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1073

Answer to a Query on the Division of the Earth.

1074

Then among streams and flowers

sical Journal,” will not, perhaps, be The little winged powers

unacceptable or uninteresting to your Went singing carols without torch or bow: The nymphs and shepherds sat

numerous readers. Mingling with innocent chat

I am, your's, respectfully, Sports and low whispers; and with whispers

Aizeos. Kisses that would not go

125, Oxford-Street, London. Our sorrows and our pains,

Peleg means to divide, therefore it These are thy noble gains !

is said, in his days the earth was divided. But oh! thou love's and nature's masterer,

Some have thought that this has relaThou conqueror of the crown'd, What dost thou on this ground,

tion to the earth; that originally it was Too small a circle for thy mighty sphere ? in one compact mass, and that at this Go, and make slumber dear

period of the world it was divided by To the renown'd and high;

an earthquake as it is now; but a supWe here, a lowly race, · Can live without thy grace

position of this nature cannot be adAfter the use of mild antiquity:

mitted, because it leaves us to conGo, let us love; since years

clude that the Divine Being could not No trace allow, and life soon disappears, &c. | foresee what should happen, and But we must here interrupt our

therefore, that when the time came, visions of the “golden prime,” and

he found it necessary to make this take our leave of the poetry of Mr. H.

division.-But leaving such suppoto pursue more serious duties, and

sitions to those who can be satisfied fulfil the higher and more useful ob

with them, I shall give what I conjects of our work. Though moral and

ceive to be a more rational account of religious views, and the promotion of

this transaction, more consistent with “ peace and good will to man," with

the understanding of the original wrichristian knowledge and humility, be

ter of the sacred scriptures, which the chief aim of our uniform and unre

treat only concerning things appermitting efforts, we are occasionally

taining to religion, and the future state glad to season our instruction with the

of man. glad voice and the fresh and invigo

By the earth, in scripture language, rating spirit of the muse. In accom

is frequently meant the inhabitants, plishing this, however, we shall en

Gen. vi. 11. The earth also was corrupt. deavour to bring before our readers

-ch. xi. i. And the whole earth was of only such of our distinguished poets,

one language.-ch. xix. 31. After the whose works are equally celebrated

manner of all the earth.- Psalm c. for taste and genius, as for the purer

Make a joyful noise unto the Lord, all qualities and more ennobling princi

ye lands. -Deut. xxxii. 1. Hear, o ples of bumanity, morals, and_re

earth, the words of my mouth.-1st

Kings x. 24. And all the earth sought

R. T. ligion.

Solomon.--Therefore it is more con

sistent with enlightened reason, and Answer to a Query on the Division of |

we have the authority of scripture to the Earth in the Days of Peleg.

conclude, that some other division

was meant by the sacred writer.In col. 865, a Query was inserted re

Now, as it appears that these names specting “The Division of the Earth

were given by the patriarchs to their in the days of Peleg," to which, in

descendants, to signify the states of col. 977, a brief answer was given.

these patriarchal churches, it is also Since the preceding appeared, we

as certain that at this time there was have been favoured with the following,

a division made among them, for a which, as it takes another view of the

singular change took place in the first subject, we also insert.

order of patriarchs, from Adam to MR. EDITOR

Enoch, who are said to have lived Sir,-In answer to a Query from E.

800 years after the birth of their sucW. “On the Division of the Earth in

cessors. Thus: the days of Peleg ;' inserted col. 865

years. of your September number; the un-Seth after the birth of Enos - - 807 derwritten extract from an excellent Enos after the birth of Cainan - 815 and impartial work, “The History of Cainan after the birth of Mahalaleel 840 all Religious, by John Bellamy, au- Mahalaleel after the birth of Jarad 830 thor of Biblical Criticisms in the Clas- | Jared after the birth of Enoch - 800

1075

On the Neglect of Genius.

