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EXPATRIATION OF NATURALIZED CITIZENS.
File No. 136.2/57a.
No. 193. Special Inst.uction. Consular.
DEPARTMENT OF STATE,
Washington, February 28, 1913. To the American Diplomatic and Consular Officers in Central
America, Mexico, Panama, and the T'est Indies, and the Consular Officers in Canada.
GENTLEJEN: With reference to the circular instruction of April 19, 1907,' and amending instruction of May 14, 1908, prescribing rules whereunder the presumption of expatriation arising against naturalized Anierican citizens under the provision of the second paragraph of section 2 of the act of March 2, 1907, may be overcome, you are informed that the Department has come to the conclusion that exceptional treatment should be accorded certain naturalized citizens temporarily residing in countries near to the United States for reasons and in a manner not inconsistent with the retention of American citizenship and protection. Accordingly, in pursuance of the dis(retionary authority vested in the Department by the law mentioned, the following rule is prescribed in addition to the existing rule:
! Special rule a): In the case of a naturalized American citizen residing in Canada, Mexico, the West Indies, Central America or Panama, the presumption of expatriation may be overcome upon his presenting to a diplomatic or consular officer satisfactory evidence that he is employed by a legitimate corporation or company or principally engaged in any legitimate concern, which is effectively owned and controlled by a citizen or citizens of the United States and materially promotes the interests of this country, and that he intends to return to the United States to reside.
When there seems to be any doubt as to the application and effect of the above rule in a particular case the matter should be referred to the Department, with a full statement of the pertinent facts and circumstances, for its determination. In this connection it may be observed that, in the case of a person against whom the presumption of expatriation has arisen, if it is shown that he has retained in good faith in this country a residential house or other property, such fact, although not of itself decisive, should be given due weight in determining his status, and particularly the question of his intention of returning to the United States to reside. I am [etc.]
P. C. Krox.
Expatriation; Citizenship. The provisions of this eircular apply to the diplomatie and consular offices in SPEECH OF SENATOR ELIHU ROOT IN THE SENATE, JANUARY 16,
1 For. Rel. 1907, p. 3.
For. Rel. 1908, p. 2.
1913, REPUDIATING SENTIMENTS ATTRIBUTED TO HIM IN RELATION TO LATIN AMERICA.
File No. 710.11/90a and 90b.
DEPARTMENT OF STATE,
Washington, January 14, 1913. To the American Diplomatic Officers in Latin America.
GENTLEMEN : The Department learns that within the last few months articles have appeared in various newspapers in South and Central America commenting on an alleged speech of Senator Root clealing with Latin-American affairs. Senator Root is quoted as saying, among other things:
It is only a question of time until Mexico, Central America, and the islands that we still lack in the Caribbean Sea, will be brought under our flag. and other statements of a similar nature are attributed to him. This matter was first brought to the notice of the Department by the American Minister to Honduras', after an article of this character had appeared on October 26 last in “ El Cronista," a newspaper in Tegucigalpa.
Upon this article being brought to his attention, Senator Root authorized the following statement, which was transmitted by cable' to Minister White [at Tegucigalpa], and subsequently appeared in the press of Tegucigalpa :
WASHINGTON, November 25, 1912. The newspaper El Cronista " of Tegucigalpa published on October 20, 1912, certain alleged extracts from some speech of mine.
These are impudent forgeries. I never made any such speech. I never said any such things. The expressions contained in these spurious and pretended er. tracts are inconsistent with my opinions and abhorrent to my feelings. They are the exact opposite of the views which I have expressed on hundreds of occasions. during many years, both publicly and privately, officially and personally, and which I now hold and maintain.
ELIHU Root. Should newspaper articles of the character quoted above, attributing utterances of this nature to Senator Root, appear in the
of the country to which you are accredited, you will cause such publicity to be made of Senator Root's statement as in your judgment may be necessary to counteract the effect of such articles. I am [etc.]
P. C. Knox.
File No. 710,11/134.
DEPARTMENT OF STATE,
Washington, March 13, 1915. To the American Diplomatic Officers in Latin America.
GENTLEMEN: Referring to the Department's unnumbered instruction of January 14 last, concerning the publication in "El Cronista," a newspaper in Tegucigalpa, of an alleged speech of Senator Root dealing with Latin-American affairs, the Department encloses herewith a copy of the Congressional Record of January 16, 1913, beginning on page 1609 of which is printed the public repudiation in the Senate by Senator Root of the sentiments attributed to him in the ar
* File No. 710.11/83. Not printed.
ticle. Accompanying the Record is a translation into Spanish of Senator Root's remarks.
These papers have been sent to the Department at Senator Root's instance with the request that they be sent, through the channel of the Legation, to the Minister of Foreign Affairs of name of country). You are instructed to carry out this wish of Senator Root. I am [etc.]
Speech of Senator Elihu Root in the United States Senate, January 10, 1913.
[Extract from Congressional Record of January 16, 1913.)
QUESTION OF PERSONAL PRIVILEGE.
