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sular authorities to recommend such escort to French nationals but providing that travelers incurred no expenses thereby.

On the 2nd of October, 1903, the Dean circulated another letter from the Sultan's Foreign Minister drawing the attention of the Diplomatic Corps to the insecurity of the territory surrounding the town of Rabat and stating that the Governor of that part declined all responsibility for the safety of foreign subjects venturing away from the town. The Moorish Minister for Foreign Affairs therefore requested the ministers to issue instructions to their consuls and subjects prohibiting their excursions to the country surrounding Rabat.

The draft of the Dean's reply was unanimously adopted by the Diplomatic Corps. It was to the effect that while the representatives of the Powers took into consideration the unsettled state of the country, these conditions could not remove the responsibilities of the authorities nor relieve them of their duty to provide for the security of the country, but that on the contrary under these conditions their responsibility was actually accentuated. The Sultan's Foreign Minister was therefore requested to instruct the Gov. ernor of Rabat that he should take proper measures to restore order and security. The consuls would no doubt act with prudence and would properly counsel their respective nationals but that the responsibility of the Moorish officials could in no way be diminished by a state of affairs which demanded the full exercise of their authority.

Again in November of the same year, the Sultan's Foreign Minister requested the members of the Diplomatic Corps to notify their respective subjects of a Shereefian order that no Europeans, either employes of the Maghzen or others, should undertake a journey to Fez or to Marrakesh without securing special permission, and adding that the Moorish Government declined responsibility in respect to Europeans who should travel unprovided with special authorization.

In his reply, which was unanimously approved by the Diplomatic Corps, the Dean stated that his colleagues requested him to say that while they regretted that circumstances demanded the restriction of free circulation in the Empire, they hoped that these measures were entirely temporary and at the same time they could not discharge the Maghzen from its responsibility for the security of the lives and property of their nationals traveling in Morocco.

From the above it will be conspicuously noted that in every instance in which the insecurity of the country was signalised by the Moorish Government the Powers invariably laid special stress upon the fact of the responsibility of the Maghzen and made it quite unmistakable that no circumstances would warrant any diminution of its liability regarding the safety of foreign subjects.

In accordance with this consistent attitude, the British Chargé d'Affaires, in the second tournée of Dean's circular referred to in my opening paragraph, the object of the present despatch, stated in his annotation that he was willing to issue instructions to British consular authorities that they should warn their subjects not to venture into the regions where the Maghzen had no authority, but he was of opinion that Sid Guebbass should be reminded that the treaties granted to foreigners the right to travel everywhere in Morocco and that the responsibility for the security of their lives and property devolved upon the Maghzen.

I put myself in harmony with the annotation of the British Chargé d'Affaires as several of my colleagues have done.

A rather interesting detail lies in the fact that the Moorish Minister's letter at present in circulation contains no explicit reference to the Maghzen's desire to repudiate its responsibilities, though no doubt this is the inference to be drawn from the mere fact that the dangerous regions have been specifically indicated as well as from the request that the representatives of the Powers should notify their subjects of the dangers attending them in these districts.

This attitude on the part of the Maghzen seems to receive subtle support from the French Chargé d'Affaires who states in his annotation on the Dean's circular that he agrees with Mr. White, but that it should be understood that the Maghzen, as in the past, remains free to indicate the regions where it will not answer for security.

Inasmuch as this question is still under discussion I respectfully solicit instructions from the Department as to what attitude I shall assume in the matter. I have [etc.]


File No. 881.111/1.

The American Chargé d'Affaires to the Secretary of State.

No. 370.]


Tangier, March 4, 1913. SIR: In further reference to my No. 363 of February 18, 1913, I have the honor to transmit herewith a copy of the amended draft of the letter which the Chevalier de Rappard, Dean of the Diplomatic Corps, proposes to address to Sid Mohamed Ben Mohamed ÊI Guebbass, the Sultan's Minister for Foreign Affairs at Tangier, in answer to his communication upon the subject of the insecurity for foreigners traveling in certain regions of the Shereefian Empire.

All my colleagnes have expressed their approval of the draft herewith submitted, with the exception of the Chargé d'Affaires of Belgium, who stated that he was referring the matter to his Government for instructions, my own annotation being of a similar nature.

The Department will observe that in the reply proposed by the Dean of the Diplomatic Corps to the Sultan's Foreign Minister, a clause has been introduced reserving the right for the Diplomatic Corps to determine, in each particular instance, the extent to which the responsibility of the Maghzen is involved, and I respectfully request that the Department inform me whether it deems this clause a sufficient guaranty to prevent the Maghzen from escaping its responsibility in respect to the protection of the lives and property of foreign subjects traveling or sojourning in any part of the Shereefian Empire.

In view of the urgency attached to the matter by the Dean of the Diplomatic Corps, I would respectfully request that the Department communicate its reply by cable. I have [etc.]


[Inclosure -- Translation. )

After usual compliments :

The Diplomatic Body has been informed with great Interest of the contents of your letter of the 10th Moharrem 1331 (December 20, 1912) in which your excellency requested us to warn our subjects that certain parts of the Shereefian territory, specified in the above-mentioned letter, are disturbed.

