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day and to the extent to which it had taken possession of the artistic field. And yet we are asked to believe that our Homer' crept into the world and stealthily developed our present Iliad and Odyssey, somewhere about the time of Euripides! It is impossible to elicit from the internal evidence of design a more complete proof of the primitive character of the age of the designer than that which we trace in the Homeric shield.
We have shown above how Homer's love of animals, and the extent to which he takes them into partnership with humanity, point to an early stage of feeling, and how it exactly fills the gap left by his deficiency as regards that emotional play of human feature and attitude which is the surest index of mind; how the one supplements the other, and how both are accounted for—to borrow a term of modern art-history-by the ‘Præ-Raffaëlite' condition of contemporary art. We turn from his expression of nature to that of art, and we find the same nursery condition of the mind—the child playing at imitating the scenes that go on around it. To place the Homeric Poems, as some would do, as late as the age of Pheidias, involves an inversion of the characteristics of culture and of the laws of artistic conception; to say nothing at present of literary development, of the course of geographical and general knowledge, of the growth and progress of myth. Our space leaves us no room even to state the grounds on which that anachronism assumes to found itself, much less to pursue further its refutation.
In conclusion, all scholars owe Dr. Schliemann and his wife, who has so enthusiastically seconded him, a debt of gratitude. He has dug down to the realien which underlie their paper studies. He has devoted a life's energy and a life's fortune to the task, and is, we believe, prepared so to devote them still. The dream of his boyhood came to him through the 'gates of horn. We think that our Academic bodies might have shown the usual recognition of labours, to them so invaluable, by the honorary degree. It was murmured in such circles that the impediment was some notion of seeming committed to his theories. The Vice-Chancellor, proctors, and doctors, it was whispered, were afraid of finding themselves .owl-headed' or 'cow-headed. Surely the scruple was needless. It was possible to recognise the sagacity, perseverance, and devotion of the greatest man in his own line, successful himself and the cause of success in others, and leave theory an open question still. The still progressing excavations at Olympia may be regarded as a direct corollary of Dr. Schliemann's success at
Hissarlik. The suggestion of Mommsen, to exhume Olympia, had lain, we believe, for years before the German Government. On seeing what the great pioneer had done, they took heart for the work. A private individual had dug up dead Troy and was digging up dead Greece. They saw that spades were trumps' and fell to it with a will, and it will now probably not stand still until thoroughly done.
ART. VI. HOW CAN CATHEDRALS BEST FURTHER THE
CULTURE OF CHURCH MUSIC? . 1. Reports of Church Congresses. (Papers on Church Music.) 2, Transition Period of Musical HistoryBy J. HULLAH,
(London, 1878.) 3. Choral Service of the Church. By Dr. JEBB. (London,
1843.) At a time like the present, when the very word 'institution' is assumed to be a term of evil omen, or at least would appear to be defined as a body whose right to exist is challenged,' the subject of Cathedral institutions cannot fail to be much before the public. They have active enemies and they have enthusiastic friends. On the one hand, there are those who consider them, as they have been hitherto worked, a weak point in the Church system ; on the other, there are those who foresee what strongholds of faith, and in many ways also promoters of art, they might be if all their resources of influence
as a whole, the subject is not only one of great difficulty, but of large scope, touching as it necessarily must on a great variety of questions, political, ecclesiastical, and artistic, and branching out into that chief of all cruces in practical administration, the question of patronage. On the first two of these aspects of the subject much has been written and said, and opinions, at all events among Churchmen, are beginning to be tolerably well formed; but on the third, namely, that of the benefit that cathedrals might be to art, comparatively little has been written. It is a field of thought open to much useful discussion, and practical suggestions would no doubt be welcomed by those who have the welfare of cathedrals at heart.
VOL. VII.- NO. XIV. F F
each othed 'nobler asnd limitlesse converse Of low
uspirations, art naturally has raras
But of those arts which bring, or should bring, their best efforts as offerings at our venerable and beautiful shrines--the works of the builder, the painter, the sculptor, and the musician - it is only on the last that we have now to speak.
The musical influence of a cathedral over the town and - neighbourhood in which it is placed might be thought a trifling matter compared with its moral and religious influence; but on consideration it will be found that the two cannot well be separated. Happily for the onward and upward progress of humanity, art and religion are ever mutually attracted to each other ; for, in seeking to find means of expressing its higher and nobler aspirations, art naturally has recourse to those pure channels and limitless regions which religion only is able to unfold and exhibit. The converse of this may also be asserted---namely, that when, in a period of low ideals of morality, religion has been despoiled of her true functions and high calling, art has sometimes absorbed and purified religion until the two have been welded into one existence. It is easy to say that all this has become a mere truism ; but in fact, the true influence of music has received little attention from those who talk and think about the effects of art education, although many of the finest minds in the country have had much to say about the scope of the sister arts.
