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Historical Observations respecting Liverpool.


favourable, are, those who are subject But although its merchants and trato coughs, asthmas, and other affec- ders have been chiefly engaged in tions of the breast and lungs, and commercial pursuits, the cultivation those who are consumptive. Com- of arts and letters has not been negplaints of this description are aggra- lected. Few towns, that claim no vated and renewed in constitutions so higher antiquity, have added, within inclined.

the same space of time, more exalted The effect which the winds generally names, to grace the lists of science have on the state of the weather, may and of arts. Various publications be thus stated. The north-west winds bear witness, that literature has been are turbulent and stormy, and from cultivated with considerable ability this quarter they blow more than from and success. Amidst the active conany other, during a considerable por- cerns which engage their attention, tion of the year. Southerly winds fre- several gentlemen, whose names might quently produce rain. Easterly winds be adduced, have found leisure to atare often accompanied by a serene tend to the study of the polite arts ; sky. The severest cold and frost usu- and many works, which have obtained ally come with a north or north-east a considerable share of public approwind.

bation, claim Liverpool as their legiThe soil in and near the town is dry timate origin. “The Nurse,” and and sandy for two miles round; and, "The Lives of Lorenzo di Medici, and on the northern shore particularly, a of Leo the Tenth,” will ever confer an range of barren sands extends about honour on William Roscoe, Esq. “The twenty miles. But although this ge- Medical Reports,” and “ The Life of neral character may be considered as Robert Burns,” will cause the name descriptive of the soil, many excep- of Dr. Currie to be long remembered. tions are to be discovered. Between “ The Life of Poggio Bracciolini,” by the town and Walton, there is a fine the Rev. Wm. Shepherd, and an eledale, which, having a rich marl under gant translation of the works of Gessthe surface, affords excellent pastur- ner, by a Lady, are productions, age. Several other patches and spots which the town of Liverpool will may also be found, exhibiting all the always be proud to acknowledge. marks of native fertility. But barren Among the eminent natives who as the soil in general is, in most places have paid the tribute of nature, the it has been much improved by cultiva- name of Deare, the sculptor, will be tion; and even where this has been long respected. This eminent artist neglected, the soil is not unsusceptible was born in Liverpool, on the 26th of of amendment: but it has been deem- October, 1759. His predilection for ed useless to waste manure on a sur- | the imitative arts was strongly marked face, which will, in all probability, in his earlier years. Of this predilecvery shortly be covered with build- tion, a pleasing monument is now in ings. It is well known that Lanca- the possession of his brother. It is a shire has long and deservedly been miniature figure of a human skeleton, proverbial for its excellent potatoes, cut in wood with a penknife, when he to the growth of which, the soil is ad- was not more than ten years old. At mirably adapted. In most parts this the age of sixteen he went to London; valuable root is raised in vast abun- and at twenty, obtained the first gold dance; and the quantity demanded medal that was given at the New for shipping, as well as for local con- Royal Academy, Somerset - House. sumption, is exceedingly great. He was the youngest artist to whom

On reviewing the historical obser- that honour had ever been awarded. vations wbich have been made, in this This medal was given for the best and the preceding numbers, respect- piece of sculpture. The design, which ing Liverpool, it will instantly be per- is from Milton, is executed in alto ceived, that this is a town of no great relievo. A cast of this performance antiquity. From an obscure village, is now in the possession of Mr. Samuel frequented by a few vessels, and inha- Franceys, sculptor, in Liverpool. bited by fishermen, it has attained its Shortly after Mr. Deare obtained this present exalted pre-eminence in com- honour, he, with several other young mercial importance, through the bold men of promising talents, was sent and enterprising spirit of its inhabi- out by the Royal Academy, to pursue tants.

his studies at Rome, in which place No. 33,--Vol. III.

3 U


Historical Observations respecting Liverpool.


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he spent the principal part of his life, I instant the cloth was removed, to and at which place he died, on the Monte Dagone, a deserted villa, be17th of August, 1798, of a malignant longing to Prince Borghese, of which fever, in the 39th year of his age. His I had the keys, that he might there best performances have therefore been press off one of the side locks of the destined to adorn foreign cabinets, on famous Antinous, not having been which account his name is but imper-able, from his own correct drawing of fectly known in England; but from the it, to give any thing like its character reports of competent judges, he has a to the hair of a French lady, whose right to claim a place in the foremost bust he was executing. We went ranks of our eminent artists, and some thither; he stole the impression, and have not hesitated to call him the first returned in raptures to Rome on foot sculptor that this country has ever the same evening. produced.

