Notes-correspondence .......

38-52
First note to Germany on...
First reply from Germany...
Second note.........
Second reply............
Third note..........................

52
Mails, interference with.

, 385-401
Maritime rights, order in council..
Matamoras cases, cited....

318
Mediterranean Sea, submarine activity in.

........ 61-73
Merchant vessels:

See Armed merchant vessels.
Detention in British ports....

346-350
Mines, submarine.........

7,8,10
Modus vivendi proposed by the United States...

18, 282

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17, 318

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Munitions of war, exportation of:

Page.
Austria-Hungary and United States....

55-59
Germany and United States.......

15, 33
Mutual concessions proposed by United States....

48, 282
Answer by Germany ..........
Answer by Great Britain ......

27, 284
Nationality of vessel, how determined.....

British order in council, October, 1915 ..
Nebraskan, steamship, attack on...

. 52
Neches, detention of cargo

314, 319
Neutral countries, trade with.... 234-256, 296-307, 308-313, 327-338, 345-348, 349–372
Neutrality ...................

........ 22, 181, 315, 319, 339
Joint resolution of Congress....

288
Neutral vessels in war zone.......

Armed neutrality note of January 18, 1916..
February 22, 1917. Examination of neutral vessels........

414
Orders in council, texts of—
August 20, 1914 (declaration of London)....

204
October 29, 1914 (declaration of London).....

.. 209–214
March 11, 1915 (blockade of Germany)..

28, 291
March 23, 1915 (requisition of ships)...

30, 293
October 20, 1915 (declaration of London)

340
November 10, 1915 (requisition of ships)

342
March 30, 1916 (declaration of London)
July 7, 1916 (declaration of London)...

372
- Peace proposals:
Germany...........

140
Wilson, President ....

142
Reply of entente .........

143
Petrolite, steamship, attack on..

73
Prize courts, British:
American cases......

329, 335
-Costs and expenses (Oct. 21 note)

327-339
Declaration of London..

. 203
Evidence (Oct. 21 note)

327-339
Practice and procedure (Oct. 21 note)..

327-339
Information for claimants (Oct. 21 note

327-339
Proof (Oct. 21 note)........

327-339
The Hague........

188-197
Prizes, neutral cargoes on (W. P. Frye).....
Proposed new code, Lansing.......

... 406–413
Recall of Austrian ambassador......
Removal of belligerent citizens from an American vessel (China). ...... 401-406
Requisition of ships:
Orders in council, March 23, 1915........

........ 30, 293
Orders in council, November 10, 1915.........
Resolution declaring that a state of war exists....

423
Restraint of sea-borne commerce, American inquiry of England.

22
British reply.....
German memorandum ...

33
Restraints of commerce.....

.... 234–274, 287
Search, right of (Dec. 26 note).

... 234–256, 328-330
United States Navy order, August 18, 1862.....

........ 339
Ships, requisition of:
March 11, 1915..

........... 28, 291
November 10, 1915....
Springbok case, cited......

.... 303, 318, 324, 334
Status of belligerent submarines...........

91
Submarine warfare:
American ultimatum ....

. 121
Correspondence with Austria....

.. 65–75
Correspondence with Germany

38-52, 61-65, 114-132
German orders.....

.. 65, 98, 139
Germany's concession..
Germany's withdrawal..

....... 155, 157
Our acceptance........

137–138
Sussex, steamship, attack on...

114-132

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342

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128

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Telegrams, censorship.......

401
Trade with Germany See Foodstuffs.
Trading-with-the-enemy act....

.U-343, 345--374
Trent case, cited...............

405
Ultimatum to Germany..........

121
United States:
-Attitude toward Germany and Austria..

124, 147, 161
Armed merchant vessels......

. 114-118
Navy order on neutrality...

... 339
Vessels detained by British (Sept. 10)...

269-274
See Detention of American ships. .....

256–269
Visit and search. See Search.
von Holweg on German relations with the United States

... 132
- War, state of, declared.........
War material, exportation of:
Correspondence with Austria......

· 55-59
Correspondence with Germany...........

... 33
War Zone.........
England, November 2, 1914.....

. 7, 283, 413
Germany, February 4, 1915......
January 31, 1917 ....

.... 155, 157, 160
Correspondence with.........

... 10-18
See Submarine warfare.
The President's addresses on.......

124, 161
The Hague....

197–203
Wilhelmina, steamship.........

· 274–280
Wilson, President:
Letter to Stone on warning........

110
Letter to Pou on McLemore resolution...

112
Address on submarine controversy....

124
Address on peace proposals (Senate)....

147
Address peace conference (May 27)...

151
Address on severing diplomatic relations with Germany (Feb. 3)........ 161
Address on armed neutrality.......

177
Address on the state of war..

...

