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tainable by a four years, residence at one of the colleges. Of these, the whole number in 1829 was 43 averaging twenty three graduates each, or 989 in the whole, yearly.* The expense of an education at one of these institutions is from one to two thousand dollars, and within the means of a great portion of the citizens. Their object is to qualify the student for professional business. The colleges are but partially endowed, and their funds are inadequate to render a public education what it ought to be. For the perfection of any art, a division of labor is necessary; and in none more so than that of instruction. To render a college institution useful and respectable, a number of pofessors in the various branches of literature are necessary, as is also an extensive library, museum, and laboratory, which require funds much beyond what is proper to be demanded of the students, and render public patronage essential to the beneficial purposes of educution. Where there are rival institutions in the same state, this patronage is divided, and le. gislative bounty bestowed in so sparing a manner, as in some measure to defeat the object. Two causes have operated to produce a multiplication of colleges. Each state is ambitious of having at least one, and each religious denomination is anxious to have as many as may be, under its peculiar control. Though institutions for mere literary purpoşes ought not to partake of a sectarian character, yet with the freedom of opinion, and zeal for proselytism existing in the United States, this disposition will always be found, and will have the effect to multiply colleges.

Motives to exertion. After all the disadvantages under which the American system labors, for high literary attainments, the genius and talents of the country have appeared in a manner that will bear a comparison with those of older nations. Many considerations may be put in the opposite scale. The facility with which a public education is acquired has called forth talents of the first order, which otherwise would have been unnoticed, in the walks of private life. In a country where there is no distinction of orders, and where every one must rise by his own merits, the motives to exertion are all powerful. The field, likewise, is extensive and varied. First, in the primary assemblies of the people, where subjects of deep interest to these commu

* Missionary Herald, July, 1829.

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nities are to be discussed; next, in the state legislatures,
where all municipal laws are to be passed, and subjects of
great concern to the states come under consideration; and
lastly, in the halls of congress; no field can be found
equal to the latter, in the inducements it affords to call
talent into exercise. A thousand newspapers are ready
to convey the speeches of the distinguished orator to
all parts of the union. He speaks in the presence of the
collected wisdom of the nation. His merits are thus
made known to an intelligent community, and by them es.
timated, and placed to his credit. On a character thus ac-
quired, he is to take his rank in society; and if, by any
accident, he gets into a situation to which his talents are
not adapted, the people see it, and he becomes disgraced.
The extraordinary latitude of debate allowed in congress,
by general consent, is highly favorable to the display of
talent. Many of the speeches delivered in the halls of con-
gress, will not suffer by a comparison with the parliamentary
debates of any modern period, and want nothing but the
sanction of age, to place them in the same rank with the
most distinguished ones of antiquity.

Instances of American talent. Considered as an effort
of the human mind, the production of the American system
of government, is unequaled, and elevates its framers above
the law-givers of ancient or modern times. Turning from
European systems, founded in violence or corruption, and
taking into view the wants, feelings, and wishes of their
country, they struck out a new plan, adapted to its condi-

Annual messages and documents. That clause in the constitution, which requires of the president to give “to congress information of the state of the Union," has pro. duced a series of messages, at the opening of the sessions, which, as well for correctness of style, as for importance of matter, are unequaled in the communications between the executive and legislative branches of any government. While European monarchs content themselves with a few general, commonplace remarks, made in the style of master to servant, to their legislative bodies, the American presi. dents go into an interesting detail of all the important affairs of the nation. The reports of the executive departments, accompanying the messages, as business papers, containing a minute statement of the affairs of their respective bureaus, form a striking contrast with the short and unsatisfactory statements of the same nature in other governments.


Diplomacy. In diplomacy, it might be expected, that a knowledge of the arts and intrigues of foreign courts, and of the means by which negotiations are effected, which Eu. ropean ministers are enabled to bring into the field, would be an over-match for the simplicity of republicanism. In these contests, more than in any other, the genius and talents of the country are displayed. The secretaries who have the direction of foreign affairs, and the ministers selected to conduct negotiations, under their orders, are usually designated by the execative, upon the principle of calling into action the best talents of the nation. From the days of Franklin's first appearance at the court of France, in Quaker style, with a cargo of tobacco for an outfit, to the present period, America has nothing to be ashamed of, in the management of her diplomatic concerns. Her ministers, though met by the most astute negotiators in Europe, have maintained a high standing. The European war, commencing nearly at the same time with the government imder the constitution, gave rise to many interesting questions of national law. A succession of negotiators, on the part of the United States, have defended their rights with distinguished ability. In the diplomatic controversy with Great Britain, which terminated in the late war, the American state papers evidently bear marks of superior talent. A dispute of twenty years length, with Spain, was managed by a succession of diplomatists, able, at every point, to meet their opponents. The clearness and energy with which the existing claims against France have been enforced and reiterated by Mr. Gallatin, though without success, have done high honor to the country. Though the negotiator was not a native citizen, his talents are none the less the property of the nation who has adopted him. On a fair comparison, the state papers which have emanated from the various negotiations in which the United States have been engaged, will give the palm to their ministers.




