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digies, or portents This is likewise mentioned | daffodil, or asphodelos. Quintilian, in his fikti by Pausanias
book denies the fables of Ælop to have been writΘειοι λογοι
divine speeches; which Maximus ten originally by him, but fays the first author of Tyrrus tak... tice of in his fixteenth differtation thum was Hefiod, and Plutarch informs us that Μεγαλα βα
or remarkable actions. Æfor was his disciple: but this opinion, though Wintherait of His ok in the cighth book countenanced by fome, is exploded by others. of Irena
When we refice on th: number of titles, the KUKc; the marriage of Ceyx. We have pot nis to which are irreparably lost, we should
prom both by Athenæus, aad consider them as so many monuments to raise our Plus! Sy map fracs.
concern for the loss of so much treasure never to Of as stil.labuse of this great poet, we fee be retrieved. Let us turn our thoughts from that nothire but the titles remaining, excepting some melancholy theme, and view the poet in his liv. fragments p.cserved by Pau'anias, Plutarch, Poly. I ing writings; let us read him ourselves, and incite bius, & We are told that our poet composed our countrymen to a taste of the poli eness of fome other works, of which we have not even the Greece. Scaliger, in an epifle to Salmafius, dia titles. We are assured, from diverse passages in vides the state of poetry in Greece into four periPliny, that he wrote of the virtues of herbs; but ods of time: in the first arose Homer and Hefiod; here Fabricius judiciously observes, that he might, on which he has the just observation that conin other poems occasionally trcat of various herbs; cludes my discourse : this, says he, you may not as in the beginning of his works and Days, he improperly call the fpring of poesy; but it is rafpeaks of the wholefumeness of mallows, and the I ther the bloom than infancy.
GENERAL ARGUMENT TO THE WORKS AND DAYS.
FROM THE GREEK OF DANIEL HEINSIUS. The poet begins with the difference of the two and Menelaus; and such as are recorded by the contentions; and rejecting that which is actended * poet to be in the Trojan war; of whom fonie with disgrace, he advises his brother Perles to pre- perished entirely by death, and some now inhabit fer the other. One is the lover of Arife, and the the illes of the blessed. Next he describes the iron occasion of troubles: the other prompts us on to age, and the injuttice which prevailed in it. He procure the necessaries of life in a fair and honest greatly reproves the judges, and taxe, them with way. After Prometheus had by subtlery stole the corruption, in a short and beautiful fable In the fire clandestinely from Jove (the fire is by the diother part of the book, he sets before our eyes vine Plato, in his aliation to this pafrage, called the consequences of julice and injustice; and the necessaries, or abundance of life; and those are then, in the most fagacious manner, lays down called lubtle, who were folicituus afrer che abund. some of the wifest precepts to Perfes. The part ance of life), the god created a great evil, which which contains the precepts, is chiefly writ in an was Pandora, that is Fortune, who was endowed irregular, free, and easy way; and his frequent with all the gifts of the gods, meaning all the be- repetitions, which custom modern writers have 1.efits of nature: so Fortune may from thence be quite avoided, bear no small marks of his antiquifaid to have the disposal of the comforts of life; ty. He often digresses, that his brother might and from that tiine care and prudence are requir- not be tired with his precepts, because of a too ed in the management of human affairs. Before much laneness. Hence he passes to rules of ecoPrometheus had purloined the fire, all the com- nomy, beginning with agriculture. He points mon necessaries of life were near at hand, and ea- out the proper season for the plough, the harvest, fily aitained; for Saturn hail firli made a golden the viniage, and for felling wood; he shows the age of men, to which the earth yielded all her is uits of industry, and the ill consequences of fruits fpontaneously: the mortals of the golden negligence. He describes the different seasons, a je subnitted to a foft and pleasane death, and and tells us what works are proper to each, were afterwards made demons; and honour at- These are the subjects of the firn part of his Ecotended their names. To this incceeded the fecond, nomy. In procels of time, and the thirft of gain the l'iver age, worse in all things than the first, increasing in nen, every method was tried to the and better than the following; which Jupirer, o procuring liche; men begun to extend their bate, took from the earth, and made happy in commerce over the leas; for which reason the their death. Hence the porc paffts to the third, pott lail down precepts for navigation. He next the brafen age; the men of which, he says were proceeds to a recommendation of divine worship, fierce and cerrible, who ignobly fell by their own che adoration due to the immortal gods, and the folly and civil discordd; nos was their future sate various ways of paving our homage to them. He like to the other, for they defcended to hell. This concludes with a short observation on days, digeneration is followed by a race of heroes, Etco- viúing them into the good, bad, and indifferent cles and Polynices, ani, the rest who were in the first and oldcit Theban war, and Agamcoinon * I luopce Heinfius means Homer.