* Such, alas! was the artist whom Of this eminent artist, George Cum- the Academy abandoned and forgot." berland, Esq. in the Monthly Maga- In the year 1724, Liverpool had the zine, gives the following character. honour of giving birth to George Stubbs, “And here let me pause, and drop a who was long distinguished for his tear over the recollection of an artist, eminence as

a painter of animals. whose good nature, hilarity, gene- of the works which he completed, rosity, and candour, could only be “the Lion and the Horse," " the Lion equalled by his delicate taste, profound and Stag,” and “the Brood Mares," knowledge, exquisite skill, and unri- were the most celebrated. Having devalled exertions; a man, that, had he voted much labour to the practice and been encouraged to come home, or study of comparative anatomy, in kindly treated by those who sent him 1766 he published a magnificent and out, would have reflected honour on highly esteemed work, on the anatomy the art of sculpture ; for he made a of the horse. This publication was the distinct study of every part of this art, result of observations made by himand was as recherchè in hair as in dra- self during a long course of dissecting; pery, as great in drawing and model the drawings and engravings having ling as in sculpture, wholly devoted been all made with his own hand. At to fame, to freedom, and the arts. Nor the tim of his death, which took will it be considered as a slight proof place in July, 1806, Mr. Stubbs had of the fact which I mention, that the completed both the anatomical prepainimitable Canova bebeld his produc-rations and the drawings, for a work tions with respect, and that even good on the structure of the human body, painters came to him for advice and compared with that of a tiger and a correction.

fowl. Of this work, containing fifteen “ Such a one was Deare, whose plates, about one half only was pubchief works went to France, and whose lished. This author and artist conchisel is scarcely known in England, tinued to pursue his professional occuexcept in Sir Richard Worsley's col- pations to the close of life, which did lections, where his Marine Venus will not terminate until he was past fourshew a hand, that, when alone dis- score. closed, has often been, even among Toxteth Park, contiguous to Liverartists, taken for an antique.” pool, had the honour, in 1619, of

The following anecdote, given by giving birth to Jeremiah Horrox, who, Cumberland,

will better display after being a student of Emanuel ColDeare's zeal for his art, than a volume lege, Cambridge, began, about 1633, of panegyric.

to apply himself to the study of astroBeing at dinner at Grotto Ferrata, nomy, in which, although he laboured where I passed my summer to avoid under many local disadvantages, he the heat of Rome, in one of the warm- made great proficiency, and acquired est days I ever remember, he arrived fame. In 1636 he formed an acquainton foot, in company with a formatore, ance with Mr. William Crabtree, of (a plaster caster) having carried by Broughton, near Manchester, whose turns, for seventeen miles, about 20 kindred spirit led him to prosecute pounds of clay, and a bag of plaster the same studies. Scarcely, however, of Paris. Dinner was just served, but had Mr. Horrox entered on his discohe would not come up to partake of it, veries, before he was suddenly arrestuntil I first promised to drive him, the Jed by the hand of death, when he was


Historical Observations respecting Liverpool.


about twenty-two years of age. Of but among the lower orders, who his genius and talents, and of the loss derive their livelihood from their conwhich science has sustained by his nection with shipping, and with the death, some idea may be formed from docks, the rough and boisterous habits the following facts. In 1662, some of of the sailors are quite familiar. Difhis works were published at Dantzic, fused through all ranks of society, the by Havelius, by whose annotations frankness and warmth which once disthey were illustrated. The remainder tinguished the old English character, was published in 1673 by Dr. Wallis. are still observable; and instances

Connected with this young man, but rarely occur, in which duplicity two things are very remarkable: one assumes the garb of friendship, or is, that he was the first who ever pre- that the cloak of politeness conceals dicted or observed the passage of Ve- the dagger of the assassin. nus over the Sun's disk. And though It must not, however, be supposed, he was not apprised of the grand use that the vices which degrade large that was to be made of this valuable towns and cities, are unknown in discovery, in ascertaining the paral- Liverpool. Unhappily, this place lax, and distance of the sun and pla- partakes, in no small degree, of that nets, yet he made many useful obser- national dereliction of morals, on vations, corrections, and improve- which virtue drops her tears; but ments, in the theory and motions of among the wise and good no effort Venus. The other memorable cir- has been left unattempted, to stem cumstance is, that of his new theory the torrent of prevailing iniquity, and of lunar motions, which the immortal to introduce measures that promise to Newton made the ground-work of all ameliorate the condition of the abanhis astronomy relative to the moon, doned and the distressed. To reward always speaking of Mr. Horrox as a their exertions, much good has already genius of the first rank. His astro- been effected, but much more yet renomical observations on Venus were mains to be accomplished. Of this, the made at Hool, about twenty miles merchants and wealthy inbabitants of north of Liverpool.