To lay it down as a maxim that no truly high form of public worship can exist without the use of music, would formerly, perhaps, have been looked upon as the outburst of an unpractical enthusiast. In these days it might not be deemed so absurd ; indeed, it might even be largely acquiesced in. Certain schools of religious thought have made a long and desperate struggle to eliminate from public worship all that is emotional or sensuous, in short, all that is included in the term 'esthetical'; but whatever may have thus far been their success with regard to painting and sculpture, against music their attacks have failed utterly. Daily evidence proves that humanity has no intention of renouncing in its worship that nobler and sweeter speech called music. You may get people to give up piecemeal all outward forms of the beautiful, until they are willing to worship in a barn or at a street corner ; but they will sing. If music is the only art with the beauty of which they are acquainted, you cannot persuade them to leave it in the church porch during service, like an overcoat or a wet umbrella. If this demand of music to be admitted into our Church services be allowed, it is to our cathedrals that we naturally turn first for an example of its best use. But no sooner is the duty of cathedrals in this
su But whanting a Daily
, respect brought forward than a question arises as to what
Church music really is; and it will be found very difficult to proceed until it has been to some extent answered. Of course the expression Church music' covers two well-marked subdivisions-cathedral music and parish music. It is to be hoped that it will ere long be understood to include also the long-exiled oratorio, but on this more will be said hereafter.
Many of those into whose hands these pages come are doubtless familiar with the chief varieties of style in our cathedral music. As this variety of style is more marked in the anthems than in the settings of the canticles, we will first say a few words about the former of these two most important elements of cathedral music. Even occasional visitors to our cathedrals must have learnt to distinguish between(1) the pure vocal style, in which Orlando Gibbons excelled ; (2) the mixed vocal and instrumental type of anthem, with short independent symphonies, called ritornelli, of which Henry Purcell left so many specimens ; (3) a later school growing out of the two former, in which Boyce distinguished himself; and, (4) and lastly, a modern form, in which the function of the organ is largely extended, and a more descriptive or realistic style predominates. It is a misfortune that so few examples of the early or pure vocal style exist. It was founded on the choicest Italian models; and, by the firm hold it took after the Reformation, promised well for the future of English cathedral music. Its career was practically brought to a close when our greatest musical genius, Henry Purcell, was, immediately after the Restoration, sent over to France in order to be instructed in and imbued with the vulgar and flimsy style popular at the French Court. The incalculable mischief which this importation of French thought brought upon our national Church music has never been fully realised, partly because its vices were overshadowed by the genius of a Purcell, partly because some of the very worst specimens of its class have been so drummed into the ears of cathedral-goers that they seem unable to live without them. What would be said to a modern composer who in sober seriousness set the sublime words, 'I beheld, and, lo, a great multitude, which no man could number, of all nations, and kindreds, and people, which stood before the throne,' &c., to music commencing with a trifling and undignified scrap of melody for the organ, to be immediately repeated by a single alto voice? This initial motif is also ingeniously constructed to lie just where a male alto has a distinct 'break’between two registers of voice ; and so, as the notes are about equally divided on either side of
Boyce'st appropriate regard to the chara
this break, the enunciation of these solemn words sounds as if the composer had wedded them to a grotesquely incoherent duet between a flute and a bagpipe. Yet this anthem is in constant use in our cathedrals, and would probably be selected by many organists as one of the best in the French style.
Nor did our more truly English school of anthems, which combined in many ways the good characteristics of former styles, pay much more regard to the real force of words, or to the most appropriate way of clothing them in sounds. Perhaps Boyce's 'By the waters of Babylon' is the best known specimen of this class; but even in this, notwithstanding its many beauties, the same serious blot may be discovered ; for when the poet, in the bitterness of his spirit, cries with a mysterious outpouring of human detestation and abhorrence, 'O daughter of Babylon, wasted with misery, yea, happy shall he be that rewardeth thee as thou hast served us,' the musician broaches the liveliest possible subject fugato solely for the purpose of producing a bright and pleasurable musical climax. Gounod, in his setting of the same Psalm, has not thus missed the point of the words; he has, perhaps, even erred, though in the right direction, by giving them the realistic force of an angry execration.
We are not here indicating the faults of our anthemwriters of the French and English schools for the purpose of indiscriminately condemning them as a whole, but rather in the hope of weaning the affections of those who are so rapt up in them that they see no merits in our young modern writers, and use every effort to discourage the production of their works. Our cathedrals cannot in any sense further the culture of Church music by checking its natural growth, but by directing and tempering its course. It may, no doubt, be truly urged that our young writers are too fond of high colouring, and are often too realistic; but, on the other hand, the earlier writers have either used no colouring at all, or have, when they attempted a sound-picture, used the wrong colours. The only safe course to pursue in our cathedrals with regard to the selection of anthems is to retain the best specimens of older schools, and at the same time offer every encouragement to young composers to supply the constantly increasing want of Church music. Although this dictum would appear to be self-evident, it is quite extraordinary how few musicians and amateurs are able to abstain from the temptation of making themselves champions of some particular style. About fifty years since a very strong section of musicians in this country tried hard to prove that no