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1043 Origin and Nature of Human Knowledge. 1044 informed his audience of the persons | terms exclusively applicable to the who were willing to come to him, subjects it unfolds. Having no spirinamely, such as were given him of tual vocabulary, all words must have a the Father by previous instruction, natural, before they can have a divine having heard and learned of the meaning ; and consequently, none are Father, ver. 45. Hence it appears, used literally, when applied either to that the willingness to come to Christ, the mysteries of Christianity, or the on the part of those who had been invisible objects of the heavenly world. taught of the Father, was a necessary The Rev. John Wesley, who adopted consequence of their having been given his views, says, (Philosophy, vol. 5, to Christ. It would, therefore, be im- page 160,) “Metaphorical words are proper to say, that such persons shall spoken of heavenly things in no part come, when will come sufficiently con- of their proper sense; analogical
, in veys the meaning and intention of our some part of it, though not the whole. Lord in the instruction which he was So the word hand is spoken of God communicating. I again repeat it, metaphorically, for he has no hand of that our Lord's intention was, not to any sort whatever. The word power inform his audience that a divine influ- is spoken of bim analogically, for be ence overpowered and directed the has some sort of power, though of a will of those that came to him, but quite different sort from ours.” that none, except such as had learned
Important, wide, and obvious, as is of the Father, would come to him: this distinction in the use of words, it therefore will, and not shall, ought to so happens, that it is frequently lost be used.
sight of; the direct consequence of There is only one argument in the which is, that the mind is confounded compass of your correspondent's rea- in its conceptions of those things
, suning which I admit as valid. I do which can be clearly apprehended not, by this admission, concede one only by keeping it fully and constantly particle of what I considered as truth. in view. It is, perhaps, not going I allude to his remarks on the words, beyond the boundaries of truth, to “a temporal gift to discipleship.” I assert, that most errors in spiritual confess, some ambiguity attaches itself matters originate in this oversight, as to the words a temporal gift; yet, from few of consequence exist which did the connection, and other parts of my not arise either from mistaking the paper, H. B. might have discovered, precise point or points of analogy inthat I contrasted temporal with eter-tended by scripture terms, or by renal, not as denoting eternity, future, solving words used analogically into but eternity past, that is, a gift made mere metaphor. in time, in opposition to a gift made In addition to the preceding defifrom eternity. In this view, both of nition of analogical and metaphorical us seem to coincide: and with this words, a few remarks may be necesexplanation I now conclude.
sary, to render the distinction clear I am, &c. to those who have seldom reflected on
Z. it. Analogical terms, in a scriptural Aberdeen, 17th September, 1821.
sepse, are those that express our first
nishes no terms of a purely spiritual (Continued from col. 816.)
import, these are the most proper that
it affords; and when used, they have Bishop Brown, the learned author of ever a reference to some real resem“ The Procedure, Limits, and Extent, blance. But metaphorical terms, of Human Understanding,” reduces though founded on remote allusion, the terms of revelation, as they refer are little better than mere elegancies to spiritual objects, to two classes, of diction, and their use is purely aranalogical and metaphorical. He bitrary. They express only our secontends, that though the Gospel is a condary conceptions, and always ima revelation from God, and though by it ply that the subjects they
embellish life and immortality are brought to are more directly known through a light, yet it does not furnish us with better medium.
ON THE ORIGIN AND NATURE OF HU
MAN KNOWLEDGE RESPECTING GOD
1046 Corporeal objects are generally the place prepared for good men. In the basis of metaphor; intellectual, that scriptures, they are represented as of analogy. And as our spiritual part strangers and pilgrims, and as having is made after the image of God, this po continuing city, or “abiding place;" renders the analogy rationally built on but in the expression above, it is intimental properties and operations, just, mated that a place is prepared for with respect to God and his attributes, them, and this suggests to the mind as well as other purely spiritual beings the notions of rest, residence, secuwho are created in a nearer likeness rity, accommodation, and permato him. And, therefore, his natural nence. And however different the attributes (so called) we conceive by future dwelling of the righteous may analogy with the opérations and pro- be from their present, there must be perties of our own minds; and his some points of agreement between moral, by our complex notions of hu- them, as place resembles place, wheman virtues and moral excellencies. ther in earth or heaven. It would not “When we represent the knowledge be a laborious task to select from the of God by our knowledge, and the scriptures, passages which refer to goodness of God by the goodness of a God, to angels, to the spirits of just man,(which are the only direct notions men made perfect, and to the glories we can have of either knowledge or of heaven, that would illustrate and goodness,) this is true analogy. When confirm the preceding remarks ; but the joys of heaven are called a crown of this would extend this paper beyond righteousness, and heaven itself describ- its proper limits. Enough, it is preed as a new Jerusalem, these are mere sumed, is advanced, to show that metaphors borrowed from ideas of sen- heavenly things are revealed through sation; but when 'tis said that the an earthly medium; and that our righteous shall obtain joy and gladness knowledge of them, though not direct, and pleasures for evermore, this is an is not all negative. analogical conception; and represents (To be concluded in our next.) an inconceivable future bliss, correspondent and answerable to the best conceptions we are able to form of joy MEMOIRS OF THE LIFE AND TIMES OP and pleasure here, in the gratification of all our reasonable affections."