1076

And that this applies to the ecclesi. | division, which took place in the time astical department, or the church, as of Peleg, was a division of the kingly well as to the patriarchs, may be al- and the priestly offices, arising from a lowed, because it is said that Enoch general apostasy from the true worwalked with God three hundred years ship of God, which caused a division after the birth of Methuselah, before in the church ; the greatest part, either he was translated; which is sufficient from compulsion, or from the prevato convince us that a very consider- lence of example, adopted the polite able change took place in the church worship of the Babylonians, the dein the time of righteous Enoch. scendants of Ham. Thus the mo

Thus it is said of the first five patri- narchical form of government, which archs, beginning with Seth, by whom from the time of Noah had been joined the first visible church was manifested, to the ecclesiastical, was now divided; that they lived upwards of 800 years but the priestly patriarchal was still after the birth of their first-born son, retained in Peleg, and in his descendto the change which took place in the ants down to Serug ; like that which time of Enoch : even as it is said of now exists in the patriarch of the the first five patriarchs of the second Greek church at Constantinople, who order from Noah, by whom the second is considered as a nominal head of visible church was manifested, that that church, but who has not any they lived upwards of 400 years only power as a temporal prince; or someafter the birth of their first-born son, what like the pope, who, since his to the change which took place at the dominion has been circumscribed, and time of Peleg.

his authority questioned, is reduced Noah was 500 years old at the birth to a similar situation. of Shem, Ham, and Japhet, Gen. v. 32; but as it is expressly said that he lived 350 years after the food, ch. ix.

ON THE NEGLECT OF GENIUS.29, and that his three sons were married when they went into the ark, they must have been 50 years old at the

MR. EDITOR. time of the flood, which authorizes us

Sir,—The observations in your Magas to state, that after the birth of his first zine for October, (col. 937) on this born son,

subject, have led me to throw together years.

the few following remarks for your Noah lived - - - - - - - 400

consideration; hoping, as well as the Shem after the birth of Arphaxad 500

writer of those observations, that some Arphaxad after the birth of Salah 403 Salah after the birth of Eber

abler hand will speedily take up the - 403

subject, as it is one on which a great Eber after the birth of Peleg - 430 | deal may be said, it being of a pecull

But that which confirms us in the arly interesting nature. opinion that the division of the earth Could we by any possible means in the time of Peleg was a division of take a retrospective glance at the gethe church, is, that from Peleg to nius of every man who has lived withSerug, these patriarchs are said to in the last century, we should find have lived only half the time of the that few, very few indeed, have met first five, that is 200 years after the with the encouragement they deserved birth of their first-born son. Thus | or expected. This arises from a varl. Peleg lived after the birth of Reu 209 ety of causes; from the difficulty, and years ; Reu after the birth of Serag, I even the impossibility, of persons, who 207 years'; Serug after the birth of are able and willing to assist them, Nahor, 200 years.

ever becoming acquainted with their Now, if we consider that at this situation, on account of the vast mul: period, the Chaldean empire was ex- | titude who people this “fair world;" tending its conquests over a great part and when acquainted, probably from of the east, that the love of dominion a want of sufficient judgment to diswhen aided by power will not suffer tinguish the risings of that genius, itself to be controlled, it is no wonder which they would otherwise be willing that the Chaldean power put an end to encourage and extend.The pride to this ancient patriarchal-monarchical | cipal reason why so many geniuses form of government. We have scrip- / are never brought into action, is own ture and history to prove, that this ing to their having no opportunity

1077

On the Neglect of Genius.

1078

give to the world the productions of this, he has been suffered to rise and minds, that might, with cultivation, pass away almost without notice. The arrive at the pinnacle of excellence; laurel has been awarded (for the preand they are left to die unknown and sent) to other brows: the bolder aspiunlamented. It was with this idea rants have becn allowed to take their impressed upon his mind that Gray station on the slippery steps of the wrote his well-known verse:

temple of fame, while he has been “Full many a gem of purest ray serene,

nearly hidden among the crowd during The dark unfathom'd caves of ocean bear;

his life, and has at last died, solitary Full many a flower is born to blash unseen, and in sorrow, in a foreign land....: And waste its sweetness on the desert air.” His sad and beautiful wish is at last

This of course occurs more frequento accomplished : it was, that he might ly among the lower orders of society | drink“ of the warm south”, and than others, arising from the want of " leave the world unseen,'-and-(he means, and the employment of a great is addressing the nightingale,) portion of their time in procuring the

"And with thee fade away into the forest necessaries of life; while the other

dim: classes have more time and money at Fade far away, dissolve, and quite forget their disposal. How many Cornwalls | What thou amongst the leaves hast never and Wordsworths have passed their

known, days in the “ life-consuming den" of a

The weariness, the fever, and the fret cotton manufactory, or dragged on a

Here, where men sit and hear each other

groan; miserable existence in a garret, stran- / Where palsy shakes a few, and last grey hairs, gers almost to every comfort of civil- Where youth grous pale, and spectre-thin, and ization and of social life?

dies;

Where but to think is to be full of sorrow, . “So it has been, and so it must!” And leaden-eyed despairs. This does not arise so much from a