Liverpool appear to be fully sensible ; If the inhabitants of Liverpool have and if liberality, active exertion, mua right to claim any peculiarity of tual co-operation, and perseverance, character, by which they arc distin- can presage success, Liverpool may guished from those of other towns, it expect, during the next generation, a arises from that singular association moral revolution among its inhabibetween rivalship and mutual co-oper- tants. ation, which is every where discover- Among the various events which able in their mercantile transactions. mark and diversify human life, it was With the pride of nobility, and the the lot of the writer and compiler of boast of ancestry, regarding supposed this article, to reside two years and a inferiority with a repulsive counte- half in the town, on which he has nance and half averted eye, Liver- made his observations; he therefore pool has not yet been dishonoured; speaks from actual knowledge, and nor will the stranger or inhabitant be personal experience. To the kindoften disgusted with the petty assump-ness, friendship, and liberality of the tions of ignorance dressed up in the many respectable inhabitants, among brief authority of office. It is to the whoin he had the honour of being commanding influence of commerce, introduced, justice compels him to that trading towns are indebted for bear the most unequivocal testimony; that free and open intercourse, be- and he should reproach himself with tween all ranks of society, which sub- ingratitude, were he to omit this opsists within their precincts. This portunity of acknowledging his oblisocial intercourse, and frankness of gations. manners prevail, in Liverpool, in a supereminent degree. Hospitality,

REMARKS ON PASurbanity, general civility, and a freedom from local prejudice, are common

SAGES OF SCRIPTURE." features in the genuine portrait of the

( Concluded from col. 966.) inhabitants. To an exalted refinement of manners, multitudes among Having swept away the sandy founthe higher classes are not strangers ; dation which your correspondent had

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1039 Vindication of Remarks on Passages of Scripture. 1040 laid on a few passages of sacred writ, must be restricted to the disciples, for I proceed, in the next place, more they heard his voice and followed him, particularly to examine the objections v. 27. We have, also, good reasons which he brings against my exposi- to believe that some of those whom tion of those and other passages of our Lord excluded from the number scripture. That the way may be freed of the given, were afterwards prayed of all obstructions, it is necessary for for among the persons who should be me to remark, that the drift of my lieve through the Apostles' word, for reasoning was to prove, that the word many of the priests became obedient give, as used in its different modifica- to the faith, Acts vi. 7. tions by the apostle John, in bis Gos- There are but two more passages pel, was not intended, as many think, (John vi. 37, 39.) that belong to the to convey to the minds of our Lord's class which has been under examinahearers, or of the apostle's readers, tion. Rather greater difficulty exists the idea of an eternal gift of a certain in ascertaining, from the scope and number to Jesus Christ, in order to connection, the meaning and applicabe, by him, specially redeemed and tion of these two passages, than does eternally saved. In the course of elu- in reference to the others. From cercidation, I also endeavoured to make tain circumstances, such as, the same it appear, that the persons prayed for speaker, the same writer, the same in the 17th chapter of John's Gospel, persons directly or indirectly conas having been given by the Father to cerned, we may reasonably infer, unthe Son, were our Lord's disciples less sufficient evidence be adduced to only. Against this opinion, your cor- the contrary, that the same applicarespondent enters his protest. Hetion takes place here as in the other maintains, that the words give, giveth, places already dismissed. The con&c. ought not to be restricted to the nection, in my opinion, warrants the apostles, but ought to be applied to application. The two passages stand believers in all ages. As for the doc- connected as follows: “ Then said trine of eternal election, he seems to they unto him, Lord, evermore give us have entirely lost sight of it. That he this bread. And Jesus said unto cannot consistently ground it on the them, I am the bread of life: he that passages in question, is evident, for cometh to me,”. [by taking up bis he says, the apostles were given to cross and following me as a disciple, Jesus" by the agency of the Spirit.” I “shall never hunger; and he that Hence it follows, that they were not believeth on me,” (as the Christ, the given from eternity. It is also equally Son of God,] “shall never thrist. But evident, that our Lord prayed for I said unto you” (professed disciples none but his disciples in John xvii. of Moses (ch. v. 45, 46.)] “ that ye also 2, 4, 9, 11, 12. for if none are given have seen me, and believe not. (ch. v; to Jesus but by the agency of the Spirit, 38—47.) All that the Father giveth then none, at the time our Lord pray- me” [being such persons as believe ed, had been given to him but his Moses, have the word of God abiding disciples ;, consequently the words in them (ch. v. 38, 46.) and hear and give, giveth, &c. were not spoken of all learn of the Father (vi. 45.)] " will believers in all ages.