THE ARGUMENT. This book contains the invocation to the whole, the general proposition, the story of Prometheus
Epimetheus, and Pandora ; a description of the golden age, silver age, brasen age, the age of herocs, and the iron age; a recommendation of virtue, from the temporal blessings with which good men are attended, and the condition of the wicked, and several moral precepts proper to be observed through the course of our lives. Siso, muses, fing, from the Pierian grove ;
To him alone, to his great will we owe, Begin the fong, and let the theme be Jove ;
That we exist, and what we are below. From him ye fprung, and him ye first thould praise ; Whether we blaze among the tons of fame, From your immortal fire deduce your lays ;
Or live obscurely, and without a name,
Or poble or ignoble, ftill we prove • The fobdiaft Tzetzes tells us, this poem was forf Our lot determin'd by the will of Jove. called the Works and Days of Hefiod, to diftinguish it With ease he lifts the peasant to a crown, from arsiber or tbe fame subje&l, and of the fume title, With she same ease he casts the monarch down; wrote by Orpbeus. How much this may be depended With ease he clouds the brightest name in night, - I canci lay; but Fabricius afures us from Pliny, And calls the meanest to the fairelt light; back 18. obap. 25. tbat Hefiod was the forf wbo laid At will he varies life through ev'ry itace, doren rules for agriculture. It is certain, that of all Unnerves the Itrong, and makes the crooked the picces of tbis nature wbicb were before Virgil, and Atrait. extent is bis days, this was mofi effeemed by bim, otber. Such Jove, who thunders terrible from high, wife be would not bave fowed that respect to our au- Who dwells in mavsions far above the sky. ther spbicb be does quite througb bis Georgic. In one Look down, thou pow's supreme, vouchsafe thine place be proposes bim as a patters in that great work,
aid, sters, addrefjing to his country, be says,
And let my judgment be by justice sway'd; 21 tibi res antiquæ laudis et artis O! hear my vows, and thine aflistance bring, Ingredior, fanctos aulus recludere fonies;
While truths undoubted I to Perles ling. Aluzumque cano, Romana per oppida, carmen.
As here on earth we tread the niaze of life,
The minds divided in a double ftrife;
And this attended by the grcatest thame,
The d Imal source whence frring pernicious jars, And oli Alcrzan verse in Roman cities fing.
The Traveful fountain of deatruelive wars,
Dryden, which, by the laws of arbitrary face, He begins the Georgic with an explanation of the Whu follow, though by arture taught to hate ; titic of the Works and Days.
From night's black r alms this took its odious Quid faciat latas fegetes, quo fidere terram
31 Vortere, &c.
And one Jove planted in the womb of earth, What makes a plepteous harvest, when to turn
The better trife; by this the foul is fir'd Tbe truity foil, and when to low the corn. To arduous coils, nor with those oils is 'ir'd;
Dryden. One fees nis neighbour with laborious hand, for by Works is meant the artof agriculture, and by Planing his orchard, of manuring land; Days the proper seasons for works. See farther in
He fets anocher with induitrious care, xey Discourse on stas Writings of Helod.
Materials for ebe building art prepare ;
Idle himself he sees them hastc to rise,
Next Hermes, artsul god, must form her mind,
Jove gave the mandate; and the gods obey'd.
Minerva next perform’d the task aslign'd, Nor from thy honcit labour idly swerve;
With ev'ry female art adorn'd her mind. IIO 'The love of strife, that joys in evils, Thun,
To dress her Suada, and the Graces join; Nor to the forum from thy duty run.
