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Peace. Pope's (The) letter and the future of the churches. Charles Johnston.

Atlantic, 120: 685. Nov.

- President Wilson's reply to the Pope. Current History, 7 (pt. 1): 83. Oct. - Vatican (The) and the Germanic Powers. Contemporary, 112: 403. Oct.

- War current and peace eddies. E. J. Dillon. Fortnightly, 102:481. Oct. - Way (The) to a durable peace. Bruno Tasker. Yale R., 7:24. Oct. - What a premature peace would mean; some facts for "pacifists.” J. Ellis

Barker. 19th Century, 82: 925. Nov.
Poland. Britain and Poland. Polish R., 1:319. July.

- Britain's promise to Poland. J. N. Harley. Polish R., 1: 241. July.
- Devastation of Poland by Germany but one step in the Prussian system
planned to conquer and enslave the world by force and brutality. F. C. Wal-
cott. Official Bulletin, Nov. 6, 1917.

- Jews and the new Poland. Israel Zangwill. Polish R., 1: 272. - Poland after the war. A. Ledwicki. Polish R., 1: 246. July.

Poland and Europe. By Polonus. Polish R., 1:34. - Poland and the league of nations. H. N. Brailsford. Polish R., 1: 247.

July. - Poles and Germans. Prince Henryk Woronsecki. Polish R., 1:16. Jan.

Polish political parties and the war. R. A. Ussher. 19th Century, 82:859. Oct. - Present conditions in Poland. Varsoviensis. Polish R., 1:305. - Present position of the Polish problem. By Varsoviensis. Polish R., 1: 183. Apr. - Problem (The) of Poland. J. H. Harley. Polish R., 1:1. Jan. - Racial delimitation of Poland. J. M. Robertson. Polish R., 1: 109. Apr.

— Rebuilding (The) of Poland. Arthur E. Gurney, Polish R., 1: 159. Apr. Prisoners of War. Création d'une organisation officielle pour déterminer les indemi

tés à exiger de l'Allemagne et de ses alliés en faveur des prisonniers de guerre victimes de violations des lois de la guerre. A. Romberg-Nisard. Clunet, 44: 1277.

- Prisonniers de guerre français en Allemagne, ravitaillement alimentaire, envoi de colis, boîtes de conserve, ouverture par les Allemands, détérioration

et perte, protestations officielles, négociations. Clunet, 44: 1707. Roumania. Roumania betrayed by Russia: Secret documents of Czar's government.

Current History, 7 (pt. 1): 167. Russia. Elements of the Russian Revolution. P. Vinogradoff. Quarterly R., 228:

184. July. - Kerensky and the Revolution. E. H. Wilcox. Atlantic, 120: 693. Nov.

- Philosophic basis of the Russian Revolution. Angelo S. Rappoport. Edinburgh R., 226: 113. July.

- Roots (The) of the Russian Revolution. Edw. A. Ross. Century, 95: 192. Oct. - Russia's danger: its cause and cure. Charles Johnston. N. American R., 206: 384. Sept.

Russia. Russian (The) Slavophiles and the Polish question. Semen Rappoport.

Polish R., 1: 141. Apr.
- Russian revolution. Current History, 7 (pt. 1): 63. Oct.

Russia's radicals in revolt. Current History, 7 (pt. 1): 419. Dec.
Russie (La) revolutionnaire. E. Pajolste. Le Correspondant, 231:3. Oct.

Ruthenian (The) question in Russia. Semen Rappoport. Contemporary, 112: 300. Sept. - Socialist parties of Russia. What each stands for. Current History, 7 (pt. 1): 265. Nov. - Two (The) Moscow councils. Charles Johnston. N. American R., 206:

550. Oct. Scandinavia. Guerre (La) et les pays scandinaves — Le blocus - L'espionnage

L'opinion – Les derniers incidents et la neutralité de la Suède. Jacques de

Coussauge. Le Correspondant, 230: 1026. Sept. Serbia. Serbia and European peace. Milivoy S. Stanoyevich. N. American R.,

206: 583. Oct. - Démocratie (La) serbe et la question yongo-slave. Milorade Zébitch.

R. int. de Sociologie, 25: 77. Feb.

- Serbia: the buffer state. Yale R., 7: 90. Oct. Socialism. International socialism. A. Shadwell. Edinburgh R., 226: 209. Oct. Spain. Spain and Germany. José de Armas. Quarterly R., 228: 169. July.

- Spain and the war. Luis A. Bolin. Edinburgh R., 226: 134. July. - Spain and the world war. Manuel de J. Galvan. Current History, 7 (pt. 1): 58. Oct.

- Spain in the world's debate. A. F. Bell. Contemporary, 112: 264. Sept. Submarine War. Submarine war: Germany's latest miscalculation. Archibald Hurd. Fortnightly, 102: 525. Oct.

