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Reply to a Query on the Sabbath.

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of deep regret ; and therefore, every | made for man,” goes far to overturn opportunity of exhibiting that autho- all he has advanced against its moral rity for the correction of what is anti- obligation ; for if it was made for man, christian, and the establishment of it would unquestionably be given to what is scriptural, is eagerly embraced. man as soon as he was in circumAs this query stands intimately con- stances to observe this appointment. nected with the institution of the And on this conclusion we rest with seventh day as a sabbath, it will be more confidence, when we consider, requisite to make a few observations that the reasons of the institution exthereon, as preliminary to answering isted at the creation. Not but that Gamma's immediate point of inquiry. other reasons were afterwards added

We shall first observe, that the on its reappointment by Moses; but original institution of a sabbath, was this, I presume, can make nothing commemorative in its design. This against the original obligation which we safely infer from Gen. ii, 3. “God was still retained. Others were inblessed the seventh day, and sancti- deed added, but entirely on account tied it, because that in it he had rested of the peculiar circumstances connect. from all his work, which God created | ed with that nation. and made :" (see also Exod. xx. 11.) God, in making the sabbath a memoThis institution then celebrates the rial of other things, was only acting completion of the glorious work of according to his usual plan in all his creation, which tuned the admiring works, of bringing no more means into souls of holy angels, for herein is dis operation, for the accomplishment of played that which was calculated to an end, than what are absolutely necall forth their praises. No intelli cessary. It must be granted, that to gent creature can behold the glorious the believing children of Israel, the fabric of the earth and heavens, exhi sabbath was a sign of their entering biting eternal power, perfect wisdom, into God's rest, and ceasing from and boundless goodness, without feel their own works, as God did from his; ing the deepest reverence for their but this could not apply at the creaAuthor. How befitting then the dig-tion, for man was in the rest God had nity of God, to appoint, and man to appointed. It also reminded them observe, the seventh day in commemo that God had given them rest in the ration of the accomplishment of cre- land of Canaan, from Egyptian bonation.

dage, which was a figure of the hea· But the sabbath was also moral in venly rest. But it is apparent, that its nature; the reason assigned by these things were peculiar to the IsGod for the appointment, was one in raelitish nation, and were subsequent which all the human race were impli- to the original institution, and there. cated, viz. “God rested on the se fore could form no part of the reaventh day from all his work.This sons for the first appointment. Both reason must pertain to the inhabitants the moral and typical obligations were of every nation upon the face of the indeed combined in the law given by earth, as tbe work of his hands; and Moses; but it is self-evident, that more especially, as the recipients of any typical purpose for which the sabthe blessings which his creatures bath was observed, could never have afford: “in him we live, and move, the least tendency to weaken its moral and have our being," and who hath obligation. It was in one point of never left himself without witness, in view a shadow, and passed away tbat he did good, and gave us rain when the body came, but in another it from heaven, and fruitful seasons, was of moral obligation, and could filling our hearts with food and glad- not be rescinded but by him who made ness. It

the appointment. This I think is still Wide as the blessings of creation further confirmed by the circumstance are diffused, so are its obligations that the command to observe the sabBut if the command was delivered at bath, when given by Moses to Israel, the creation, and of which I have no is found placed amongst those commanner of doubt, it must be obligatory mands, which are acknowledged by upon all the species. This point has all to be of universal obligation; which been controverted by that able writer, is a strong presumption that it was of (Paley) but I think the declaration of the same character. It is this twoour Lord, - " that the sabbath was fold relation, which it bore to

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Reply to a Query on the Sabbath.

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Mosaic dispensation, that has given that what they delivered in precept, rise to diversities of opinion amongst and what they established in practice, theologians. Our way, I presume, is must be of equal authority ? Few, innow prepared for discussing the point deed, doubt the authority of their preafter which Gamma inquires.

cepts, who at the same time pay no As we have before observed, what attention to the practice of the first was typical in the seventh-day sab churches. But that the opinion of the bath, bas passed away by virtue of its Apostle Paul was very different, we fulfilment in Christ. “Let no man, know of a certainty, for he praises the therefore, judge you in meat, or in Thessalonians for being followers of drink, or in respect of an holy-day, the churches of God, which in Judca or of the new-moon, or of the sabbath-are in Christ Jesus, 1 Thess. ii. 14.; days. Which are a shadow of things and in 1 Cor. xi. 16. be there appeals to come, but the body is of Christ,” to the example of the churches as a Col. iii. 16, 17. But the question re- general principle. “But if any man turns, Has the moral obligation of the seem to be contentious, we have no seventh-day sabbath been abrogated ? such custom, neither the churches of Wc hope that we have proved its obli God.” On this principle we wish to gation, to the entire satisfaction of rest the universal obligation of the every unprejudiced mind. Now, if sabbath of the first day of the week, the blessings of creation did morally The evidence that the apostolic oblige to the devotion of a seventh churches statedly observed the first part of our time to the service of God, day as a sabbath, is abundant and surely the infinite blessings of redemp- satisfactory; see Acts xx. 7: also ii. 42. tion have multiplied our obligations | 1 Cor. xvi. 2. The Apostle John, in indefinitely. We therefore confident- the book of Revelation, i. 10. emphaJy infer, there still remains the obser- | tically terms it the Lord's day; this vance of a sabbath to the Lord. not only intimates the authority of