Around her person, lo! the di'monds shine.
A garland breathing all the sweets of spring.
And adds to ev'ry ornament a grace.
Her manners all deceitful, and her tongue
A lovely mischiei to the soul of man.
Prometheus mindful of his cheft above,
Let the fair bribe should ill to man portend;
Accepts the mischief, and repents too late.
Alas! they grow in their afflictions old;
Full of diseases and corroding cares,
Which open'd, they to taint the world begin,
Such was the faral present from above,
Alike infected is the land and main;
And multiply their trength by night and day : Pofterity the fad effect thall know,
'Twas Jove's decree they should in filence rove : When, in pursuit of joy, they gralp their woe. For who is able to contend with Jove ! 151 He spoke, and cold to Mulciber his will,
And now the libject of my verse 1 change ;
Whence you may pleasure and advantage gain,
Soon as the deathless gods were born, and man, To add the vigour and the voice of men,
A mortal race, with voice endow'd, began, To let her firit in virgin lustre shine,
The heav'nly pow'rs from high their work behold, In form a goddess, with a bloom divine :
And the first age they style an age of gold. And next the fire demands Minerva's aid, Men spent a life like gods in Saturn's reign, 160 Ir all her various skill to train the maid,
Nor felt their mind a care, nor body pain; Bids her the secrets of the loom impart,
From labour free, they ev'ry sense enjoy ; To cast a curious thread with happy art.
Nor could che ills of time their peace deltroy ;
In banquets they delight, renov'd from care ;
They die, or rather seem to die, they seem
Tie fields, as yet untill d, their fruits afford, And there the choicest fruits adorn the fields, And fill a lumptuous, and unenvy'd board : And thrice the fertile year a harvest yields. Thus, crowu'd with happiness their ev'ry day, 170 O! would I had my hours of life began Scrise and joyful, pass'd their lives away.
Before this fifth, this sinful race of man; Włen in the grave this race of men was laid, Or had I not been callid to breathe the day, Sao was a world of holy demons made,
Till the rough iron age had pass'd away : deral (çiri's, by great Jove design'd,
For now, the times are such, the gods ordain, To be on earth the guard ans of mankind; That every moment shall be wing'd with pain; lov:oble to morial eyes they go,
Condemn'd to sorrows, and to toil we live; 240 Ani muš our actions, good, or bad, below; Reft to our labour death alone can give; Th' inimartal (pies with watchful care preside, And yet, amid the cares our lives annoy, And thrice ten thousand round their charges | The gods will grant fonie intervals of joy : glide :
Buc how degen'rate is the human state They can reward with glory, or with gold; 180 Virtue no more diftinguishes the great; A pow'r they by divine permission hold.
No safe reception shall the stranger find; Wore than the firft, a second age appears,
Nor shall the ties of blood or friendship bind; Which the celestials call the silver years.
Nor Mall the parent, when his sons are nigh, The golden age's virtues are no more;
Look with the fondness of a parent's eye, Nature grows weaker than she was before; Nor to the fire the fon obedience pay, 250 Lo frength of body mortals much decay; Nor look with rev’rence on the locks of gray, And taman wisdom seems to fade away.