Adams and Jefferson, death of, 343. Characters, 344.

Mourning for, 345. Difference of opinion relating to

government, 351. Heads of parties, 352.
Adams, J. Q., secretary of state, 84. 4th of July address,

226. Reply to Furstonwether, 173. Elected president,
287. Inaugural, 287. lst message, 330. Policy respect-
ing appointments, 288. Commencement of his adminis.
tration, 326. Opposition to, 326. Defense of, 227.
Charges against, 400. Reply to, 401. Close of, 402.

Character of, 405.
Algiers, description of, 16. Piracies of, 17. Claims of the

dey of, 18. 'War with, 20. Capture of vessels of, 21.
Negotiations and treaty with, 22. War of, with England,
27. Exmouth's expedition to, 28. Conquest of, by

France, 29.
Ambrister, 107–8.
Amelia island, 96.
Anderson, Colonel, case of, 136.
Apalachicola, fort on, 91. Massacre on, 92.
Arbuthnot, 105. Trial of, 108.
Army, reduction of, 221.
Auction bill, 192.
Aury's establishment at Galveston, 93. At Amelia island, 94.
Bainbridge, Commodore, 27.
Banks, origin of, 45. Principles, 46.
Bank of United States, charter of, 47. Mismanaged, 139.

Proceedings concerning, 142. Not liable to be taxed,
148. Case of, 148. Reports of committees concerning,

Bankrupt bill, 233. Debates concerning, 235.
Barton, senator, 420.
Beaumarchais, claim of, 138.
Bonaparte, confinement of, 119. Death of, 227. Disposi-

tion of the family of, 121.
Bourbons, restoration of, 120.
Boundary, northeastern, 381. Controversy concerning, 382
Brown, General, death of, 392.

Calhoun, report of, on roads, &c., 175. Secretary at war,

84. Vice president, 286. Case concerning Rip Rap

contract, 378. Proceedings of congress on, 379.
Canadas, fortification of, 386. Debates concerning, 397.
Canals, Erie, 357. Ohio, 360.
Caucus, presidential, for 1827, 51. For 1825, 281. Origin

and bad effects of, 54.
Census, 4th, 194.
Chehaw town destroyed, 111.
Claims arising from the war, 40. Commissioners of, 41.

73. For spoliations, 62. On France, 63. Spain, 65.

Naples, 68. Netherlaeds, 69.
Clay, Mr., secretary of state, 289. Charges against, 285.

Answered, 286, 827-8-9.
Cohens, os. Virginia, case of, 152.
Colonial system, American, compared with European, 232.

Trade, report of committee on, 239.
Colonization society, 303. Proceedings of, 304. Assisted

by government, 305. Purchase of territory by, 306.
Columbia, meeting at, 375. Proceedings, 375.
Compensation law, 42. Repealed, 72.
Committee of manufactures, 182. 384.
Cooper, Dr. 375.
Congress, 14th, first meeting of, 35.-second, 72. 15th,
first meeting, 135—second,

174. 16th, first meeting, 178
---second, 218. 17th, first meeting, 233-second, 247.
18th, first meeting, 266-second, 289. 19th, first meet-
ing, 330-second, 367. 20th, first meeting, 383. 21st,
first meeting, 415.
Constitution, amendments of, 275. 333. Construction of,

230, 432.
Crawford, Mr., 251, 393.
Cumberland road, 290.
Decatur's expedition against Algiers, 21. Tunis, 25. Tri-

poli, 26. Death of, 215.
Debt, imprisonment for, 269.
Decoudray's expedition, 246.

Diplomacy, frequent changes in, prejudicial, 409.
; Discharge of Danish and Neapolitan seamen, 26.

Dis military division of, i6.
Divisions, sectional, 16.
Domain, national, state of, 421.
Duel between Decatur and Barron, causes of, 216..
Dueling, 380, 432.
Duties, tonnage, report concerning, 332,

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