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WASHINGTON

DICTIONARY

OF

TARIFF INFORMATION

Issued September, 1924

WASHINGTON

GOVERNMENT PRINTING OFFICE

GIANNINI

GIANNINI FOUNDATION

UNITED STATES TARIFF COMMISSION.

Office: Old Land Office, Seventh and E Streets NW.,

Washington, D. C.

COMMISSIONERS.

THOMAS 0. MARVIN, Chairman.
WILLIAM S. CULBERTSON, Vice Chairman.
DAVID J. LEWIS.
EDWARD P. COSTIGAN.
WILLIAM BURGESS.
HENRY H, GLASSIE.

John F. BETHUNE, Secretary.

II

INTRODUCTION.

This volume comprises information of three types: (1) Technical and statistical data relative to commodities mentioned in the tariff act of 1922; (2) description of tariff systems, methods, practices, and history; (3) a table (with index) comparing the tariff rates of the tariff acts of 1909, 1913, and 1922.

The articles under classes (1) and (2) are grouped together in one alphabetical series.

In each article of the first type a description of the nature and use of the commodity is followed by an account of the method and volume of its production. Statistics of imports and exports are illustrated by comments upon the more important features of foreign trade.

The subjects falling under class (2) cover so wide a field that neither time nor money was available for a thorough first-hand investigation. Nevertheless, as information is required from time to time on many problems of tariff method, administration, or principle, the commission has made digests or summaries of the best available literature on the principal tariff subjects, and has appended such bibliographies as will provide an elementary acquaintance with the subjects treated, The method followed has been to organize the material in readable årticles, indicating by footnotes the source of each general statement. , Statements contained in the general articles are summaries of other publications, including official documents. They are not to be taken as representing the views or conclusions of the Tariff Commission; nor are they, except where specifically indicated, the result of original investigations conducted by the commission. The accuracy of the statements in such articles is not vouched for, except in so far as they are derived from the published reports of the commission. Careful effort has been made to select trustworthy authorities, but no responsibility is assumed for the accuracy of statements by such authorities with respect to facts or theory.

It should be noted that the reservation just made principally applies to general articles; articles on specific commodities represent original investigations by the commission.

Substantial portions of the economic and historical discussions have been read by the following: Prof. Frank A. Fetter, of Princeton University; Prof. James D. Magee, of New York University; Dr. Thomas Walker Page, former chairman of the United States Tariff Commission; Prof. Tipton R. Snavely, of the University of Virginia; Prof. Jacob Viner, of the University of Chicago. These economists have made helpful contributions, but are in no wise responsible either for substance or form of presentation.

In the investigations of the commission cordial cooperation has been given by other departments of the Government. Special mention should be made, however, of unusual aid received in the preparation of this volume. Dr. Herbert Putnam, Librarian of Congress, offered the commission exceptional facilities for consulting the extensive information files of the Congressional Library's legislative reference division. Mr. Henry Chalmers, director of the tariff division of the Bureau of Foreign and Domestic Commerce, freely opened the division's classified data to the commission's use. Many special requests were answered by the Division of Manufactures of the Census Bureau. The Bureau of Labor Statistics of the Department of Labor also cooperated helpfully in the collection of various statistics.

III

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