But O! regardless of the pow'rs divine, An handred years che careful danies employ, With bitter caunts shall load his life's decline. Beore they form’d to man th' unpolish'd boy; Revenge and rapine shall respect command, Who when he reach'd his bloom, his age's prime, The pious, just, and good, neglected stand. Foand, meafur'd by his joys, but short his time. 191 | The wicked shall the better man distress, Men, prone to ill, deny'd the gods their due, The righteous suffer, and without redress; And by their follies, made their days but few, Stri& honesty, and naked truth, shall fail, The altars of the bless'd neglected stand,
The perjur'd villain in his arts prevail. Without the off'rings wbich the laws demand; Hoarse envy shall, unseen, exert her voice, 26. But angry Jove in dust this people laid,
Attend the wretched, and in ill rejoice, Retaule no honours to the gods they paid. At last fair miodefly and justice fly, This second race, when clos'd their life's short span, Rob'd their pure limbs in white, and gain the sky, t'as bappy deene'd beyond the fate of man ; 199 From the wide earth they reach the bleft abodes, Thee lancs were grateful to their children made; And join the grand assembly of the gods, Each paid a rev'rence to his father's shade. While niortal men, abandon'd to their grief, And now a third, a brazen people rise,
Sink in their sorrows, hopeless of relief. Unlike the former, men of monstrous size :
While now my fable from the birds I bring, Strong arms extensive from their shoulders grow, To the great rulers of the earth I fing. Their limbs of equal magnitude below;
High in the clouds a mighty bird of prey 270 Potent in arms, and dreadful at the spear,
Bore a melodious nightingale away; They live injurious, and devoid of fear :
And to the captive, shiv'ring in despair, Os the crude flesh of beasts they feed alone, Thus, cruel, spoke the tyrant of the air. Savage their nature, and their hearts of lone; Why mourns the wretch in my superior power? Their houses brass, of brass the warlike blade, 210 Thy voice avails not in the ravish'd hour; Iros was yet unknown, in brass they trade : Vain are thy cries; as my despotic will, Fericus, robuft, impatient for the fight,
Or I can set thee free, or I can kill. War is their only care, and fole delight,
Unwisely who provokes his abler foc, To the dark shades of death this race descend, Conquest fill fies him, and he strives for woe. By civil discords, an ignoble end! [ed might, Thus spoke th' enslaver with insulting pride. 280 Strong though they were, death quell'd their boaft- 0! Perses, justice ever be thy guide : And fore'd their ttubborn Souls to leave the light. May malice never gain upon thy will,
To these a fourth, a better race succeeds, Malice that makes the wretch more wretched Of godlike heroes, fam'd for marcial deeds;
ftill. Them demigods, at first, their matchless worth 220 The good man, injur'd, to revenge is flow, Proclaim aloud all through the boundless earth, To him the vengeance is the greater woe. Thele, horrid wars, their love of arms defroy, Ever will all injurious courses fail, Semne at the gates of Thebes, and some at Troy. And justice ever over wrongs prevail; These, for the brothers fell, detelted Arife! Right will take place at last, by fic degrees; For beauty those, the lovely Grecian wife! This truth the fool by sad experience fees. To these does Jove a second life ordain,
When suits commence, dishonest strife the cause, Same happy fuid far in the distant main,
Faith violated, and the breach of laws, 29 Where live the hero-shades in rich repat, Ensue; the cries of justice haunt the judge, Remote from mortals of a vulgar cast :
Of bribes the glutton, and of fin the drudge. There in the island of the bless'd they find. 230 Through cities then the holy demon runs, Where Sacurn reigns, an endless calm of mind; Unseep, and mourns the manners of their sons,
Dispersing evils, to reward the crimes
But by reflection better taught, I find 469
Trust to the will of Jove, and wait the end,
And good shall always your good acts attend.
300 These doctrines, Perses, trcalure in thy heart,
But be the will of Jove in these obey'd,
In there the bruce creation men exceed,
They, void of reason, by each other bleed,
While man by justice should be keep'd in awe,
But he that will not be by laws confin'd,
A wound immortal shall that man receive;
0! Perses, foolish Perses, bow thine ear
Short is the way, and on an easy ground.
Wisely consid'ring, to himself a friend, 390
Nor is the man without his hare of praise,
Who well the dictates of the wise obeys;
Ever observe, Perfes, of birth divine,
Like drones, the robbers of the painful bee, 401
Him famine follows with her train of woes.
The man industrious ftranger is to need,
The flothful man, who never work'd before,
349 Shall gaze with envy on thy growing store,
Strictly observe the wholesome rules I give,
O! when I hear the upright man complain, Ne'er to thy neighbour's goods extend thy cares,
Nor be neglectful of thinc own affairs.
Let no degen'rate shame debase thy mind, 420
Shame that is never to the needy kind;
The man that has it will continue poor;
He must be bold that would enlarge his fose.