Christ when on earth declared him Christ for so naming it, but also that self to be Lord of the sabbath ; per- the churches understood the designahaps this occasional declaration of his tion, previous to the Apostles having authority, was indicative of the change written to them; and it is apparent, he was about to make of the day of its | that the term not only implies that the observance: but while he was on Lord rose from the dead on that day, earth, we know of no positive com- but that the churches kept the day mand that Christ gave to his disciples, sacred as a memorial of his resurrecfor the observance of the first day of tion. It is that portion of time which the week as a sabbath; but the fact he has called his own, to be set apart that he did so, we gather from their to commemorate the completion of a subsequent conduct, for we cannot greater work than that of creation; admit a doubt that they imposed any and certainly its being a greater work, thing upon the first churches for establishes the propriety of abolishing which they had not the authority of the seventh day, and of instituting the Christ.

first for a superior purpose ; for all Before his ascension, he commis- things, both in creation and provisioned and qualified his Apostles, Idence, do, and must, subserve the “10 teach and disciple all nations, interests of the Redeemer's kingdom. teaching them to observe all things on the first day he rose from the dead whatsoever he had commanded them.” a triumphant Saviour, baving finished For after his resurrection, “he was the great work of redemption. This seen of them forty days, speaking of was the day of his triumph; and shall the things pertaining to the kingdom we not keep it an holy festival to the of God:” now the things they were to Lord, when every return of the day is teach, were the commandments of calculated to cheer our minds with the Christ; this was the extent of their certainty of our own resurrection? for commission; and to preserve them from our Lord has risen as the first-fruits, every thing contrary to his will, the afterwards they that are Christ's at Spirit was given, as a monitor to them his coming. Through his resurrection in every supposable case. The Apos- which we commemorate on this day, tles, thus qualified, went forth to we are begotten to a lively hope of evangelize ihe world ; under these entering into the heavenly rest; and circumstances, will it not be admitted, I observing the first day in faith, we 1137 Chemical Essays.

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word................ .......... enjoy the earnest of that rest that re- | absorbed different quantities of calomains for the people of God. .ric; the water will have absorbed more

From the above reasons we would | than the oil, and the oil more than the infer, as from the most certain data, mercury. By exposing other bodies the indispensable obligations upon all to measured quantities of caloric, we Christians to observe the first day of obtain different results. That quanthe week saered to the service of God; tity which elevates one body one defor they who presume to controvert the gree only, will elevate another body known and established practice of the ten or twenty degrees. Dr. BLACK apostolic churches, oppose that order first established the opinion, that the which inspiration dictated; they are quantities of caloric which heterogehastile to the Apostles, and rebellious neous bodies contain at the same temagainst the authority of the King of perature, are proportioned neither to Zion. But it is a pleasing consider- their weight nor their volumes, but are ation, that however powerful this hos in proportion regulated by the force of tility may now be, the time is fast ap- that attraction which they have for this proaching, when every yestige of the principle. If equal weights of water, man of sin shall be destroyed by the of glass, of tin, of copper, and of lead, breath of his mouth and brightness of be subjected to experiments, we find his coming. If the modern had been that they do not at the same temperamore observant of the practices of the ture contain the same quantities of caprimitive churches, the special duties loric. If we wish to determine the of the first day.could not have fallen quantities of caloric which bodies coninto such total disregard, neither would tain, it will be necessary to mix togethe diversity of orders which are so ther equal weights of two different anomalous, have had any existence. kinds of matter at different tempera..The judgment of Christians would tures, and observe the temperature have been established by a reference which results from their mixture. If we to examples, where precept were not make use of the same kind of matter, given ; but now they are agitated by at different degrees of temperature, the the conflicting sentiments of the titled | arithmetical medium between the two and the learned, who, on the shallow | temperatures will be produced. If, for argument of expediency, have rejected instance, we mix one pint of water at the plain and apposite example of the 120°, and another pint of the same apostolic churches ; so that on these fluid at 212°, the temperature resulting points the Christian world exhibits a from their mixture will be 1669. But perfect chaos. How consummate the when the experiment is made with two dissimilarity to the unity the apostle different bodies, the temperature prodescribes : “ There is one body, and duced is never the arithmetical mean one spirit, as ye are called in one hope of the two temperatures. Thus, if one of your calling; onę Lord, one faith, pound of water at 166o, be mixed with one baptism.” That this unity may one pound of mercury at 40°, the respeedily take the place of every com- sulting temperature is not the mean mandment of men, in the Christian 980, but is not less than 1520 ; of churches, is, Sir, the prayer of your course the water is only reduced four obedient servant,