Although the treaties grant to foreigners the right to travel everywhere in Morocco and although the Diplomatic Body reserves to itself the right to consider, in each particular case, up to what point the responsibility of the Maghzen should be deemed to be exonerated, it recognises the difficulties which the Shereefian Government may experience in answering for the security of foreigners who should venture into certain districts.

Appreciating the anxiety shown by the Maghzen to watch over the security of foreigners in certain regions named, the representatives of the Powers have drawn the attention of their nationals to the parts of the Empire which they will do better to avoid for the moment.

Referring to the passage of the letter of your excellency in which it is de clared that the list drawn up by the Maghzen may be modified in proportion to the progress of pacification, the Diplomatic Corps observes that thi list is conceived in very vague terms and draws the attention of your excellency to the advantage there would be to define, if it were possible, in a more precise manner the regions where the insecurity is real, notably as far as concerns the communications between the large towns.

File No. 881.111.

The Acting Secretary of State to the American Chargé d'Affaires.

No. 113.]


Washington, March 24, 1913. Sir: The Department has received your despatch No. 363, of February 18, 1913, in which you state [etc.]

In reply you are informed that the attitude of this Government is to be one of firm insistence that American lives and property must be protected in conformity with treaty rights. The establishment of the French Protectorate would seem to imply that the responsibility for the protection of foreigners rests with France. I am [etc.]


File No. 881.111/1

The Acting Secretary of State to the American Chargé d'Affaires.



Washington, March 26, 1913. Your 370, March 4. Clause referred to would seem sufficient if changed to read as follows: “the Diplomatic Body reserves to its respective Governments”. Always bearing in mind the insistence of this Government that its treaty rights shall continue to be recognized, you will so far as possible act in accord with your colleagues.


File No. 881.111/2

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The American Chargé d'Affaires to the Secretary of State.


Tangier, June 30, 1913 Sir: I have the honor to inform the Department that according to its cabled instructions dated March 26, 1913, after personally assuring myself that the same would be acceptable to the majority of my colleagues, I officially communicated to the Dean of the Diplomatic Corps the modification suggested therein by the Department to the text of the letter which it was proposed to address to the Sultan's representative at Tangier, Sid Mohamed Ben Mohamed El Guebbass, in answer to his letter concerning the insecurity of foreigners traveling in certain parts of Morocco. The draft of this proposed reply was transmitted to the Department in my No. 370 of March 4, 1913.

The modification proposed by the Department was adopted by the representatives of the following Powers: Holland, Belgium, Italy, Great Britain, Portugal and Germany; and the amended passage in the second paragraph of the letter now reads:

the Diplomatic Body reserves to its respective Governments, etc. instead of:

the Diplomatic Body reserves to itself, etc. The letter thus amended was transmitted to the Sultan's representative here by the Dean of the Diplomatic Corps under date of April 30th last.

In view of the ambiguous nature of the annotation of the Representatives of France and Spain, the Powers principally interested, on the question of the amendment, their observations on the Décanat circular submitting my proposed modification being limited to a simple“ Vu” (Seen), the Dean of the Diplomatic Corps invited the various Legations to send their respective interpreters to collaborate in the translation into Arabic of the amended answer to the Sultan's representative; and the compliance on the part of the French and Spanish Legations with this request together with the fact of the actual collaboration of their interpreters cannot but be construed as an acceptance on their part of the terms of the reply as it was amended in accordance with the proposal of the Department.

In view of the possible importance of this question, I have deemed it advisable to place these facts before the Department in order that they may become a matter of record. I have [etc.]


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File No. 500.A 1 B/64.

The American Minister to the Secretary of State. No. 166.]


The Hague, September 3, 1913. Sir: I have the honor to inform the Department that on the 28th ultimo the Palace of Peace at The Hague was dedicated. His Excellency Jhr. A. P. C. van Karnebeek, President of the Carnegie Foundation, in an appropriate address tendered the palace to the Administrative Council of the Court of Arbitration, which was formally accepted for the Nations in an address by His Excellency Jhr. R. de Marees van Swinderen, Minister for Foreign Affairs, ex officio President of the Administrative Council.

The ceremony, which was of a formal, dignified, impressive character, was attended by the Queen, the Queen Mother, the Prince of the Netherlands, with their full suites, the Diplomatic Corps, Mr. and Mrs. Carnegie, the Carnegie Foundation Committee, about 40 members of the Court of Arbitration, the Secretary General of the Court of Arbitration with all the other functionaries, the Cabinet Ministers, members of the States General and other high dignitaries, all with their ladies. In all there were about 400 persons assembled in the large hall of the Palace of Peace, when the Chairman of the Carnegie Foundation, at 3.30 p. m., delivered his address, setting forth the history of the peace movement and the constitution of the Carnegie Foundation for the purpose of erecting the Palace of Peace at The Hague.

These official proceedings lasted fully an hour, after which the Queen, escorted by Messrs. van Karnebeek and van Swinderen, and followed by the entire audience, made a general inspection of the building and the beautifully laid out gardens surrounding the palace.

Both on his approach and his return to the Legation, where he was a guest during his entire stay in The Hague, Mr. Carnegie was the recipient of a great popular demonstration. I have [etc.]



POSES. File No. 811.015256.

The American Consul at Amsterdam to the Secretary of State.


Amsterdam, July 10, 1913. Sir: I have the honor to report that the American flag is constantly to be seen floating above the entrance of a so-called " Ameri

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