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ject of liberal interpretation of the Japanese land law, was given at the instance of the United States, because of the condition of reciprocity contained in that law. The assurance was given, as stated in the note, “In return for the rights of land ownership which are granted to Japanese by the laws of the various States of the United States."
The laws of Japan on the subject of alien land tenure are not illiberal, but, in any case, they contain no provisions discriminating, in any manner whatever, against the citizens of the United States. On the contrary, in all that relates to land ownership, as well as in the matter of all other civil rights, the American citizens, without distinctions and without conditions, are accorded in Japan full and complete most favored nation treatment, and there is no desire on the part of the Japanese administration to modify this state of things. What Japan claims is nothing more than fair and equal treatment.
The Secretary of State, it is observed, dwells at length upon the subject of labor immigration into the United States, and, in the same relation, he refers to the action of Japan in circumstances somewhat analogous to those existing in America. The reason or necessity for this exposition is not understood by the Imperial Government. The question of immigration has nothing whatever to do with the present controversy, and any reference to it only tends to obscure the real issue. This announcement I wish to make very categorical. More than four years ago, the Imperial Government willingly cooperated with the American Government in adopting suitable measures in regulation of labor movements from Japan to the United States. The steps thus taken were entirely efficacious, so that during the past three years considerably more Japanese laborers left the United States than have entered that country. The Government of the United States has recognized and frankly admitted the sufficiency of the measures enforced by the Imperial Government in the matter. The Japanese Ambassador to the United States, at the time of the conclusion of the treaty of 1911, declared under the authority of his Government that the Imperial Government were fully prepared to maintain with equal effectiveness the limitation and control which were then exerted in regulation of the emigration of laborers to the United States. Accordingly, in order to correct and finally dispel the popular error, I wish to say that there is no question whatever be•tween Japan and the United States on the subject of the Japanese labor immigration into the United States. The present controversy relates exclusively to the question of the treatment of the Japanese subjects who are lawfully in the United States or may hereafter lawfully become resident therein consistently with the existing regulations. So far as such subjects are concerned, the Imperial Governbent claim for them fair and equal treatment, and are unable either to acquiesce in the unjust and obnoxious discrimination complained of, or to regard the question as closed so long as the existing state of things is permitted to continue.
You are requested to explain the substance of this instruction to the Secretary of State and deliver a copy.
MESSAGE OF THE PRESIDENT, DANIEL E. HOWARD, TO THE
LEGISLATURE. File No. 882.032/11.
NOTE. The message of President Daniel E. Howard was communicated to the Legislature of Liberia December 17, 1913, and was transmitted to the Secretary of State by the American Chargé d'Affaires, Mr. Richard C. Bundy.
[Extracts.] The trouble at River Cess? has claimed our serious attention this year. We do not now feel wholly warranted in saying that the disorder has been finally quelled, still peace reigns and law and authority are fully established and being maintained from River Cess to Lower Buchanan. An attempt was made by the Krus in June to take River Cess, but they were successfully repulsed with heavy losses by Lieutenant Smith, of the Frontier Force, of whose gallant conduct Major Ballard speaks in terms of merited praise.
I am pleased to be able to inform you that the troubles in the Gio section, in the rear of Grand Bassa County, where the Rubber Corporation is, or was, operating, have been successfully settled.
Conditions on the Franco-Liberian boundary, and particularly the Cavalla River Section, have been very peaceful save for a little trade incident which happened between the merchants of Maryland County and the natives on our side. We were informed that the traders of the Cavalla formed themselves into a combination and greatly reduced the prices formerly paid for produce, while they maintained in fact the selling prices of their goods. As a retaliation the natives elected to and did carry their produce over to the French side for sale. The matter was brought to our attention and was discussed with the General Receiver of Customs and, while we both preferred having the produce disposed of in our territory, we saw no legal way of compelling the natives to do so, since indeed in trading with the French merchants they complied fully with our laws. This is one of the proofs that we are not placing any barriers in the way of traffic with our neighbors on the southeast.