AMICUS. degrees, whilst the loss of these four deSunderland, Oct. 15th, 1821.

grees bas been sufficient to elevate the

mercury to 152". The quantity of caCHEMICAL ESSAYS.--ESSAY V. loric in water, at any point in the scale (Caloric, concluded from col. 797.) of heat, is to that contained in the same

weight of mercury, as 28 to 1. of the comparative quantities of Caloric It is observed, that those bodies which which bodies contain,

contain the least quantity of caloric at The capacities of homogeneous bo- a given temperature, or, in other words, dies for caloric, are according to their have the least capacity, are those of temperatures and quantities of matter. greatest density, such as the metals, This however is not the case with hete and their more dense combinations ; rogeneous bodies. If oil, mercury, | | and on the other hand, substances of and water, be exposed to certain de-| the greatest rarity, the elastic fluids grees of caloric, they all arrive at a and gases, are those which have the common temperature ; but it will be greatest capacities for caloric. When found that in rising to this, they have any species of air is rarefied by the air

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Chemical Essays.

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pamp, its temperature falls, obviously this caloric has no influence in raising from the increased rarity enabling the the temperature of the substances air to contain a larger quantity of ca- which undergo these changes. When loric at a certain temperature, and this the experiment is reversed, that calorie caloric not being absorbed by the sur- which was absorbed becomes disenrounding bodies, the air suffering rare- | gaged, and is rendered sensible. faction must be reduced. By compressing any aeriform fluid, caloric is of the Variations of Temperature, and extricated, the capacity being dimi the Applications of these to Practical nisbed by the reduction of volume. By Chemistry. producing increased density in differ This subject will conclude the cheent bodies, their capacities for calorie mical history of caloric. Caloric, as are diminished. Thus, if sulphuric acid we have before observed, has a tenand water be combined together, an in-dency to produce an equilibrium of crease of density takes place, and con temperature in all bodies ; and this sequently a diminution of capacity; a equilibrium would certainly take place, considerable quantity of caloric is at were it not counteracted by different the same time evolved.

causes. As every part of the earth is It is necessary to observe, that dif not exposed to the same action of the ferent forms of the same body contain solar rays, it is obvious that there will different quantities of calorie: a body in be variations of temperature in difthe form of a fluid contains more caloric ferent climates ; the variations depend than a body in the form of a solid; and chiefly upon the latitude of the country, a body in the form of a gas, contains | although they are somewhat influenced more than a liquid body. This gives by elevation and distance from the sea. rise to wbat is called latent heat. The average annual heat in the torrid

Dr. Black first discovered that zone, is from 75° 10 80o; in moderate bodies in different forms took up dif- climates 500 or 529, and towards the ferent quantities of caloric. This fact polar regions 360. The extremes over is established from the phenomena at- the whole globe extend from a few detending liquefaction and vaporization, grees above 100° of Fahrenheit, to 500 If, for instance, ice below 32° is ex- below the zero or commencement of the posed to a warm atmosphere, it gra same scale. In tropical climates, the dually rises until it reaches that de heat in the shade occasionally rises to gree, after which it becomes station-105° or even 110° - In Siberia and ary until the whole of the ice is melted. Hudson's Bay, the temperature is soft Still, however, caloric is communicated ficiently low to freeze quicksilver. At to it; and that this caloric is absorbed Hudson Bay, the spirit thermometer is by it, is proved by a reduction of the said to have stood at 50° in the open air. temperature of the sorrounding air. In The sources of heat, under the control this case, therefore, a quantity of ca- of art, are, the rays of the sun, the loric disappears, or becomes latent, in electrical and galvanic fluids, combus. the water. This is accounted for upon tion, condensation, friction, and perthe supposition that water has a greater cussion. By a lens, or concave mirror, capacity for calorio tban ice, inasmuch the solar rays are collected, and inas the former is in a state of greater tense heat may be produced. By large density than the latter. The same phe- glasses, sufficient heat is excited to nomenon is observed, if a liquid be con-melt several of the metals, and to proverted into a state of vapour. If we duce combustion in several combusapply caloric to water, its temperature tible bodies. is gradaally raised until it reaches The electric fluid is capable of pro9120. At this temperature it continues ducing á sadden and very great heat. stationary, if its surface be exposed to On this account it is made use of to the air, and is converted into vapour. combine different gases, which unite at Vapour has a greater capacity for ca- a high temperature. Galvanism is ca loric than water, in consequence of pable of exciting heat, hence it is free which it absorbs the superabundant quently made use of to fuse the most heat, and prevents any further increase incombustible substances. Combusof temperature. These facts prove that tion is the most common source of when bodies are converted from a solid heat for the purpose of chemistry, into a fluid form, or from a fluid into an and for mechanical operations. Comaerial state, they absorb caloric, but that l bustion arises from the oxyger of the

