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Historical Observations respecting Liverpool.


about twenty-two years of age. Of but among the lower orders, who his genius and talents, and of the loss derive their livelihood from their conwhich science has sustained by his nection with shipping, and with the death, some idea may be formed from docks, the rough and boisterous habits the following facts. In 1662, some of of the sailors are quite familiar. Difhis works were published at Dantzic, fused through all ranks of society, the by Havelius, by whose annotations frankness and warmth which once disthey were illustrated. The remainder tinguished the old English character, was published in 1673 by Dr. Wallis. are still observable; and instances

Connected with this young man, but rarely occur, in which duplicity two things are very remarkable: one assumes the garb of friendship, or is, that he was the first who ever pre- that the cloak of politeness conceals dicted or observed the passage of Ve- the dagger of the assassin. nus over the Sun's disk. And though It must not, however, be supposed, he was not apprised of the grand use that the vices which degrade large that was to be made of this valuable towns and cities, are unknown in discoyery, in ascertaining the paral- Liverpool. Unhappily, this place lax, and distance of the sun and pla- partakes, in no small degree, of that nets, yet he made many useful obser- | national dereliction of morals, on vations, corrections, and improve- which virtue drops her tears; but ments, in the theory and motions of among the wise and good no effort Venus. The other memorable cir- has been left unattempted, to stem cumstance is, that of his new theory the torrent of prevailing iniquity, and of lunar motions, which the immortal to introduce measures that promise to Newton made the ground-work of all ameliorate the condition of the abanhis astronomy relative to the moon, doned and the distressed. To reward always speaking of Mr. Horrox as a their exertions, much good has already genius of the first rank. His astro- been effected, but much more yet renomical observations on Venus were mains to be accomplished. Of this, the made at Hool, about twenty miles merchants and wealthy inbabitants of north of Liverpool.

Liverpool appear to be fully sensible ; If the inhabitants of Liverpool have and if liberality, active exertion, mua right to claim any peculiarity of tual co-operation, and perseverance, character, by which they arc distin-can presage success, Liverpool may guished from those of other towns, it expect, during the next generation, a arises from that singular association moral revolution among its inhabibetween rivalship and mutual co-oper- tants. ation, which is every where discover- Among the various events which able in their mercantile transactions. mark and diversify human life, it was With the pride of nobility, and the the lot of the writer and compiler of boast of ancestry, regarding supposed this article, to reside two years and a inferiority with a ropulsive counte-half in the town, on which he has nance and half averted eye, Liver- made his observations; he therefore pool has not yet been dishonoured ; speaks from actual knowledge, and nor will the stranger or inhabitant be personal experience. To the kindoften disgusted with the petty assump- ness, friendship, and liberality of the tions of ignorance dressed up in the many respectable inhabitants, among brief authority of office. It is to the whom he had the honour of being commanding influence of commerce, introduced, justice compels him to that trading towns are indebted for bear the most unequivocal testimony ; that free and open intercourse, be- and he should reproach himself with tween all ranks of society, which sub- ingratitude, were he to omit this opsists within their precincts. This portunity of acknowledging his oblisocial intercourse, and frankness of gations. manners prevail, in Liverpool, in a supereminent degree Hospitality, urbanity, general civility, and a free

VINDICATION OF “REMARKS ON PASdom from local prejudice, are common

SAGES OF SCRIPTURE.” features in the genuine portrait of the

( Concluded from col. 966.) inhabitants. To an exalted refinement of manners, multitudes among HAVING swept away the sandy founthe higher classes are not strangers ; dation which your correspondent had


Vindication of Remarks on Passages of Scripture.