The Secretary of State will submit to your Honorable Body the . findings in the matter of the Attia claims against the Government; also the awards concerning the claims for losses sustained by the German merchants' at River Cess and points adjacent, at the settlement of Brewerville, and in the case of damages sustained by some clerks of the firin of A. Woermann at the hands of Krumen in Monrovia.
It gives me very great pleasure to convey to you the information that our Consul General at Washington, U. S.A., Dr. Ernest Lyon, notified the Secretary of State on the 9th of October, that he had success. fully concluded the transactions relative to the Donovan Fund, and
i Printed post, pp. 6.35 et seq. and 682 et seg. : Printed post, pp. 686 et seq.
that the accumulated sum of sixty-five thousand five hundred eleven dollars and eleven cents had been duly turned over to him by the president of the American Colonization Society for which amount he had given his receipt. He further stated that this sum had been deposited in a bank of which the American Colonization Society is a depositor and whose treasurer is a member of the Colonization Society.
The late Caroline Donovan, of the State of Maryland in the United States of America, being possessed of certain real estate in the City of Baltimore, executed a deed of trust to the American Colonization Society, giving said property in trust to the Society for the transportation annually to Liberia of such colored persons as might desire to emigrate from the United States. Should the transportation of such persons for any one year not require the net income from the said property for that year, such balance remaining should be applied by the Society to the maintenance of public schools for the education of colored children in Liberia. This sixty-five thousand five hundred eleven dollars and eleven cents represents the accumulated balances of the net income of this fund.
It is altogether right and fitting that we should express our appreciation for this donation and for the amount now coming to Liberia, and becoming available as it does at this time when there is a general cry throughout the Republic for an industrial school. I am certain that the wishes of the donor, as well as those of our friends in America, will be adequately carried out. We have already placed ourselves in touch with more than one of the societies in America interested in education in Liberia with a view of securing their advice and cooperation in the procuring of suitable teachers for the establishment of an efficient industrial plant, and from this cooperation, backed by our hearty approval and enthusiasm, we are sanguine that such results will be obtained as will revolutionize our school work.
A bill is being prepared relative to the Donovan Fund governing the appropriation of same towards the establishment and maintenance of an industrial and normal school in honor of the donor of this bequest.
GOOD OFFICES OF THE UNITED STATES IN COMPOSING DIFFI.
CULTIES WITH THE GERMAN GOVERNMENT.
File No. 882.00/447.
The American Chargé d'Affaires to the Secretary of State. No. 53.]
Monroria, October 12, 1912. Sir: I have the honor to make the following report to the Department with reference to certain disorders that occurred in the city of Vonrovia recently, which at the time seemed to be assuming very serious proportions.
During the last week in September and the first three or four days in October, several Europeans residing in the city of Monrovia were set upon after dark presumably by irresponsible young Liberians and stoned. I have been credibly informed that there were four distinct attacks of this character on as many different parties. The first persons who were victims of these attacks were Englishmen, but after two or three days Germans and Dutchmen were assailed in it similar manner.
One instance I personally investigated and found that a German clerk had been struck on the hand by a missile of considerable size. The hand was rather seriously injured. This was the only case I know of in which bodily injury was sustained. But it was reported to me that several persons had the lanterns which they were carrying smashed, and were compelled to run to avoid being struck. So far as I have been able to ascertain, it does not seem that any of the parties attacked were in any way guilty of actions likely to stir up disorder. They were simply walking the streets in a peaceable manner, as was their custom.
