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Avenir (L') de nos colonies. Joseph Chailley. R. des questions coloniales 43:1. January-February. Contracts. Effect (The) of war contracts. John M. Hall. Columbia Law R., 18:
325. April. Damages. Caractère individuel du droit à la réparation des dommages en régions
envahies. René Jacquelin. R. pol. et parl., 90:297. March. Democracy. Problem (The) of democracy. W. Allison Phillips. Edinburgh R.,
227:209. April. Diplomacy. Diplomats at the Authors' Club. Unpopular R., 9:1.
— Optreden der diplomatie. Vrede door Recht, 18:29. March-April. - Perils of secret diplomacy. L. J. Maxse. National R., 70:347. November.
- Real (The) secret diplomacy. G. K. Chesterton. N. American R., 207:505. April. - Use (The) and abuse of diplomacy. A. F. Pollard. Contemporary R.,
113:406. April. Disarmament. Disarmament according to Delbruck. A. F. Whyte. New Europe,
6:321. Dobrudja, The. Annexation of the Dobrudja. New. Europe, 6:327. Egypt. Declaration of a protectorate in Egypt and its legal effects. Sir Malcolm
McIlwraith. J. of Society of Comparative Legislation, 17:238. Enemy, The. Enemy ships in harbor at the outbreak of war. J. of Society of
Comparative Legislation, 17:269. European War. Fundamentals (The) of the situation. André Chéredame. At
lantic, 121:529. April. - Ostasiatiske Krigsproblemer. Arthur Christensen. Gads Danske M., 12:65. - President Wilson's answer to Germany's challenge of force. Speech at Baltimore. April 6, 1918. World Court, 4:314. May. - Prussian manners. The Germans in invaded France. C. Journelle. Atlantic, 121:696. May. – Victory (The) that will end the war. The league of nations. The Bolshevik panaceas. The victory of right essential to lasting peace. Round Table, 8:221. - World (The) war and its effect on future private international law. Jules
Valery. Harvard Law R., 31:980. May. Finland Finland before and since the Russian revolution. Herbert Wright.
Contemporary R., 118:447. April. Flanders. Guerre (La) d'autrefois dans les Flandres (1706). A. Britsch. R. des
Études Hist., 25:498. - Germany and the Flemings. Henri Davignan. Contemporary R., 113:
440. April. Fonseca, Bay of. Estados Unidos en la Bahia de Fonseca. R. de Derecho hist. y
- To safeguard the seas. Harrington Emerson. Review of Reviews 67:609. June.
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Government. Government (The) of Europe. Sigma Minus. Calcutta R., 1918:58. Germany. Allemagne (L') et nous. Lettre de l'impératrice Eugénie et réponse de
Guillaume Ier roi de Prusse, 26 octobre 1870. R. Historique, 127:(1). - How Germany treats the native. Evan Lewis and M. Montgomery
Campbell. Quarterly R., 229:372. April. Holland. Holland and the war. P. Geyl. Contemporary R., 113:288. March. Islam. Islam and the war. Sir Valentine Chirol. Quarterly R., 229:489. April. - Menace (The) of Islam. Frank Ballard. London Quarterly R., 1918:180.
April. International Law. Codification of international law. A league of nations and
international law. Charles G. Fenwick. American Political Science R., 12: 301. May. - Fight (The) for continued existence of international law. World Court, 4:278. May. - Future (The) of international law. E. S. Roscoe. N. American R., 207: 558. April. - Sources (The) of international law. Charles C. Fenwick. Michigan Law R., 16:393. April. - Autonomia e solidarietà nella società internazionale. V. Maugans.
R. Internazionale, 75:3. Internationalism. Internationalisme (L') et la guerre. Georges Dauville. Mercure,
126:385. April. Italy. Italie (L') et la guerre. Pierre de Quirielle. Le Correspondant, 261:72.
April. Japan. Anglo-Japanese (The) Alliance. Chujiro Matsuyama. New East, Septem
ber, 1917, p. 66.
Japan and China. Gilbert Reid. J. of Race Development, 8:379.
Japan's attitude towards the world war. Charles R. Hicks. J. of Race Development, 8:346. January. - Mikado's (The) ratification of the foreign treaties. Payson J. Treat.
American Hist. R., 23:531. April. Jews. Palestine and Jewish nationalism. Round Table, 8:308. - Nationalisme (Le) juif et la Palestine. R. P. Lagrange. Le Correspondant,
261:3. April. Lichnowsky. Lichnowsky (The) memorandum. Text. New Europe, 6:344. - Prince Lichnowsky's memorandum. Review of Reviews, 57:643. June. League of Nations. Public opinion of a League of Nations. World Court, 4:302.
Macedonia Macedonian question. Dusan Popovic. New Europe, 6:333.
temporary R., 119:567. May. Monroe Doctrine. Latin America and the Monroe Doctrine. Unpopular R., 9:97. - Monroe (The) doctrine from the Latin American point of view. Alejandro
Alvarez. St. Louis Law R., 2:135. Nationalism. From nationalism to federation. John Mavrogordato. New Europe, · 7:69. May.
Nationalism. Unpopular R., 9:154. Nationality. Nationality of married women. G. G. Phillimore. J. of Society of
Comparative Legislation, 17:165. - Nationality, the League of Nations and the International Constitution. Paul Otlet. World Court, 4:305. May. - Répudiation (La) de nationalité pendant la guerre. R. Japiot. R. pol.
et parl., 90:334. March. - Roman (The) congress of oppressed nationalities. New Europe, 7:74.