Where beauty cannot keep her lustrous eyes,

Or new love pine at them beyond to-morrow.general want of willingness in the public to relieve, (for, upon the whole, Il 'Tis true, he was nearly “hidden must think that the people of England among the crowd ;” but, notwithhave not been backward in rewarding standing his works were known to merit,) as from a want of knowledge some persons, he was treated by them where these individuals are to be in a manner for which they may now found. But when they are discovered, be sorry, but for which they cannot how tenderly should they use them! | atone! It was his ill fate to encounter how should they excite their ardour in the criticism of men now living, who, the pursuit of those objects of litera almost without any of those feelings ture or art which are open to their that ought to be possessed by them, view, forgiving little faults and fail- have cast a degree of ridicule and conings, though they might occur“seventy tempt upon every passage which they times seven.”

could discover in his writings; not In addition to the names of the un- for the purpose of warning the poet, fortunate Chatterton and Savage, nor in the true spirit of criticism, but which your correspondent has addu, to indulge their own personal hatred ced, allow me to notice one who was, of the man, because he was attached this time last year, awake to all the to a party to which they were opposed. loveliness of the scenes of nature, -It was this that damped the ardour mingling them with his lively imagi- of his poetical genius,--this that gave nation, and blessing and delighting a shock to his delicate frame and feel. the world with his productions,-iings, and to this he has fallen a prey mean the poet Keats." There is but before the summer of his days had a small portion of the public acquaint-passed away. ed with the writings of this young It is well for the honour of England man; yet they were full of high ima- that these cases are of so rare occurgination and delicate fancy, and his rence. It is well that there are indiviimages were beautiful, and more en-duals who do their utmost to rescue tirely his own, perhaps, than those of genius from the grasp of poverty, any living writer whatever. He had where they find it thus oppressed; a fine ear, a tender heart; and at for it is well known, that for want of times, great force and originality of timely support, both poets and paintexpression; and, notwithstanding all Iers, and others of every profession,

1080

1079

Observations on Light. Norconnoooooooooooo............................................... have sunk from the rank they held in took him: upon this the gentleman society to the lowest ebb of misery; asked him if he had any specimens of and have been compelled to neglect all his ability to show, when the youth their intellectual labours:

produced two or three drawings he

had with him, upon which he was de“Chill penury repress'd their noble rage, And froze the genial current of their souls."

sired to call again and bring some

more. The youth obeyed; the conse: Seeing this is the case, what pow-quence was, the worthy gentleman erful claims press upon every indivi- took him without a farthing, and found dual to assist to the utmost of his him possessed of a genius truly great. ability, men of genius, when labour- | But five months had not clapsed, ing under pecuniary difficulties !—The before death claimed him for his benefit they render to the individual is own. great; the benefit they render to their Another genius, a poet, was lately country is greater; and, as their own rescued by the kindness of some genreward, what a variety of pleasing tleman from the poverty that surthoughts must arise in their minds, on rounded him, I mean John Clare, the the recollection, that probably they peasant, who has published two or three have been the means of saving a wor volumes of poetry, which display the thy man from an early grave, of pre- powers of a mind, that, with proper serving bim alive for the bringing up culture, I have no doubt will further of his children, and knowiny, in short, interest the public, and add one more that all his posterity will bless his poet to the number for which this name !

country is at present so distinguished. I will take the liberty of mentioning Trusting that these gentlemen, as well a circumstance related by a friend à as the individual referred to above, few days ago, closely bearing upon may long experience the pleasing the subject. I will abstain from men- / satisfaction of being entitled to the tioning names, but I could do it most good wishes, at least, of all who know willingly : the gentleman, if he should them, I need scarcely say that they happen to see this, must know that I have mine most sincerely. refer to him, and must feel an inward

I remain, Your's, &c. pleasure in the consciousness of having

M. M. done an action, more worthy to be Acton-Place, Oct. 3. recorded in the page of history, than those of the warrior in the field of blood; and, if death had not interpo

OBSERVATIONS ON LIGHT. sed between his good intentions and

(Concluded from col. 988) the object of them, he, no doubt, would have been the means of giving | However unaccountable it may be, to the world the productions of a such is the fact; light is rellected. splendid genius, and of raising a wor- And to this reflection we are indebted thy family from comparative indigence for whatever enters into our view, to affluence and ease.