(Continued from col. 895.) Brown's Procedure, page 139.
There are persons, no doubt, who The contentions in which the pontifithink it difficult to distinguish between cal court was now involved, were very an analogical and a metaphorical disagreeable to the feelings of Leoterm, and in some instances it does nardo, who found himself, in conserequire the exercise of judgment; but quence of the confidential communiin general it is as easy as to distin- cations, with which, in discharge of guish a noun from a verb. If the defi- his duty as secretary he was necessanitions are clearly understood, prac- rily entrusted, in a manner debarred tice will render the difference as per- from free intercourse with his friends. ceptible in the former case as in the Some of these were of the adverse latter. Who, for example, does not party; and he declined discussing with see that the language in the following them the debatable topics which phrases varies considerably in its di- arose from the circumstances of the rect import? “In my Father's house times; and he feared lest it might be are many mansions.” “I go to prepare apprehended that, in his correspona place for you.” In the former, house dence, even with such of his acquaintand mansions are evidently metaphors, ance as were the partisans of Gregory, as strictly speaking there is neither in he had betrayed those secrets of state heaven. This imagery, however, af- which might have transpired through fects the mind very powerfully, and the medium of individuals less circumleads it to a pleasing train of thoughts spect and less faithful than himself.* on the residence of Deity, and the It was, therefore, with much pleasure secure and comfortable abode of the that he received, in the month of righteous.
March, 1409, a summons from the But the words place and prepare, are Florentine State to repair to his naobviously more expressive in their application. Heaven is a place, a * Leopar. Aret. Epist. lib. iii. ep. 10.
Memoirs of Leonardo Aretino.
tive province. For what purpose, or virtue must be esteemed as tried and in what capacity he was sent for, does approved. not appear; but in compliance with I cannot describe the respect in this public requisition, he immediately which you are held by the whole city, took leave of the Pontiff, and repaired the commendations with which your to the Tuscan capital.*
name is mentioned on all occasions, Among the companions of his youth- or the eagerness with which my townsfal studies, with whom he was, on this men commemorate your justice, your occasion, eager to renew the inter- integrity, your moderation, and pocourses of friendship, was Antonio liteness. I pass by the qualities which Riario, who had lately held for a short are common to you with many others, period the office of Governor of Arez- but I must inform you, that they bezo. To the welfare of his native place, stow upon you a praise, which the Leonardo could not be indifferent. general evil manners of the present Antonio had most faithfully discharged age render particularly distinguished, the duties of his elevated station, by in bearing witness, that you are one promoting the happiness and prospe- of those conscientious men who do not rity of those who had been subjected regard the prerogatives of government to his temporary sway; and his friend, as a license to spoil and plunder; but having been, by a succession of acci- who look upon government itself as a dents, precluded from personally tes trust, to be exercised for the protectifying to him the sense which he en- tion and benefit of the governed. In tertained of his merits in this particu- writing to you, I will call no one's lar, addressed him on that subject in conduct into question, nor will I onthe following letter.
