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On the Origin of Tinman Knowledge.--Review.


Good Hope, discovered the hull of a | REVIEW, Eternal Punishment proved vessel, built of cedar, and supposed to to be not Suffering, but Privation, and be the remains of a Phenician galley. Immortality dependent on Spiritual Should this conjecture be verified, it Regeneration, &c. by a Member of the will prove beyond all contradiction the Church of England. 8vo. pp. 305. truth of what Herodotus has stated, London, Hatchard. 1817. that these adventurous Tyrians had. It is a painfal, and yet an amusing reached the southern extremity of employment, to watch the movements Africa, upwards of 2000 years before of the human mind, in its numerous this stormy Cape was doubled by Vasco and diversified aberrations, and to de Gama, in 1497.-A circumstance of trace its progressive advances through so siagular a nature will not long re: the empire of scepticism, and the main in uncertainty. As a curiosity, it rerri

ainty. As a cunosity, it region of error. would be well worth importing into

Spinoza and Hobbes undertook to Europe, to enrich the collections, if not prove that there is no God; and Mr. the cabinets, of the antiquarians. Harris, a Unitarian minister now in

Liverpool, delivered lectures some ON THE ORIGIN OF HUMAN KNOW

months since, to prove the non-existLEDGE, RESPECTING GOD AND DI

ence of the Devil. Dean Berkeley VINE THINGS.

denied the existence of the material (Concluded from col. 1046.)

world, and David Hume the reality

of spirits. Dr. Priestley, and some On this subject but one topic more more modern divines, have trcated remains to be noticed, that is, the con- the immateriality of the human soul duct of the mind in its conception of with something like contenipt; and, spiritual objects ; and on this it is ne- to finish this climax of speculative cessary to be very brief. Those per- absurdity, the author of the work besons who have acquired the habit of fore us boldly asserts, that the eternal attending to the action of their minds, punishment threatened in the sacred and who are capable of separating and writings consists not in suffering, but distinguishing its varied operations, in a privation of existence, and that may easily satisfy themselves that their the soul's immortality, instead of resultmost refined notions of the spiritual ing from that constitution of being world, are not formed without the aid which the Almighty primarily conof those impressions produced by the nected with its essence, is dependent things of time and sense. But to as- upon spiritual regeneration. certain the general operations of the Common charity would lead us to human intellect in this department of suppose, that all these metaphysical knowledge, it is necessary to investi- speculators conceive their theories to gate the monuments it has left in every be correct, and their reasonings conspecies of mental picture. And here a clusive; but we must be indebted to wide field presents itself; whatever something more liberal than charity, poets have song, or painters depicted, before we can conceive that all these or philosophers written, or divines wild reveries can be true. Were we preached, is relevant to the subject in to give to their various authors, as hand. Each of these sources would much credit for the legitimacy of their furnish more matter than could well be arguments, as we are disposed to compressed in a single article for your allow them on the ground of charity Magazine ; the reader is therefore re- for their sincerity, our minds would quested to examine thein at his lei- be reduced to a more disordered consure, he will then find, that nothing in- dition than that in which the primortelligible has yet been produced in re- | dials of matter appeared, before ference to spiritual things, without its

" the heavens and earth rose out of chaos." containing some allusion to the sensible objects of nature, or to the qualities, Admitting the various theories to feelings, or actions, of the human mind. | be genuine, of which we have just I now take my leave of your sensible taken a transient survey, the belief correspondent, whose communication | will be induced, tbat there is no God, produced the preceding remarks,

no Devil, no Material World, no SpiAnd am, Sir, your's, respectfully, rit; that the Human Soul is neither


S s. Į Immaterial nor Immortal; and, that · Liverpool, Nov. 16th, 1821.

I eternal sufferings consist in eternal 1145

Review-Eternal Punishment.


non-existence. Archimedes could not particular term, such as election, reheave the world, unless he could find demption, grace, faith, or hope, happens a falcrum on which to rest his lever; to be found in them. Such an arranger but our metaphysical theorists have ment of terms wears a formidable contrived to annihilate all existences, aspect towards the unlearned, among and, by the friction of their logical their polemical adversaries. The more milstones, they have ground us to non considerate, however, will smile at entities.

these petty artifices, and ask, For what Whether the human soul be any purpose is such a mighty phalanx marthing more than the result of mere shalled? organization; whether it be a sub- We do not, however, intend to insistance physically capable of subsist nuate that this method has been ence distinct from the body; whether adopted by our author. He has the it be an accident or a quality of mat- happy art of accomplishing his purter; or a something superadded,—the poses without using such dexterity. author has not informed us; neither He quotes chapter after chapter, and can we gather from his book, whether book after book, to prove that the it possess the properties of matter, or doctrine which he opposes is not menwhether it may or may not be ranked tioned in the passages he has introamong the entities of being; and even duced. If he had pursued this method admitting it to exist under any modi- with spirit, he might have stretched fication whatever, we are at a loss to his publication to an extent as voluknow whether its existence be posi-minous as Doddington on Gingertive or negative.