come” (or cometh (v. 45)] “ unto me; Again, if the word given, as used / and him that cometh unto me, I will in the 17th chapter of John's Gospel, in no wise cast out. For I came down is applicable to all believers in all from heaven, not to do mine own will, ages, I may reasonably inquire, who but the will of him that sent me. And were the persons prayed for in verse this is the Father's will which hath 20th?-for our Lord said, “Neither sent me, that of all which he hath pray I for these alone, but for them given me” (as my disciples on earth

] also, which shall believe on me through "I should lose nothing, but should their word.” It is evident from more raise it up again at the last day.”. reasons than one, that the persons Your correspondent is equally hosprayed for in this verse, had not been tile to my exposition of these words, the objects of our Lord's intercession “No man can come unto me, except in the former part of his prayer, con- the Father which hath sent me draw sequently none but his disciples had him," ch. vi. 44. My view is, that no been given to him.

Jew in the days of our Lord, would On similar grounds, John X. 29. I have came unto him, unless he had


Vindication of Remarks on Passages of Scripture.



been previously prepared by a belief to the Apostles. On my principles, of him as the promised Messiah. That the word you is, indeed, as much this is the meaning of the passage, limited to the Apostles, as the words appears evident to me, from the sub-give, giveth, &c. are to Christ's discisequent verse, viz. “It is written in ples : but it does not follow, that the the prophets, (Isa. liv. 3, 13. Jer, atonement is to be limited to the Aposxxxi. 33, 34.) And they shall be all tles, no more than the resurrection is taught of God.” On turning to the to be restricted to the disciples, John prophets, we find, that the promise vi. 39. Further, we should not have was given to the Jewish church exclu- known, from these words, “this is my sively. The prophecy is also explained body which is given for you,” that by our Lord bimself, in the words im- Christ died for more than the Apostles, mediately following: Every man, but we learn from other parts of scriptherefore, that hath heard and hath ture, that Christ tasted death for everg learned of the Father, cometh unto man—that he gave himself a ransom me.” But who came unto him in the for all--that he is the propitiation for days of his flesh, but Jews? wherefore the sins of the whole world. Now let none but Jews had heard and learned H. B. come forward, and shew us, in of the Father, or in other words, had what place of the New Tesiament it been drawn of the Father, and given is written, that any but the disciples to the Son.

were given to Christ. This I suspect My opponent asserts, that if our he cannot do; and consequently he Lord had meant no Jew by the words must fail in the accomplishment of the no man, (or the word none,) he would task which he is willing to impose on have said so. I reply, there are nu- himself. He is, perhaps, ready to merous instances, both in the gospels refer me to the second Psalm, in which and in the epistles, in which a general a promise is made, that the heathen term has a particular meaning. But should be given to Christ for an inheto come closer to the point in hand, ritance. But it is evident, that this is the words every man in verse 45, ac- a gift essentially different in nature cording to my opinion, mean every from that for which your correspondent Jew. The grounds of my belief are contends. It was by virtue of this gist given in the foregoing remarks. If that the Apostles were commanded to then, every man mean every Jew, why preach the gospel to every creature. may not no man also mean no Jew? The heathen were given, as heathen, But further, the words every man in for the purpose of being brought into verse 45, and no man in verse 44, po- the fold of Christ, and of beeoming sitively and negatively refer to the the subjects of his mediatorial kingsame individual; consequently, if every dom. man signify every Jew, so also no man Your correspondent defends the use must signify no Jew. The argument of shall instead of will in the following which H. B. adduces, is a mere asser- passage; “ All that the Father giveth tion without proof; for he says, “If me shall come to me:'' (John vi. 37.) this passage” (No man, &c. v. 44)“ is but his defence is so weak, that I confined to those only who were his should be ashamed to lay hands on it. followers, there would be no difficulty It is obvious to the most superficial in proving that all his doctrines and reader, that the subject agitated by precepts, yea, even his atonement our Lord, was not, whether those and mediation, should be understood given to him would come, for then in the same limited sense.” This sup- shall would have been necessary, but poses, that the same kind of proof can whether any would come but those be adduced in the supposed instances that were given to him. In the preas is in the other; and also, that if ceding chapter, our Lord charged his any truth can be proved in one place audience with unwillingness to come of scripturc, it may be disproved in to him, by saying, “ Ye will not come another! Let us, for the sake of trial, to me, that ye may have life," v. 40. take the doctrine of the atonement. In the subsequent verses he assigns Because our Lord said to his disciples, the reason why they would not come to “ This is my body which is given for him, viz. the disposition which led you, and my blood shed for you,them to disbelieve Moses, and to retherefore H. B. would reason, that onceive honour one of another. In the my principles the atonement is limited / verse under consideration, our Lord

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