May. Neutrality. Enforced neutrality. New East, October, 1917, p. 1. - Fin (La) de la neutralité. Ed. Giretti. La Paix par le droit, 28:97.
April. Panama. Canal (El) de Panamá desde el punto de vista politico international.
José R. Basterra. Revista Nueva, 3:305.
- Panamakanalens Forsvar. E. von Halling. Gads Danske M., 12:92. Pan-America. Panamericanismo. Monroe y Alberdi. R. de derecho, historia y
letras, 20:49. April. Peace. Emperor Charles's peace letter. World Court, 4:316. May. - Industrial peace and world peace. Unpopular R., 9:21.
Peace fallacies. H. Douglas Gregory. Empire R., 32:80. Portugal. Révolution (La) Portugaise. Ernest Lémonon. R. pol. et parl., 94:83.
- Vernietiging van neutrale prijzen en hoe deze kan worden voorkomen.
Vrede door Recht, 18:25. March-April. Prisoners of War. German savages at home. Report of Government committee
on treatment by the enemy of British prisoners of war. National R., 71:217.
- Historic (An) document. Agreement between Great Britain and Germany respecting “Combatant and civilian prisoners of war.” New East,
October, 1917, p. 21. - Prisoners of war. J. of Society of Comparative Legislation, 17:263. Recognition. Recognition (The) of the Spanish colonies by the motherland. Wm.
Spence Robertson American Hist. R., 1:70: February. Reconstruction. Principles (The) of reconstruction. C. Ernest Fayle. Quarterly
R., 129:414. April. Riders. Position of international rivers. J. of Society of Comparative Legislation,
17:267. Russia. Aftermath (The) of revolution and the future of Russia. Baron Heyking.
Contemporary R., 113:509. May.
THE AMERICAN JOURNAL OF INTERNATIONAL LAW
704 THE AMERICAN JOURNAL OF INTERNATIONAL LAW
- Bolsheviks (The). A protest. Sir Paul Vinogradoff. New Europe, 7:71. May.
Repercussion of Bolshevism in Asia. Treaty Port. Contemporary R., 113:301. March. - Revolutionary Russia. Simon Litman. American Political Science R., 12:181. May. - Rivoluzione (La) russa e l'Asia centrale. C. Marobbio. R. d'Italia, 30: 627. December. - Russia — Another federation of the Rhine? Fabricus. Fortnightly, 103:539. April.
- Russia (La) entre l'Allemagne et la France. Michel Katkov. Le Cor
respondant, 261:45. April. Scotland. Scotland and the peace Congress. Scottish R., 41:1. April. Siberia. Plea (A) for Siberia. M. A. Czaplika. New Europe, 6:339. Small States. Avenir (L') des petits états. Baron Beyens. Revue des deux Mondes,
43 (1):38; 44:281. Spain. Elements (The) of future Spain. S. de Madariaga. Contemporary R., 113:
527. May. Sweden. Suède (La) et la guerre. Lucien Maury. Revue Bleue, 56:215. April
May. Submarine War. Guerre (La) sous-marine et les coutoumes de la mer. Henri
Malo. Mercure, 125:231. Treaties. Pourparlers (Les) de Brest-Litovsk. La Paix par le droit, 28:16.
January - Treaties. Roland R. Foulke. Columbia Law R., 18:422. May. Turkey. Ambassador Morgenthau's story. World's Work, 36:154.
- Policy (A) for Turkey. H. N. Brailsford. Contemporary R., 113:389.
April. United States. American war aims. Round Table, 8:238. Vatican. Pontifice (El) de la paz. Las bases particulares de su nota a los jefes de
los pueblos beligerantes. P. Villada. Razon y Fe, 50:462. April. - Pope (The) and the Peace Congress. Sewanee R., 36:129. April-June. - Many-headed democracies and war. By Politicus. Fortnightly R., 103: 652. May.
- Sanctions économiques de la guerre et de la paix. Gabriel Hanotaut. La Revue Hebdomadaire, 27:281.
CHANGE OF SOVEREIGNTY AND CONCESSIONS
I. GENERAL PRINCIPLES
THE principle of international law as announced by Chief Justice Marshall in the famous Percheman Case' and supported by a long list of American decisions is that no confiscation of private property in land results from a mere change of sovereignty. Will this principle be sufficient and adequate to protect private property rights in concessions and contracts? In other words, since contracts no less than land may constitute valuable and irreplaceable private property, should any distinction be made, in the application of the Percheman principle, between land and contracts ?
Where the parties to the contracts are private persons or corporations there seems to be no essential distinction between property in the form of land and property in the form of contracts. In either case the change of sovereignty must, of itself, effect no forfeiture; where, for instance, territory passes out of the sovereignty of State X and under the sovereignty of State Y, just as State Y must not allow the change of sovereignty to affect the ownership of land held by a private individual, A, within the ceded territory, so State Y must not allow it to affect the ownership of contract rights, held by A against some private obligor or debtor, B.?
17 Peters, 51. In the course of his opinion Chief Justice Marshall said: “It is very unusual, even in cases of conquest, for the conqueror to do more than to displace the sovereign and assume dominion over the country. The modern usage of nations, which has become law, would be violated ... if private property should be generally confiscated, and private rights annulled. The people change their allegiance; ... but their relations to each other, and their rights of property, remain undisturbed. ... A cession of territory is never understood to be a cession of the property belonging to its inhabitants. ... The cession of a territory by its name from one sovereign to another ... would be necessarily understood to pass the sovereignty only, and not to interfere with private property."
2 Where the law in State X differs from that in State Y, State Y must enforce those contracts which are valid by X law.