The serious feature about these disorders is, that all the Europeans in the city complained bitterly to their respective consuls. Among the foreign consuls there was much talk to the effect that foreigners' lives were not safe in Monrovia, and Liberian officials were either so inefficient or indolent as not to be able to control the situation. The Acting German Consul was actually on the point of cabling to his Government this view of the situation, on account of pressure from the irritated German residents here. I let it be known that it was my opinion that the situation was by no means beyond the control of the Liberian civil authorities, and that a fair opportunity ought at least be given them to deal with the disorder before any steps were taken by the foreign representatives that were likely to involve consequences the end of which could not be foreseen. The Acting German Consul informed me verbally that it was his intention to cable his Government, if there were another single instance of an attack upon a German subject or property. He made me the promise, however, that if in his opinion it became necessary for him to cable, he would advise me of his intention before so doing.
I have also orally discussed these disorders with the French and English consular officers here, and it has been decided that it would be better to have a conference of all the foreign representatives in Monrovia, at which a common course of action could be outlined, if it became apparent that the Liberian authorities were unable to cope with the situation, than for each officer to act independently and possibly give rise to serious misunderstanding.
I do not think the Liberian authorities are unable to deal adequately with disorders of this character, but I feel in the case under discussion that they might have moved more expeditiously and completely suppressed the outbreaks of a few rowdy incorrigibles after the first attack, and thus prevented the question from ever assuming international proportions. The slowness of the authorities gave an opportunity to this lawless element to make an attack on the American Legation.
On the night of October 3rd, 1912, after the retirement of all the occupants of the Legation, a stone of about one-half pound in weight was thrown by unknown parties through one of the office windows on the first floor, where with the fragments of the shattered pane I found it next morning. The noise of breaking the window had not
been sufficient to attract my attention at the time it was done, so the fact was not discovered until next morning.
I promptly took the matter up with the Secretary of State in a despatch of October 4th, 1912, in which I protested against the assault on the Legation and requested protection. In his reply the Secretary of State made appropriate apologies and offered me a guard of frontier soldiers to protect the Legation. This I respectfully declined, as I pointed out to him that a guard of soldiers stationed around the Legation would confirm the impression current in the minds of Europeans in Monrovia, that the civil authorities were unable to take care of the situation; and if this information were to get abroad, it would likely be very embarrassing to the Liberian Government. Not only this, I also expressed the opinion that the disorder could have been very easily subdued by a little greater activity on the part of the civil authorities. I therefore, confined my request for protection to the nightly detail of a policeman to do duty in the vicinity of the Legation until such time as I could feel reasonably sure that all danger from a recurrence of the assault had passed. This request was immediately complied with, and until the time of writing I have heard of no more attacks, either on foreigners or their property.
I am further informed that the Secretary of State offered a guard of soldiers to each of the foreign consular officers here, in his reply to their respective protests and demands for protection. None of the consular officers, I have learned, accepted the guard.
The thing that appears to call forth the most unfavorable comment by the resident consular officers is that they seem to feel that the Liberian authorities too seldom detect criminals; and the punishment inflicted when they are caught and brought into court is not in keeping with the offense. The claim is frequently made that this condition invariably develops if the party undertaking the prosecution is a foreigner. The recent disorders might easily have created a very difficult situation, as I am reliablv informed that after the first attack was reported most of the foreigners went about the streets after dark heavily armed and had expressed their intention to protect themselves if they were assaulted. Fortunately no occasion arose which re
It is gratifying to report that the Liberian Government and the host citizens greatly deplore these clisturbances and. I have no evidence that would tend to fix responsibility for the trouble in this direction. Some say that it is an expression of resentment on the part of sympathizers with Cooper and Lomax, directed against foreigners because it was felt that they had scant respect for the court proceedings which acquitted the accused men.' I have heard many times that Europeans have frequently and openly expressed their contempt for the outcome of the Cooper-Lomax trials, but I am not yet personally prepared to account for the disorder on this ground. Other reports say, that it was an effort to discredit the present administration by, stirring up trouble which it could not manage and involve it in international complications. This explanation I also discard. I think the most probable solution is, that the whole affair was started by rowdy,
1 For. Rel. 1912, p. 601, 42