laid on a few passages of sacred writ, must be restricted to the disciples, for I proceed, in the next place, more they heard his voice and followed him, particularly to examine the objections v. 27. We have, also, good reasons which he brings against my exposi- to believe that some of those whom tion of those and other passages of our Lord excluded from the number scripture. That the way may be freed of the given, were afterwards prayed of all obstructions, it is necessary for for among the persons who should beme to remark, that the drift of my lieve through the Apostles' word, for reasoning was to prove, that the word many of the priests became obedient give, as used in its different modifica-to the faith, Acts vi. 7. tions by the apostle John, in bis Gos- There are but two more passages pel, was not intended, as many think, (John vi, 37, 39.) that belong to the to convey to the minds of our Lord's class which has been under examinahearers, or of the apostle's readers, tion. Rather greater difficulty exists the idea of an eternal gift of a certain in ascertaining, from the scope and number to Jesus Christ, in order to connection, the meaning and applicabe, by him, specially redeemed and tion of these two passages, than does eternally saved. In the course of elu- in reference to the others. From cercidation, I also endeavoured to make tain circumstances, such as, the same it appear, that the persons prayed for speaker, the same writer, the same in the 17th chapter of John's Gospel, persons directly or indirectly conas having been given by the Father to cerned, we may reasonably infer, upthe Son, were our Lord's disciples less sufficient evidence be adduced to only. Against this opinion, your cor- the contrary, that the same applicarespondent enters his protest. Hetion takes place here as in the other maintains, that the words give, giveth, I places already dismissed. The con&c. ought not to be restricted to the nection, in my opinion, warrants the apostles, but ought to be applied to application. The two passages stand believers in all ages. As for the doc connected as follows: “ Then said trine of eternal election, he seems to they unto him, Lord, evermore give us have entirely lost sight of it. That he this bread. And Jesus said unto cannot consistently ground it on the them, I am the bread of life: he that passages in question, is evident, for cometh to me,” by taking up his he says, the apostles were given to cross and following me as a disciple, Jesus “by the agency of the Spirit.” “ shall never hunger; and he that Hence it follows, that they were not believeth on me," s as the Christ, the given from eternity. It is also equally Son of God," shall never thríst. But evident, that our Lord prayed for I said unto you" (professed disciples none but his disciples in John xvii. of Moses (ch. v. 45, 46.)7 “that ye also 2, 4, 9, 11, 12. for if none are given have seen me, and believe pot. (ch. v. to Jesus but by the agency of the Spirit, 38–47.) All that the Father giveth then none, at the time our Lord pray- me" (being such persons as believe ed, had been given to him but his Moses, have the word of God abiding disciples; consequently the words in them (ch. v. 38, 46.) and hear and give, giveth, &c. were not spoken of all | learn of the Father (vi. 45.)] "will believers in all ages.

come” (or cometh (v. 45)] “ unto me; Again, if the word given, as used and him that cometh unto me, I will in the 17th chapter of John's Gospel, in no wise cast out. For I came down is applicable to all believers in all from heaven, not to do mine own will, ages, I may reasonably inquire, who but the will of him that sent me. And were the persons prayed for in verse this is the Father's will which hath 20th ?-for our Lord said, “Neither sent me, that of all which he hath pray I for these alone, but for them given me" (as my disciples on earth also, whicb shall believe on me through “I should lose nothing, but should their word.” It is evident from more raise it up again at the last day.". reasons than one, that the persons Your correspondent is equally hosprayed for in this verse, had not been tile to my exposition of these words, the objects of our Lord's intercession “ No man can come unto me, except in the former part of his prayer, con- the Father which hath sent me draw sequently none but his disciples had him," ch. vi. 44. My view is, that no been given to him.

Jew in the days of our Lord, would On similar grounds, John X. 29, I have came unto him, unless he had


Vindication of Remarks on Passages of Scripture.


been previously prepared by a belief to the Apostles. On my principles, of him as the promised Messiah. That the word you is, indeed, as much this is the meaning of the passage, limited to the Apostles, as the words appears evident to me, from the sub-give, giveth, &c. are to Christ's discisequent verse, viz. “It is written in ples : but it does not follow, that the the prophets, (Isa. liv. 3, 13. Jer. atonement is to be limited to the Aposxxxi. 33, 34.) And they shall be alltles, no more than the resurrection is taught of God.” On turning to the to be restricted to the disciples, John prophets, we find, that the promise vi. 39. Further, we should not have was given to the Jewish church exclu- known, from these words, “this is my sively. The prophecy is also explained body which is given for you,” that by our Lord bimself, in the words im- Christ died for more than the Apostles, mediately following: “Every man, but we learn from other parts of scriptherefore, that hath heard and hath ture, that Christ tasted death for every learned of the Father, cometh unto man-that he gave himself a ransom me.” But who came unto him in the for all--that he is the propitiation for days of his flesh, but Jews? wherefore the sins of the whole world. Now let none but Jews had heard and learned H. B. come forward, and shew us, in of the Father, or in other words, had what place of the New Tesiament it been drawn of the Father, and given is written, that any but the disciples to the Son.