bread, and alarmed the world with Of one point, however, the author two ponderous volumes in quarto. appears to be fully confident; namely, Against the doctrine of eternal taat immortality is the result of spiri- misery, the author advances many of tual regeneration; but the simple pos- the old objections and arguments, sibility that moral influence may pro-which have been often urged, and as duce a physical change in the essence often refuted; but finding himself of this substance, or accident, or result beset with difficulties, from which he of organization, is a point wbich the can discover no way of retreating with children of credulity are invited to honour, he compels the incorrigible, receive without inquiry or examina- who are unfit for heaven, and whom tion. If the author can only establish it would be unjust in God, he conhis credit with the public, there can ceives, to punish with eternal misery, be no doubt that he will make many to dive into the whirlpool of annihilaconverts.

tion, and to disappear for ever. To a person who has no conception To prove that the doctrine of endof the author's theory, some parts of less woe can furnish no motive to his preface will appear rather obscure, obedience, the author thus argues : but to those who are acquainted with l « God having her

| “God having been pleased to make man a it, it will appear in perfect accordance moral agent, be deals with him as such, and with his book. The abstract of the ofl'ers to his understanding blessings and contents runs through nearly thirteen threats, as motives to enforce the law he has

promulged. These can operate no further pages, and nearly as much information

than the understanding can embrace them : may be gathered from the perusal of

but the understanding can forin no idea of this syllabus, as from that of the vo. infinite; it is therefore no moral motive. Now, lume itself.

since God can do nothing in vain, eternal torIt cannot, however, be denied, that ments cannot be proposed as moral motives, the author has made copious appeals

for they must be infinitely more than can ope. to the book of God; but nearly nine

rate, because the highest idea we can form of

then must be essentially different from, and tenths of the passages he has quoted, infinitely less than, the thing threatened ; have no more connection with the sub- therefore the largest part must be in vain.". ject in hand, than if he had cited the

p. 11. first chapter of Genesis, or the last of In urging this argument, the author the Revelation. Some writers bave seems to have forgotten, that its conbeen accused of taking a common-clusion will bear with equal force upon place book, and of inserting passage the felicities of heaven, and prevent after passage, mentioning chapter and eternal happiness from operating as a verse, to sbew that the scriptures are moral notive. On grounds equally strongly in their favour, because some fallacious, it is argued, that misery No. 34.-VOL. III.



Review - Eternal Punishment.


cannot be eternal, because there can / which at length they have not even be no proportion between crime and faculties to discern,”-p. 42. Depart, punishment on such a supposition. | ye cursed, into everlasting fire, prepared With equal propriety it might be con- for the devil and his angels. «That tended, that happiness cannot be eter- | those who have misused a temporal nal, because we can trace no propor- existence, shall then be made eternal, tion between obedience and reward. who can believe?"-p. 53. “ The

On points which involve Deity, Mo- wicked, after death, are neither of ral Government, Justice, Infinity, and him, nor through him, nor to him: Eternity, we doubt the propriety of they are nothing."-p. 103. introducing earthly analogies. But if Of the author's adroitness as a comthese must be introduced, we would mentator, and the facility with wbich recommend to the author's serious he can remove difficulties, the precedexamination this important question | ing passages and expositions furnish Whether it be utterly impossible for fair specimens. Nor can he be accused a finite being to perform an action, or of viewing his exertions with suspia series of actions, that shall involve cion. The following passage is strongly moral consequences, which may con- marked with his opinion of his own tinue during the existence of the actor? success. “As he (the apostle) has If this be admitted possible, on the exhibited it, (the destruction of death) ground of justice, the consequences it is a consummation devoutly to be will be interminable, if existence be wished ; that a veil has so long dimimmortal; and consequently both will med its glory, and that I, who am less be lengthened into infinity.