Belgian (The) Prince U-boat crime. Current History, 7 (pt. 1): 55. Oct. Sweden. Sweden's unneutral acts. Current History, 7 (pt. 1): 53. Oct. Switzerland. Répression de l'espionnage en Suisse. Emile Thilo. Clunet, 44: 1674. Turkey. German methods in Turkey. Quarterly R., 228: 296. Oct.

- How Turkey joined the Germans. A question of the date raised by a secret telegram from Berlin to King Constantine. Current History, ņ (pt. 1):

334. Nov. Treitschke, Henry von. Enrico von Treitschke. Antoine Guilland. Nuova Rivista

Slouca, 1: 162. Apr.-June. United States. America and the world crisis. Albion W. Small. Amer. J. of So

ciology, 13:145. Sept. - Américains et Français aux Etats-Unis pendant la guerre de l'Indépen

dance. Antoine de Tarlé. Le Correspondant, 231: 531. - Effect of the United States in the war. Arnold Bennett. Current History,

7 (pt. 1): 446. Dec. - Naturalised American. James Davenport Whelpley. Fortnightly, 102: 594.

Oct. - War (The) and the constitution. Henry Jones Ford. Atlantic, 120: 485. Oct.

United States. War's cost to the United States compared with that of former

wars and bills in peace time. Official Bulletin, Oct. 6, 1917.

- Why we are at war. D. Wannamaker. South Atlantic Q., 16: 289. Oct. Vatican. Foreign relations of the Vatican. Otto Roese. Open Court, 31: 662. Nov. Vienna. Historic (A) peace conference. The Congress of Vienna. Allan Westcott. Current History, 7 (pt. 1): 538. Dec.



THE VIENNA TREATIES SWITZERLAND's neutrality, as exhibited during the present European conflict and also on the occasion of other wars of the past century, does not found itself simply upon principles of international law, but rests directly upon a series of explicit international and constitutional documents and is deeply interlocked with the historical development of the country and with the foundation and growth of its government. Differentiating itself widely from that attitude of mere aloofness exhibited by a nation which declines to join a struggle in which others may be engaged, Swiss neutrality is an essential element of the country's governmental existence and is intended by the nature and sanctions of its origin to be as permanent as the nation itself. Such an aspect of neutrality is termed neutralization; though in origin quite dissimilar to that of Switzerland, this international quality was also characteristic, at the outbreak of the present war in 1914, of Belgium and Luxemburg, as well as of a variety of smaller governmental entities or adjuncts.

We may, perhaps, assign a beginning to Switzerland's neutral existence by dating it from the permanent peace between Switzerland and France concluded at Freiburg, November 12, 1516, since from this date Switzerland, considered as a homogeneous federal alliance, did not again take any direct part in warlike activities, as it had done in the Milan campaign undertaken for the purpose of driving France from northern Italy and which had culminated in the battle at Marignano September 14, 1515. On May 5, 1521, an offensive and defensive alliance was made with France and renewed in 1663, 1715, and 1777. On the latter occasion Swiss neutrality was expressly guaranteed by


Again, the conclusion of the celebrated treaties at Münster and Osnabrück in' 1648, and known as the Peace of Westphalia, furnishes another landmark in Switzerland's neutral development; it here definitely parted company from the Empire and attempted to introduce into its neutral attitude the principle that thereafter no Swiss territory should be open to the transit of a foreign army, although the associated German-speaking Cantons, then known as Orte, thought it no impairment of neutral principles for their several state governments to furnish mercenary contingents to the various armies of Europe, a practice, in fact, continued far into the nineteenth century.

During the years following the Peace of Westphalia, the Swiss states, by way of defining and strengthening their neutral attitude, determined to affirm their position against possible aggression, and on March 18, 1668, executed, though not for the first time, a document known as Defensional, by which the various Orte and their allies became mutually obliged to furnish certain armed contingents for territorial protection, thus making the important principle of armed neutrality (Wehrverfassung) a permanent element of their constitutional frame work.

Switzerland's neutrality was now and for long years afterward almost continuously threatened, both on the part of France and the Empire, and doubtless the ambitions and activities of these powerful neighbors did much toward developing Swiss conceptions of a fundamentally neutral state as furnishing the only certain condition of continuity in that allied existence through which the Swiss pastoral and agricultural communities could realize their ideals of freedom and independence.

Coming now to the practical initiation of Swiss neutrality in its present-day aspects, we note, in the first place, the treaty with France of 1777, concluded under pressure of threatened Austrian aggression and whose tragic issue was seen in the memorable defense of the Tuileries at Paris by the Swiss Guard on August 10, 1792. It was, however, from the Revolution itself that Swiss progress really takes its rise. With the French invasion of Canton Vaud, in 1798, there begins a long series of constructive constitutional activity, a view of whose various steps is indispensable if we are to rightly understand

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