were given to Christ. This I suspect My opponent asserts, that if our he cannot do; and consequently he Lord had meant no Jew by the words must fail in the accomplishment of the no man, (or the word none, he would task which he is willing to impose on have said so. I reply, there are nu himself. He is, perhaps, ready to merous instances, both in the gospels refer me to the second Psalm, in which and in the epistles, in which a general a promise is made, that the heathen term has a particular meaning. But should be given to Christ for an inheto come closer to the point in hand, ritance. But it is evident, that this is the words every man in verse 45, ac- a gift essentially different in nature cording to my opinion, mean every from that for which your correspondent Jew. The grounds of my belief are contends. It was by virtue of this gift given in the foregoing remarks. If that the Apostles were commanded to then, every man mean every Jew, why preach the gospel to every creature. may not no man also mean no Jew? The heathen were given, as heathen, But further, the words every man in for the purpose of being brought into verse 45, and no man in verse 44, po- the fold of Christ, and of beeoming sitively and negatively refer to the the subjects of his mediatorial kingsame individual; consequently, if every dom. man signify every Jew, so also no man | Your correspondent defends the use must signify no Jew. The argument of shall instead of will in the following which H. B. adduces, is a mere asser-passage; “ All that the Father giveth tion without proof; for he says, “If me shall come to me:"' (John vi. 37.) this passage” (No man, &c. v. 44)“is but his defence is so weak, that I confined to those only who were his should be ashamed to lay hands on it. followers, there would be no difficulty It is obvious to the most superficial in proving that all his doctrines and reader, that the subject agitated by precepts, yea, even his atonement our Lord, was not, whether those and mediation, should be understood given to him would come, for then in the same limited sense.” This sup- shall would have been necessary, but poses, that the same kind of proof can whether any would come but those be adduced in the supposed instances that were given to him. In the preas is in the other; and also, that if ceding chapter, our Lord charged his any truth can be proved in one place audience with unwillingness to come of scripturc, it may be disproved in to him, by saying, “ Ye will not come another! Let us, for the sake of trial, to me, that ye may have life," v. 40. take the doctrine of the atonement. In the subsequent verses he assigns Because our Lord said to his disciples, the reason why they would not come to “ This is my body which is given for him, viz. the disposition which led you, and my blood shed for you,” them to disbelieve Moses, and to retherefore H. B. would reason, that onceive honour one of another. In the my principles thè atonement is limited / verse under consideration, our Lord


Origin and Nature of Human Knowledge.


informed his audience of the persons terms exclusively applicable to the who were willing to come to him, subjects it unfolds. Having no spirinamely, such as were given him of tual vocabulary, all words must have a the Father by previous instruction, natural, before they can have a divine having heard and learned of the meaning ; and consequently, none are Father, ver. 45. Hence it appears, used literally, when applied either to that the willingness to come to Christ, the mysteries of Christianity, or to the on the part of those who had been invisible objects of the heavenly world. taught of the Father, was a necessary The Rev. John Wesley, who adopted consequence of their having been given his views, says, (Philosophy, vol. 5, to Christ. It would, therefore, be im- page 160,) “Metaphorical words are proper to say, that such persons shall spoken of heavenly things in no part come, when will come sufficiently con- of their proper sense; analogical, in veys the meaning and intention of our some part of it, though not the whole. Lord in the instruction which he was so the word hand is spoken of God communicating. I again repeat it, metaphorically, for he has no hand of that our Lord's intention was, not to any sort whatever. The word power inform his audience that a divine influ- is spoken of him analogically, for he ence overpowered and directed the has some sort of power, though of a will of those that came to him, but quite different sort from ours.” that none, except such as had learned Important, wide, and obvious, as is of the Father, would come to him: this distinction in the use of words, it therefore will, and not shall, ought to so happens, that it is frequently lost be used.

sight of; the direct consequence of There is only one argument in the which is, that the mind is confounded compass of your correspondent's rea- in its conceptions of those things, soning which I admit as valid. I do which can be clearly apprehended not, by this admission, concede one only by keeping it fully and constantly particle of what I considered as truth. / in view. It is, perhaps, not going I allude to his remarks on the words, beyond the boundaries of truth, to “ a temporal gift to discipleship.” I assert, that most errors in spiritual confess, some ambiguity attaches itself matters originate in this oversight, as to the words a temporal gift; yet, from few of consequence exist which did the connection, and other parts of my not arise either from mistaking the paper, H. B. might have discovered, precise point or points of analogy inthat I contrasted temporal with eter- tended by scripture terms, or by renal, not as denoting eternity future, solving words used analogically into but eternity past, that is, a gift made mere metaphor. in time, in opposition to a gift made In addition to the preceding defifrom eternity. In this view, both of nition of analogical and metaphorical us seem to coincide: and with this words, a few remarks may be necesexplanation I now conclude.