415
Proclaims war between the United States and Germany

424
Proclamation to people of United States..

428
Wireless, censorship of.............................

401
Zamora case, cited.......

.. 317, 335, 340
Zimmermann expresses hope .........................
Intercepted rote ...............................

............ 422

January

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THE PROBLEMS OF NEUTRALITY WHEN THE WORLD IS AT WAR,

- AS TOLD IN DOCUMENTS.

OUR CONTROVERSY WITH GERMANY — THE SUBMARINE ISSUE.

On November 2, 1914, Great Britain declared the North Sea a military area. This is not a blockade. The order follows:

During the last week the Germans have scattered mines indiscriminately in the open sea on the main trade route from America to Liverpool via the north of Ireland.

Peaceful merchant ships have already been blown up, with loss of life, by this agency.

The White Star liner Olympic escaped disaster by pure luck, and but for warnings given by British cruisers other British and neutral merchant and passenger vessels would have been destroyed.

These mines can not have been laid by any German ship of war. They have been laid by some merchant vessel flying a neutral flag, which has come along the trade route as if for purpose of peaceful commerce, and, while profiting to the full by the immunity enjoyed 'by neutral merchant ships, has wantonly and recklessly endangered the lives of all who travel on the sea.

In these circumstances, having regard to the great interests intrusted to the British Navy, to the safety of peaceful commerce on the high seas, and to the maintenance within the limits of international law of trade between neutral countries, the Admiralty feels it necessary to adopt exceptional measures appropriate to the novel conditions under which this war is being waged.

It therefore gives notice that the whole of the North Sea must be considered a military area. Within this area merchant shipping of all kinds, traders of all countries, fishing craft and all other vessels will be exposed to the gravest dangers from mines it has been necessary to lay and from warships searching vigilantly by night and day, for suspicious craft.

All merchant and fishing vessels of every description are hereby warned of the dangers they encounter by entering this area, except in strict accordance with Admiralty directions. Every effort will be made to convey this warning to neutral countries and to vessels on the sea, but from November 5 onward the Admiralty announces that all ships passing a line drawn from the northern point of the Hebrides through the Farne Islands to Iceland do so at their own

peril.

Ships of all countries wishing to trade to and from Norway, the Baltic, Denmark, and Holland are advised to come, if inward bound, by the English Channel and the Strait of Dover. There they will be given sailing directions which will pass them sa fely, so far as Great Britain is concerned, up the east coast of England to the Farne

Islands, whence a safe route will, if possible, be given to Lindesnas
Lighthouse.

From this point they should turn north or south, according to their destination, keeping as near the coast as possible. The converse applies to vessels outward bound.

By strict adherence to these routes the commerce of all countries will be able to reach its destination in safety so far as Great Britain is concerned, but any straying, even for a few miles from the course thus indicated, may be followed by fatal consequences. (The New York Tribune, Nov. 3, 1914.) .

On February 4, 1915, the German Government announced the famous war-zone order placing the British Isles within the danger zone after the 18th of February, 1915. It will be noted this was not a blockade. The order follows:

Since the commencement of the present war Great Britain's conduct of commercial warfare against Germany has been a mockery of all the principles of the law of nations. While the British Government have by several orders declared that their naval forces should be guided by the stipulations of the declaration of London, they have in reality repudiated this declaration in the most essential points, notwithstanding the fact that their own delegates at the maritime conference of London acknowledged its acts as forming part of existing international law. The British Government have placed a number of articles on the contraband list which are not at all, or only. very indirectly, capable of use in warfare, and consequently can not be treated as contraband either under the declaration of London or under the generally acknowledged rules of international law. In addition, they have in fact obliterated the distinction between absolute and conditional contraband by confiscating all articles of conditional contraband destined for Germany, whatever may be the port where these articles are to be unloaded, and without regard to whether they are destined for uses of war or peace. They have not even hesitated to violate the declaration of Paris, since their naval forces have captured on neutral ships German property which was not contraband of war. Furthermore, they have gone further than their own orders respecting the declaration of London and caused numerous German subjects capable of bearing arms to be taken from neutral ships and made prisoners of war. Finally, they have declared the North Sea in its whole extent to be the seat of war, thereby rendering difficult and extremely dangerous, if not impossible, all navigation on the high seas between Scotland and Norway, so that they have in a way established a blockade of neutral coasts and ports, which is contrary to the elementary principles of generally accepted international law. Clearly all these measures are part of a plan to strike not only the German military operations but also the economic system of Germany, and in the end to deliver the whole German people to reduction by famine by intercepting legitimate neutral commerce by methods contrary to international law.

The neutral powers have in the main acquiesced in the measures of the British Government; in particular they have not been success

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