Mr. ROOT. Mr. President, I ask the indulgence of the Senate while I make a statement in a matter of personal privilege.
On the 26th of October last there was published in the newspaper "El Cionista " in Tegucigalpa, the capital of Honduras, a false and fabricated pretended speech alleged to have been made by me regarding the relations between the l'nited States and Central and South America. I send to the desk a trauslation of this pretended speech, and will ask that it be printed in the RECORD is a part of my statement, without detaining the Senate by reading it in tull.
ELUIC ROOT BEFORE LATIN AMERICA.
The following paragraphs of a recent speech of Mr. Root, United States Senator, exSecretary of State, and one of the most eminent personages of the Yankee country, ought to be known in Central America. As follows:
Our position in the Western Ilemisphere is unique and without example in modern t'story. This Nation is a greater and nobler Rome, placed by (od to act as arbitrator. Dot only in the destinies of all America, but also in Europe and Asia, through its natural resources and industrial products which supply the world. The English and German Aries are fed with tke meat which we send them. The supplies which Europe buys of us it could not obtain in any other world market if our exportation was suspended.
"Our manifest destiny as controller of the destinies of all America is a fact so inrsitatile and logical that only the means which we should employ in order to arrive at this end are left to be discussed ; but no one doubts our mission and our intention to fulGil it, or, what is more significant, of our power to accomplish it.
* In the second half of the twentieth century they who study the map will be very surprised that we should have waited so long' to round out the natural frontiers of our territory to the Panama Canal, and on the other side, to the Southern Continent, and that in the same manner (haya pasado con las Antillas todas, como en el viejo mundo, de no haberse encontrado el nuevo) the same should have happened to all the Antilles as happened in the Old World--that is, not to have discovered the New World, with the difference that we have no need of a Columbus, but rather of a simple joint resolution of our Congress.
** It is a question of time when MexicoCentral America, and the islands which we still lack in the Caribbean Sea shall fall beneath our flag. When the Panama Canal is Oppp It would be as insufficient to place a sentinel only in Porto Rico, without doing the same in Cuba, as if a man tied one arm in order to row, or a lady to put in one earring to adorn herself for a feast.
" Not long ago the Porto Rican delegates, headed by the representative of that island. who has a seat in our Congress, but does not vote, visited me in order that I, as president of the committee on Latin America affairs, should inform them what policy we proposed to follow in Porto Rico, and I expressed myself more or less as follows:
n. and always shall be opposed to grantin North American citizenship to the Porto Ricans, as well as to other Latin Americans who, for inevitable reasons, pass under our control, I believe that it would be prejudicial for both parties.
"As this desired citizenship from the outset would have to be understood in autonomons form, once granted greater discontent would not be long in following, maintaining that as citizens they are not equal to those of the Union.
* The granting of citizenship implies many other things and is clothed with uncertainty, and in any case it is too much to ask that we compromise ourselves for the Antilles with their handful of millions of inhabitants whose race, civilization, aspirations, and customs are not only distinct, but even antagonistic to ours.
"I told them that they were, after all, Latins, and as such, although the inheritors of glorious historic and artistic traditions and possessed of great domestic virtue and instruction, above all in abstract sciences, and a disposition for the arts, as Latins, I reDeat. they understood citizenship and other fundamental principles in a different way to the Saxons; and as these principles are judged by results, we are right and they are wrong. With the Latin Americans there does not exist, nor can we have anything in
common, if we except the good will which we mutually profess; but great as are these good wishes, they do not sustice to fill the gulf which separates us.
“ The United States augments in population, riches, and importance daily, and we can with difficulty take care of our own affairs, but being the case, 'why complicate our task with new lodgers in the house, as the Latin Americans converted into citizens of our great Nation cannot help but be?'
“I understand and confess that we are governing badly in Porto Rico, as we gorerned badly in Cuba the second time. But though we may do it badly we shall always do it better than the natives. In the Philippines, where our rule has been more strict, the results have been admirable. And the Porto Ricans, Cubans, and Filipinos should be convinced of the fact that, since our experience with the annexation of Hawaii, we will not repeat the expedient of citizenship. * If it
were possible for these Latin America nationalities to understand selfcontrol' and 'self-government,' as is the case with our northern neighbors, then Pan Americanism would be a beautiful reality, without necessitating our learning to command in: Spanish ; but can they or do they know how to govern themselves? Let Haiti say: let Mexico say; let Colombia, Panama, Nicaragua, and, above all, Cuba, twice instructed by us, watched diplomatically since and whose present economical disorganization is as disastrous as in the colonial epochs, say. In the hands of these people is their fate; but I doubt whether it will be good unless it is beneath our protectorate.
“ Did not the North American Government find itself on the eye of change to replace the present administration or to confirm it in power, no one would deny that in these hours we would have already solved the Mexican and Central American complication and given special attention to the economical affairs of the Great Antilla (Cuba). And who. ever speaks of national finances, speaks of all the Government and national system. Fortunately, and soon, we shall reach a tragical position, since 'alea jacta est," and whoever of the three candidates occupies the white IIouse, as they are of one opinion regarding foreign policy and, above all, expansion in America, the country can trust in the Congress, which with hands free will know how to second the Chief of State, as in 1812, 1845, 1861, and 1898."