deavour to extol your virtue by pre“Ideem myself to have lost a great senting the contrast of another's vices: part of the pleasure which I expected but thus much I may be permitted to to have derived from my late travels, say, that I fear that your conduct exbecause I could not meet you either cites the general admiration, because at Florence or Arezzo. For it has such examples of probity and integrity twice happened, that, whilst I was at are extremely rare. For so adverse the one of those places, you were to all propriety are the notions of men, at the other. I was, however, much and to such a height has the madness, more disappointed at missing you at of cupidity attained, that they to whom Arezzo than at Florence ;-in the first the magistracy is delegated, imagine place, because I could not follow you that they may rob and plunder with from my native town, and next, be- impunity. Hence those very persons cause though I antecedently enter- are the greatest violators of justice, to tained the highest opinion of your whose hands the sword is committed, probity, the testimonies which I heard for the purpose of defending its deof the admirable virtues which you crees. Than this line of conduct, I displayed during the last six months, know. nothing more perverse. . It is in quality of governor of that city, the dictate of nature that chief magisinspired me with increased regard trates should promote the welfare of and affection towards you. I was, their people, that they should punish therefore, extremely concerned not to malefactors, control the ill-disposed, have an immediate opportunity of put an end to discord; that they should offering you my congratulations. At not only themselves, in the exercise of all times, indeed, was virtue to be abstinence and integrity, refrain fi admired--but in our age it is the more rapine, injury, and contumely, but admirable, in proportion to the scar- that they should also restrain others city of good men, especially in places from perpetrating these crimes. What of power and trust, in which the li- then can be more wicked, what more cense to do
wrong renders it the more treasonable, than yourself to commit difficult to abstain from the exercise those offences which you are appointed of oppression. For men in general to check and punish? want not so much the will, as the pow- It may, however, be said, What ader, to play the tyrant. Whosoever, vantage or benefit then will accrue to then, has not abused his power, his the magistrate ? Shall he reap for his
exertions nothing but labour and
trouble ?-I answer, He will reap a * Leonar. Aret. Epist. lib. iii. ep. 10.
magnificent reward, a reward prefer
1050 able to all money and gain. I mean could hardly furnish them with the honour and glory, in comparison of requisite accommodations.
Several which, wealth is of little worth. He others were daily expected, amongst who is not satisfied with this reward whom he mentions the Bishop of Bourwill never be a good chief magistrate. deaux, and some English Prelates. From their relative connection, then, He was grieved to find that a process it is fitting that the governed should had been already commenced against derive profit, and the governors ho- his late master, whose conduct, to his nour. And this is, indeed, declared still greater mortification, he found it by the very insignia of office which impossible to vindicate.t of the chaattend upon the magistrate, such as racter and dispositions of the meinbanners, and horses with their hous-bers of the council, Leonardo speaks ings, and robes, and shields, and in terms of commendation. Their crests, and other things of the same proceedings were rapid and decisive. kind, all which are the instruments of They deposed both Benedict and Gresplendour and magnificence, not like gory, and raised to the papal chair the account books of merchants, im- Pietro Filardo, a native of the island plements for the obtaining of money. of Candia, who, on bis election, aşThe acquisition of gain, then, requires sumed the name of Alexander V.I a different method, and a different Leonardo entered into the service apparatus from the acquisition of ho- of the new Pontiff, in quality of Secre
But these are now confounded tary, in which capacity he accompaby many, who refer every thing to nied him from Pisa to Pistoria, where gain, and make a trade of magistracy. the papal court was held during the I congratulate you, then, because you whole of the winter of 1409. Early in have chosen the better way, and have the spring of the ensuing year it was not considered how much profit, but removed to Bologna, where, to the how much praise, you might derive great afiliction of the learned and the from your late dignity, whilst you pious, Alexander, who was distinwere neither led astray from reason guished by his talents and his virtues, by avarice, nor from justice by pride. died in the eighth month of his Pon
I will not, in these circumstances, tificate. propose any other character for your He was succeeded in the pontifical imitation, but shall content myself honours by Baldassare Cossa, Cardiwith exhorting you to imitate your- nal of St. Eustachio, a man of a restself ; for, believe me, nothing will be less spirit and unbounded ambition, wanting to your praise, if you con- and whose moral character so ill befittinue to regulate your conduct by the ted the sacredness of his office, that maxims by which it has hitherto been it was strongly suspected he had guided."*
shortened the days of his predecessor It has already been related, that by poison. It may be presumed, howthe Cardinals, who were hostile to the ever, that Leonardo did not give creinterests, or disgusted by the conduct, dence to this imputation, as he conof Gregory, had assembled at Pisa, and tinued for a time to exercise his office had adopted measures to put an end of papal secretary under the auspices to the schism which had for so long a of Cossa, who, on his accession, took space of time scandalized and afliicted the name of John XXII.|| the true believers in the Catholic faith. In the course of the same year, howIt appears, from a letter addressed by ever, Leonardo was appointed to the Leonardo to his friend Ruffo, that Chancellorship of the Republic of soon after his arrival at Florence, he Florence. But, for reasons which was summoned to attend, and, as may are not recorded in his own writings, be conjectured, to assist in recording or in any of the works of his contemthe deliberations of this august and poraries which have survived the lapse venerable assembly. On his arrival of time, he did not, on the present at Pisa, he found to his surprise, that occasion, hold this honourable office so great a number of ecclesiastics had for a long period. In the latter end repaired to the council, that the city of the year 1411, he resigned his mu
* Leonard. Aret. Epistolæ, lib. iii. ep. 11.