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Wise Mayor of Lancaster.

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atmosphere combining with the com- of Cockram, (Cockerham) near Lanbustible body at elevated tempera caster, along with all other churchwartures; the combination is attended dens, to set up a rood (that is, a with condensation, and of course calo wooden figure of a man) both well faric is evolved; combustion therefore is voured and of tall stature, as usual in absolutely dependent upon a due sup- all churches. The churchwardens ply of atmospheric air, or oxygen gas : made their bargain, and agreed to give the more freely the air is supplied, the a price to one (most probably a Lanmore rapid is the combustion. The caster carpenter) that could cunningly construction of furnaces is founded on carve, and paint such idols for the this supply of air, inasmuch as in- framing of their rood ; who, according flammable matter cannot burn without to his promise, made them one, and set its free access. The production of heat it up in their church. This done, the from condensation, is most satisfacto carpenter demanded his money; but rily exemplified in substances which they, disliking bis workmanship, refusare highly compressible and elastic, ed to pay him ; whereupon he arrested consequently in acriform fluids. By them, and the matter was brought be. condensing an aeriform body, its tem- fore the mayor of Lancaster, who was perature is reduced, and a quantity of a very fit man for such a purpose, and caloric is extricated. The mixture of an old favourer of the gospel, which was sulphuric acid with water, which we rare in that country : then the carver have alladed to, is another instance of began to declare bow they covenanted the extrication of heat by condensation. with him for making the rood, with By a very sudden condensation, a high the appurtenances ready carved, and temperature, equal even to ignition, set up in their church ; which be, acmay be produced. It was observed, cording to his promise, had done: now that a luminous appearance is some demanding his money, they refused to times produced by the discharge of an pay him.-Mayor. “Is this true, masair-gun in the dark. The experiment ter churchwardens ?Churchwardens. was repeated before the French Na “ Yea, Sir.”-Mayor. " Why do you tional Institute. From the air rapidly not pay the old man his due ?compressed in the ball of an air-gun, Churchwardens. “ An' it please you, so much beat was disengaged from the measter mayor, because the rood we first stroke of the piston, as to set fire had before was a well-favoured man, to a piece of fungus-match placed with and he promised to make us such anin the pump. Friction and percussion other; but this he has set up now is the are also productive of increased tem- | worst favoured that your worship ever perature. Two pieces of hard wood set your eyes on, gaping and grinning rubbed against each other, are so much in such sort that none of our children heated as to be kindled. This method dare once look at it.”-Mayor, “I is frequently adopted by savage na- think it good enough for the purpose : tions. The friction on the axle of a and, master wardens, howsoever you loaded carriage, or that wbich is pro- like the rood, or it is like you, the duced by the rapid revolution of a rope poor man's labour hath been nevertheround a pulley, is sometimes so great less, and it is a pity he should have as to produce fire. The heat from per- any hinderance or loss thereby. Therecussion is, no doubt, produced in the fore, I tell you, pay him the money same manner as that of friction. It is you promised: go your ways home and easily carried to the same extent. By look at it, and if it will not serve for a hammering a piece of iron on the an god, make no more to do, but clap, a vil, ignition may be produced ; and the pair of horns on his head, and so he will sparks which are produced by striking make an excellent devil.”. This the a piece of steel against flint, are par parishioners took well-the poor man ticles of steel raised to a state of ig- had his moneydivers laughed thereat nition by combining at a high tempe--but so did not the Babylonish priests. rature with the air of the atmosphere. . +Fox's History of Martyrs.

di WISE MAYOR OF LANCASTER.

I

PHENICIAN NAVIGATORS.

The Catholic Bishops, in 1554, com- SOME workmen recently digging a manded the churchwardens of the town cave in the environs of the Cape of

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