This pretended speech contains most arrogant and offensive statements as to the relations which do and should exist betireen the United States and the Latin-American countries of these continents. I have denied over my own sig. nature the authenticity of this speech, and my denial has been published in Tegucigalpa. I should let the matter rest there were it not that this pretended speech is being published all over Central and South America, and that some years ago, while Secretary of State, I made a visit to South America and represented the United States in many expressions of friendship toward the people of the Latin-American countries. Owing to this and to the fact that I am still connected with the Government of the United Sates, these expressions in this pretended speech are being treated by the people of Latin America as indicating either a change in the attitude of the people of the United States or insincerity in the former expressions of friendship.
I send to the viesk and ask to have the Secretary read one illustration of the way in which this paper is being useil. It is an extract from an editorial published in the newspaper “El l'onógrafo," of Maracaibo, Venezuela, on the 28th day of November, 1912.
The PRESIDENT I'RO TEMPORE. It will be read as desired.
Senator Elihu Root, who before the whole Spanish America protested, when he was Secretary of State, that the United States did not desire even 1 inch more of territory than that which it already possessed and that the sovereignty of our different States would be l'espected, and who praised us for our ability and aptness for self-government, by one stroke of the pen bas blotted out those statements and other still stronger ones which he made in regard to the autonomy and independence of Spanish Imerica. In his last speech he says: "All America down to Panama, including the islands of the Carib. bean Sea, must be under our flag. We need Cuba, Mexico, and Central America as a man needs his two arms and a woman her two carrings."
In view of this flagrant contradiction, will there be anyone amongst us wlio will liare a particle of faith in the friendly protests of the United States?
We must not entertain any illusions, It is evident that the United States not only do not intend to endeavor to prevent Europe from taking possession of Latin Imerica. but they themselves pretend to become the arbiters of our political and commercial destinles.
Mr. ROOT. Because of the use which is being made of this publication by the enemies of the United States, by the men who wish to stir up strife and ereate ill feeling between the Latin-American countries and the United States, I wish to repeat here in the most formal and public manner, and to make a publie reeord of the denials which I have already made as to the authenticity of this pretendeel speech.
The alleged expressions which are thus imputeul to me are impudent forgeries. I rerer made any such speech. I never said any such things or wrote any such things. The expressions contained in these spurious and pretended extracts are inconsistent with my opinions and abhorrent to my feelings. They are the exact opposite of the views which I have expressed on hundreds of occasions during many years, both publicly and privately, officially and personally, and which I now hold and maintain. I will all. W. President, that they are inconsistent with the views and the feelings of the great body of the American people.
DECLARATION OF POLICY WITH REGARD TO LATIN AMERICA. File No. 710.11/102a.
DEPARTMENT OF STATE,
Washington, March 12, 1913–1 p. m. To the American Diplomatic Officers in Latin America.
In view of questions which are naturally uppermost in the public mind just now, the President issued the following statement to the public, March 11, 1913.
“One of the chief objects of my administration will be to cultivate the friendship and deserve the confidence of our sister republics of Central and South America, and to promote in every proper and honorable way the interests which are common to the peoples of the two continents. I earnestly desire the most cordial understanding and cooperation between the peoples and leaders of America and, therefore, deem it my duty to make this brief statement.
“Cooperation is possible only when supported at every turn by the orderly processes of just government based upon law, not upon arbitrary or irregular force. We hold, as I am sure all thoughtful leaders of republican government everywhere hold, that just government rests always upon the consent of the governed, and that there can be no freedom without order based upon law and upon the public conscience and approval. We shall look to make these principles the basis of mutual intercourse, respect, and helpfulness between our sister republics and ourselves. We shall lend our influence of every kind to the realization of these principles in fact and practice, knowing that disorder, personal intrigues, and defiance of constitutional rights weaken and discredit government and injure none so much as the people who are unfortunate enough to have their common life and their common affairs so tainted and disturbed. We can have no sympatlıy with those who seek to seize the power of government to advance their own personal interests or ambition. We are the friends of peace, but we know that there can be no lasting or stable peace in such circumstances. As friends, therefore, we shall prefer those who act in the interest of peace and honor, who protect private rights, and respect the restraints of constitutional provision. Mutual respect seems to us the indispensable foundation of friendship between states, as between individuals.
"The United States has nothing to seek in Central and South America except the lasting interests of the peoples of the two continents, the security of governments intended for the people and for no special group or interest, and the development of personal and trade relationships between the two continents which shall redound to the profit and advantage of both and interfere with the rights and liberties of neither.
- From these principles may be read so much of the future policy of this Government as it is necessary now to forecast, and in the spirit of these principles I may, I hope, be permitted with as much confidence as earnestness to extend to the Governments of all the Republics of America the hand of genuine disinterested friendship, and to pledge my own honor and the honor of my colleagues to every enterprise of peace and amity that a fortunate future may disclose."