Platina, p. 389.
1052 nicipal dignities, and resumed his and the other particulars, which comancient functious in the Pontifical pose the dress of the Florentine ladies. Chancery.*
In that case, they would entertain a Early in the ensuing year, he ex- more hamble opinion of themselves changed the freedom of celibacy for than they do at present. But this the wholesome restraints of the nup-topic I leave to be handled by my tial state. The object of his choice friend Zucharo.”I was a lady of good family, at Arezzo, The only offspring of Leonardo's to whom he was married in the month marriage was a son, who was born of January or February.t The follow- towards the close of the year 1412, ing letter, which he addressed to his and whose name has been ascertained friend Poggio, soon after the termi- by the minute researches of Mehus, to nation of his honey-moon, evinces have been Donato.ş that, the joys of matrimony had not On the accession of John XXII. to extinguished his regard to prudential the pontifical chair, his affairs wore a considerations.
face of prosperity. Whilst Benedict “On my return from Arezzo, on was supported by no part of Christenthe 17th of March, I deviated from dom except Spain and Scotland, and the direct road, to pay a visit to your Gregory, on the death of Robert
, native place, (Terranuova,) where I Emperor of Germany, held the mere found both your parents in good semblance of a court at Rimini, John health, and heard a good account of was acknowledged as the legitimate your newly married sister, and of the successor of St. Peter by the greatest rest of your relations. On my arrival part of Europe.ll His newly acquired at Florence, I received your letter ; dignity was not, however, enjoyed by and though I am so much fatigued by him without uneasiness. The state of my journey that I am more inclined to Italy filled him with alarm. In the sleep than to write, I will answer it as contention which was at that time carwell as I can. In the first place, as to ried on for the throne of Naples, bethe witty remark of my excellent friend tween Louis of Anjou, and Ladislaus, Zucharo, that I was gone to consum- king of Hungary, he attached himself mate my marriage, whilst he stayed to to the fortunes of the former of those consume his pauimony; I would beg princes, under whose protection be leave to inform him that my wedding made his solemn entry into Rome, has to me effected both these purposes. where he was received with public It is incredible what expense is occa- acclamations. Soon after this Louis sioned by the new and extravagant fa- gained a signal victory over his comshions which have been lately adopted petitor. His rashness and presumpin this country. I do not, by this obser- tion, however, prevented him from vation, allude to the entertainments reaping the fruits of his success. Eswhich I have given, at which Pincio, teeming his adversary as irretrievably whom you well remember for his doublé ruined, he quitted the theatre of the entendre, attended with a whole band war, and repaired to France. Ladisof musicians. My guests, you may laus, with the promptitude and vigibe assured, were numerous.' I emp- lance of an able soldier, took advan. tied the market and the grocers' shops, tage of his supineness.' He collected and gave active employment to a va. a numerous army, at the head of riety of cooks, oil-men, and poulter- which he approached the pontifical
These matters, however, are capital. John, despairing of being attended with more talk than cost, and able to make any effectual resistance cause more bustle than expense. The against the superior forces of the Hunprincipal subject of my complaint is, garian monarch, fled from Rome and that there is no end of the expense of took shelter in Florence, I in the sumfemale ornaments and apparel. Imer of 1413. In the beginning of the wish those Romans of yours, who have winter of the same year, he went to, nothing left of their ancient glory, be successively, Bologna, Piacenza, Lodi, sides empty boasting, could see the Cremono, and Mantua. Early in the gold, the silver, the purple, the pearls, following year he returned to Bologna,
* Mehi Vita Leon. Aret, p. 40. + Ibid. p. 41.
Leonard. Aret. Epist. lib. iii. ep. 17.
Mebi Vita Leon. Aret. p. 41.
Ibid. p. 4.
p. 2, 3.