which is not itself luminous; for the The family I speak of had a son, sight of whatever is sublime, or beauwho was always remarkably fond of tiful, or useful, in nature or in art. drawing; he had attained his 16th / Were it not for the reflection of light, year, and manifested an ardent desire the only things visible would be the to be apprenticed to an artist. The sun, stars, candles, &c. But it is parents applied to several, but none evident, that the sun itself is lighted would take him without a sum of mo-up, not so much to be looked at, ney above what they could in any as to empower us to look at other manner collect together. He, how-things. What is called day light, IS ever, was not to be thwarted in the light reflected from various terrestrial pursuit of the object so near his heart. I bodies; from air, clouds, earth, &c. He waited upon the gentleman to / Were it not for this reflection, if we whom I refer, and wished him to take turned our back to the sun, in the him under his care; the gentleman clearest day, we should see nothing observed, that he thought it singular and if we turned our face to that lumihe should apply in such a manner to nary, I apprebend his unbroken, unhim ; when the youth said, he trusted | refractd rays, would overwhelmus he would have no cause to repent if he with their effulgence. I see, or the

2081

Observations on Light.

1082

I sce, a most admirable display of ted by a simple experiment: take a wisdom and foresight, when consider- | bason, or any hollow vessel; place at ing the manner in which light is re- the bottom of it a piece of money ; let flected by our atmosphere. If it was a person recede from the vessel until merely by chance, that our globe was he lose sight of the money, then pour encompassed with an elastic fluid, clear water into the vessel, and the whick, by reflecting the rays of the piece of money will again become sun in all directions, enables us in all visible. Now in this experiment it is directions to sec; to say the least of to be observed, that the rays of light it, it was a very good chance !!

reflected from the piece of money, I am not an optician, I am not passing out of the water which is reading a paper on optics, I can there dense, into the air which is more rare, fore say but little on the causes and inclines from the perpendicular ; and laws of the refraction of light. The so is seen at a greater distance from introduction of the following observations, I hope the clemency of gentle-! 7. It is a fundamental law in optics, men of the society will excuse.

that the angle of refraction is as the 1. Light, when propelled from a angle of incidence ; i. e. the perpenluminous body, proceeds in a right dicular line which cuts the point, line, and will keep that course for where the ray enters the refracting ever, if not interrupted by the resist-medium, forms the same angle with ance or attraction of some other sub- | the ray of incidence, as it does with

the refracted ray. 2. When a ray of light comes to a To the refrangibility of light, we are point within a given distance of any indebted for advantages not to be body, it is at that point either repelled estimated. We derive from it, in or attracted ; if repelled, it is then great part, the dawn of the morning, called a reflected ray ; if attracted, it the twilight of the evening, and the then enters upon the process of re-useful light of noon-day. It is that fraction.'

which gives to the convex lens its 3. The instant a ray of light comes power; and in the telescope, its virtue

stance.

any body, its course is altered; and! A chemical view of the nature of it inclines towards the perpendicular, | light, I must leave to gentlemen who i. e. towards the line, which cutting make chemistry their study. The the point where attraction commences, identity, or the combination of light is perpendicular to the surface or with caloric; its effects on vegetation, plane of attraction. This observation and especially in producing vegetable supposes the ray to come in an oblique green; its combination with different direction.

gases, and the manner in which it is 4. The ray of light, while it is in the given out by combustion--these and limit of attraction, and has not actu- many other interesting particulars, ally entered the body, is called in op- which enter into this view of the subtics, the incident ray: and the angle ject, the want of time, or the want of which is contained betwixt such a ray ability, or both, obliges me to pass and the perpendicular, is called the over. angle of incidence.

With the same rapidity I must dis5. When a ray is past the limit of miss the consideration of light which attraction, and has actually entered is emitted from the ignus fatui, and the body, it is bent, or altered in its other meteors from sea water, fishes, course a second time. According to and insects, the glow-worm in partithe technicale of optics, it is then said cular—and from various putrescent to be a refracted ray: and the angle and phosphorescent substances. I which is contained betwixt such a ray venture, however, the conjecture, that and the perpendicular, is called the electricity is the true solution of the angle of refraction.

difficulties attending these mysteri6. If the ray of light pass out of a ous appearances in nature. rarer into a denser medium, it invari - 1 cannot, however, close this paper, ably inclines towards the perpendicu- without taking the opportunity which lar; if out of a denser medium into is afforded me, of stating what appear one that is rarer, it inclines from the to me, some serious and weighty obperpendicular. This may be illustra- jections against the Newtonian, er No. 34.- Vol. III.

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