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the same as that exercised 46 years ago when the Government at Washington intimated to Napoleon that the French troopis should be withdrawn from Mexico.

It is enough for us, not having interests there ourselves, to follow the policy of our friend the United States, which has important interests; and we should remember also that this is the policy of our Minister for Foreign Relations, who is so wisely directing our international policy.

From the Correio da Manhã:

The United States, in endeavoring to free Mexico from Huerta's Government, is inspired by the requirements of civilization and the rights of humanity. All the civilized world is in sympathy with this desire. Brazil, an old friend of the United States, together with other countries, welcomes the efforts of the Government at Washington to restore peace in Mexico, freeing that country at the same time from a government which Mexico herself repels, a government detested by the best citizens, a barbarous government which lose out of the assassination of Madero and which only lives through terror and the shedding of blood.

It remains to be seen whether the United States is in such a position in regard to Mexico that intervention is justified. This is a delicate question and for this reason the Government at Washington has hesitated to decide it. Nevertheless the United States and its citizens have suffered great losses. In Mexico it is not only the property of Americans that is to be protected but even their lives. The United States might also legitimately intervene in the cause of humanity.

File No. 812.00/9932.
The American Ambassador to Germany to the Secretary of State.



Berlin, November 27, 19136 p. m. The comments of the Foreign Office on Mexico are that there must be someone to succeed Huerta and that meanwhile German interests are suffering terribly. If they can find a good excuse, I think there is a chance of persuading the Government to withdraw all recognition of Huerta.


File No. 812.00/10711.
The American Minister to Costa Rica to the Secretary of State.


San José, November 28, 1913. Sir: I have the honor to acknowledge receipt of the Department's cablegram of November 10, 2 p. m. It was several days before the Department's instructions could be carried out, when I addressed the following letter to the Foreign Office:

(Quotes his note ? of November 15, embodying the instruction above referred to.) Up to this time I have received no reply to the letter just quoted. I have [etc.]


1 See footnote to the telegram of November 7, 10 p. m.
2 Not printed.

File No. 812.00/10054.

The American Consul at Chihuahua to the Secretary of State.



Chihuahua, November 30, 1913—6 p. m. Constitutionalists under command Francisco Villa defeated Federals on the 26th. Chihuahua abandoned by Federals last night, but Federal commander has left 200 soldiers here to preserve order until the revolutionists arrive, such force having been left under the guaranty of the consuls that their lives should not be put in jeopardy. Villa is being apprised of the guaranty. I am using my good offices to the fullest in the interest of society and humanity, and I am very hopeful that my representations to this end may be respected by the victorious revolutionists.


File No. 812.00/10216.

The American Minister to Norway to the Secretary of State.

[Extract.] No. 10.)


Christiania, December 1, 1913. Sır: Referring to Department's telegram regarding the purpose of the United States in its dealings with Mexico, I have the honor to report that I have communicated its contents to the Foreign Office, verbally and in written paraphrase.

As on all former occasions, the Minister for Foreign Affairs seemed to be in sympathy with the policy adopted by the United States. From this interview with him I have been led to believe that Norway will continue to give the United States the same moral support that it has in the past. I have [etc.]


File No. 812.00/10011.

The Secretary of State to certain diplomatic officers of the United




Washington, December 2, 1913–7 p. m. To all Embassies and Legations except Mexico, Turkey, Bulgaria,

Venezuela, Ecuador, Colombia, Siam, and Persia.

The President's annual message to Congress contained the following discussion of the Mexican situation:

There is but one cloud upon our horizon. That has shown itself (and so on, as printed at pp. X to XI of this volume, ending with) : We shall not, I believe, be obliged to alter our policy of watchful waiting. And then, when the end comes, we shall hope to see constitutional order restored in distressed Mexico by the concert and energy of such of her leaders as prefer the liberty of their people to their own ambitions.


File No. 812.00/10018.

The American Chargé l'Affaires to the Secretary of State.

(Telegram- Paraphrase.)


Mexico, December 2, 1913-9 p. m. 661. The British Admiral, Craddock, called on me today with the British Minister. He was in full uniform and had just returned from being received by General Huerta at the Palace, where he was accompanied by the British Minister and his aide, making it a most formal ceremony.


File No. 812.00/10263.

The American Minister to Panama to the Secretary of State. No.39.]


Panama, December 6, 1913. Sir: I have the honor to inform the Department that I am on this day in receipt of a note from Dr. Belisario Porras, President of the Republic of Panama, in which he makes the following statement:

« The views of President Wilson in regard to the constitutional governments in the continent have been applauded by the thinking people of Latin America. I believe your President to be in the right path and there he will find me his strong admirer.” I have [etc.]


File No. 701.6512/6.

The American Chargé d'Affaires to the Secretary of State.