sary, to render the distinction clear I am, &c. to those who have seldom reflected on

it. Analogical terms, in a scriptural Aberdeen, 17th September, 1821.

sense, are those that express our first

and most proper conceptions of divine ON THE ORIGIN AND NATURE OF HU


to the human mind. As language für:

nishes no terms of a purely spiritual (Continued from col. 816.)

import, these are the most proper that

it affords; and when used, they have Bishop Brown, the learned author of ever a reference to some real resem“ The Procedure, Limits, and Extent, / blance. But metaphorical terms, of Human Understanding,” reduces though founded on remote allusion, the terms of revelation, as they refer are little better than mere elegancies to spiritual objects, to two classes, of diction, and their use is purely aranalogical and metaphorical. He bitrary. They express only our sea contends, that though the Gospel is al condary conceptions, and always...! revelation from God, and though by it ply that the subjects they embellis life and immortality are brought to are more directly known througa a light, yet it does not furnish us with better medium.


* Memoirs of Leonardo Aretino.



Corporeal objects are generally the place prepared for good men. In the basis of metaphor; intellectual, that scriptures, they are represented as of analogy. And as our spiritual part strangers and pilgrims, and as having is made after the image of God, this no continuing city, or “abiding place;" renders the analogy rationally built on but in the expression above, it is intimental properties and operations, just, mated that a place is prepared for with respect to God and his attributes, them, and this suggests to the mind as well as other purely spiritual beings the notions of rest, residence, secuwho are created in a nearer likeness rity, accommodation, and permato him. And, therefore, his natural nence. And however different the attributes (so called) we conceive by future dwelling of the righteous may analogy with the operations and pro be from their present, there must be perties of our own minds; and his some points of agreement between moral, by our complex notions of hu them, as place resembles place, wheman virtues and moral excellencies. ther in earth or heaven. It would not “ When we represent the knowledge be a laborious task to select from the of God by our knowledge, and the scriptures, passages which refer to goodness of God by the goodness of a God, to angels, to the spirits of just man, (which are the only direct notions | men made perfect, and to the glories we can have of either knowledge or of heaven, that would illustrate and goodness,) this is true analogy. When confirm the preceding remarks ; but the joys of heaven are called a crown of this would extend this paper beyond righteousness, and heaven itself describ- its proper limits. Enough, it is preed as a new Jerusalem, these are mere sumed, is advanced, to show that metaphors borrowed from ideas of sen heavenly things are revealed through sation ; but when 'tis said that the an earthly medium; and that our righteous shall obtain joy and gladness knowledge of them, though not direct, and pleasures for evermore, this is an is not all negative. analogical conception; and represents

(To be concluded in our next.) an inconceivable future bliss, correspondent and answerable to the best conceptions we are able to form of joy MEMOIRS OF THE LIFE AND TIMES OP and pleasure here, in the gratification

LEONARDO ARETINO. of all our reasonable affections."

(Continued from col. 895.) Brown's Procedure, page 139.

There are persons, no doubt, who The contentions in which the pontifithink it difficult to distinguish between cal court was now involved, were very an analogical and a metaphorical disagreeable to the feelings of Leoterm, and in some instances it does nardo, who found himself, in conserequire the exercise of judgment; but quence of the confidential communiin general it is as easy as to distin- cations, with which, in discharge of guish a noun from a verb. If the defi- his duty as secretary he was necessanitions are clearly understood, prac- rily entrusted, in a manner debarred tice will render the difference as per- from free intercourse with his friends. ceptible in the former case as in the Some of these were of the adverse latter. Who, for example, does not party; and he declined discussing with see that the language in the following them the debatable topics which phrases varies considerably in its di arose from the circumstances of the rect import? “In my Father's house times ; and he feared lest it might be are many mansions.“I go to prepare apprehended that, in his correspona place for you.” In the former, house dence, even with such of his acquaintand mansions are evidently metaphors, ance as were the partisans of Gregory, as strictly speaking there is neither in he had betrayed those secrets of state heaven. This imagery, however, af- which might have transpired through fects the mind very powerfully, and the medium of individuals less circumleads it to a pleasing train of thoughts spect and less faithful than himself. * on the residence of Deity, and the It was, therefore, with much pleasure secure and comfortable abode of the that he received, in the month of righteous.

March, 1409, a summons from the But the words place and prepare, are Florentine State to repair to his naobviously more expressive in their application. Heaven is a place, al . * Leonar. Aret. Epist. lib. iii. ep. 10.

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