Merico, December 8, 1913-noon. 670. Reports published in newspapers here state that the newly appointed Italian Minister will shortly leave Habana en route for Mexico in order to take up the duties of his post here. If true it is most regrettable, as it will be a yet greater incentive to resistance to our demands than the reception of the British Admiral by General Huerta. I believe that the Italian Government, were it to know the exact situation here, would not insist on its Minister being received. The affairs of the Italian Legation are in the hands of the British Minister who may be using his influence.



-FR 1913

File No. 812.00/10118.


Mexico, December 10, 1913-10 a. m. 675. I transmit the text of yesterday's congressional sessions:


[Extract.] We, the undersigned members of the Grand Committee of this the Honorable Chamber of Deputies, have the honor

to submit the following bill for consideration :

ARTICLE 1. The extraordinary elections for President and Vice President of the Republic which took place on October 26, 1913, are declared null since the majority of the electoral precincts did not function legally and since this is a cause for nullity'as is provided in article 42, fraction 3, of the law of May 31, 1913.

ART. 2. The Mexican people is convoked to new extraordinary elections for President and Vice President of the Republic, which shall be direct and in accord with the provisions of the electoral law of May 31, 1913, and shall take place at the same time as those for Deputies and Senators the first Sunday in July of the coming year of 1914.

ART. 3. The mandatories elected shall begin the occupation of their posts as soon as the Chamber of Deputies makes the respective declaration and shall terminate them on November 30, 1916.

ART. 4. Citizen General Victoriano Huerta shall continue as Constitutional President ad_interim of the United Mexican States until the extraordinary elections for President and Vice President of the Republic have been held and Congress issues the necessary declaration setting the date when he shall turn over the power to the President elect.


File No. 812.032/18.

The American Chargé d'Affaires to the Secretary of State.

[Telegram-Paraphrase. )


Merico, December 15, 1913-11 a. m. 685. The Mexican Congress adjourns today until April 14, according to constitutional precedent. The Permanent Commission thereof will remain until that date, as constitutionally provided. Congress has given General Huerta extraordinary powers in the matters of finances, army, and police.


File No. 812.00/10229.

The American Minister to Uruguay to the Secretary of State.



Montevideo, December 16, 1913--11 p. m. Huerta's autograph letter announcing his election as interim constitutional President was acknowledged as a matter of routine by former Minister for Foreign Affairs Romeu. The President of Uruguay regrets this acknowledgment and informs me that if information requested by cable shall show that Huerta has set himself up as dictator, Huerta will not be recognized as interim constitutional President, by reception of minister or otherwise. Even if report should show that Huerta still acts as constitutional President, no action implying further recognition as such will be taken until my return from Paraguay.




NOTE. On March 14, 1912, the President proclaimed a joint resolution of Congress of that date' providing:

That whenever the President shall find that in any American country conditions of domestic violence exist which are promoted by the use of arms or imunitions of war’ procured from the United States, and shall make proclama. tion thereof, it shall be unlawful to export, except umder such limitations and exceptions as the President shall prescribe, any arms or munitions of war from any place in the United States to such country until otherwise ordered by the Presi. dent or by Congress.

The proclamation declared that:

I have found that there exist in Mexico such conditions of domestic violence promoted by the use of arms or munitions of war procured from the t'nited States as contemplated by the said Joint Resolution; and I do hereby admonish all citizens of the United States and every person to abstain from every violation of the Joint Resolution above set forth, hereby made applicable to Mexico, and I do hereby warn them that all violations of such provisions will be rigorously prosecuted. And I do hereby enjoin upon all officers of the United States, charged with the execution of the laws thereof, the atmost diligence in preventing violations of said Joint Resolution and this my Proclamation issued there. under, and in bringing to trial and punishment any offenders against the same,

In regard to the shipment of arms into Mexico from the United States for the protection of American citizens, the Mexican Foreign Office in objecting to shipments to consular offices of the United States stated on December 12, 1912, to the American Ambassador as follows:

This Government has followed the invariable rule of not allowing foreigners residing in Mexico to be armed by their Governments; therefore I beg that when you think it proper to ask that any American citizen domiciled in this Republic should procure arms, you will make your request as if it concerned a transaction between individuals, so that the Mexican Government may have the satisfaction of granting it in all cases where it is possible.

The Secretary of State in response instructed the Ambassador

to say:

that although the arms and ammunition are for convenience consigned to the consuls, they are intended for the protection of individual American citizens.

Another point discussed in 1912 was the distinction between the shipments of arms forbidden by the above-mentioned Proclamation and the mere commercial sale of arms. The Department of State announced the attitude of this Government in the following statements to the Mexican Embassy:

It is the well-known practice of merchants of neutral countries to furnish imunitions of war to one or both of contending belligerents.

1 For. Rel. 1912, pp. 745-746.

: * Munitions of war are defined by the Attorney General in a letter to the Presi. dent dated March 25, 1912. See For. Rel. 1912, pp. 759-761,

3 For Rel. 1912, pp. 877-'878.
« 1d. p. 878.
6 Id. p. 741.

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