| than the least of the lights of the The author informs us, that the doc.earth, should have pierced its gloom, trine of eternal misery, which he op- I scarcely dare believe, though I know poses, instead of pervading the Chris-it: but the weaker the instrument, tian system, rests on detached pas- the more apparent the divine agency. sages of scripture; and these be finally Glorify thyself, O God! and unspeakreduces to two. There are, however, able bappiness will attend those whom various others which appear before thou blessést as thy instruments." him, with an aspect not altogether p. 115. smiling on his theory, but these he Having humbly taken his seat on dispatches with admirable dexterity. this exalted eminence, the author proThe parable of the unmerciful servant ceeds to prove, that man is naturally is thus explained: That he should be mortal; and after quoting various pasdelivered to the tormentors, till he should sages of seripture, which have no conpay all that was due. “It is clear, that nection with the subject, and drawing the principle proceeded on is, that he inferences from others, which few should be made to part from all that besides himself would have the ingehe possessed: now existence is a pos- | nuity to discover, he assumes bis consession, a talent, a blessing, and when clusion, and," wrapped in ” literary it is surrendered, full payment is “ immortality,” made.”-p. 37. The parable of the Sheds generous tears on wretches born to wicked husbandmen, we are told, is die.” to the same effect; and the guest! The well-known passage, Matt. XXV. found at the marriage feast shares the 45. “These shall go away into eversame fate. “ Bind him hand and foot, lasting punishment,” &c. the author and take him away:" (ill furnished he explains by comparing it with 1 Thesmust be for eternity.)- p. 38. On the salonians ii. 7. * taking vengeance on parable of Dives and Lazarus, we are them that know not God, who shall be told, the rich man is tormented in the punished with everlasting destruction flame; “that is, to dissolve the ves- (from the presence of the Lord,” &c. sels of wrath, fitted for destruction.”—1 On quoting these passages, he asks, p. 40. And in continuation we are Do not these words explain those of furthermore informed, that “the con- our Saviour's, to which they plainly duct and motives ascribed to God, are allude,-destruction from the presence perfectly irreconcileable with dooming of God? What can that be but extinc. to eternal misery poor, weak, blind, tion, since our existence depends on perishing sinners, for preferring the his Spirit animating ourmortal bodies? gratification of the senses which God And as no person contradicts him, he hath given them, to spiritual joys, triumphs in a victory that he has

Review--The Imperial Almanack.


worrronnerrenneroerore earned without a contest, and con- the other gospels were the only record cludes that everlasting punishment of the word of God!” means everlasting destruction, and that The author begins with declaring, everlasting destruction means extince that the doctrine of eternal misery tion of being!

does not pervade the whole Christian After making a few remarks on some system; secondly, that it rests on depassages in the Revelation, from which tached passages; thirdly, that these it appears, that they all accord with are but two; fourthly, that these two his views, and confirm his theory, our are only one ; fifthly, that this one is author comes “to the consideration only a solitary clause; and sixthly, that of those words whereon the doctrine this clause means something else. of eternal misery, in an especial man One point, however, with the auner, must be seen to rest, the whole thor, will admit of no doubt; namely, course of scripture else admitting an that “man depends as much for his barmonious construction." These pas- knowledge on his organization as an sages are Matt. y. 29, 30, and Mark ix. oyster, for such as it is capable of : 42-50. “Of these passages,” he destroy organization in either, then observes, “it is only the words, where all his thoughts or sensations perish." their worm dieth not,' that imply eter-1 p. 220. nal duration ; because, although the “There can be no immortality, then, fire is everlasting, and never shall be but on the Christian principle of requenched, yet it cannot be imagined generation, or being really and truly that it confers immortality; therefore born again, seeing our existence, as the duration of the substance to be derived from Adam, depends on our cast in must be limited by its own organization, of which death deprives nature : if that therefore is mortal, its us; and spiritual life, or immortality, duration cannot be eternal."-p. 201, which consists in the knowledge and

“ That the words now under con-| love of God, he imparts to those only sideration had pot, in our Saviour's who seek him in his own aspointed mouth, the meaning ascribed to them, way.Ibid. is proved almost to a demonstration, Such are the principles which the by one of the two evangelists omitting author developes in his theory, and them when he records the rest of the such are the modes of reasoning by sentence; while that which he retains which he supports them. The whole harmonizes with the rest of scripture ; process reminds us of an observation yet is materially, most materially dif- of Mr. Locke, on a similar occasion, ferent from that which it would con- “ He knows a little, presumes a great vey, if these words were added in deal, and so jumps to conclusions.” their usually received meaning. Now, if we will assume this as their real meaning, one of the evangelists, who

Review.-The Imperial Almanack, or on two occasions records the passage

Annual Compendium of Astronomical, to which they are attached, misrepre- |

Statistical, Scientific, and Interesting sents his divine Master. Since St.

Information, for the year of our Lord Mark records the passage on which

1822. p. 72. London. Printed for the doctrine rests, it was not revealed the Company of Stationers. to those to whom the other gospels The title of the Imperial Almanack, were the only record of the word of of which we have given but an epiGod. If we will accept our Saviour's | tome, is sufficiently long and compreown words as a paraphrase, no diffi-hensive to promise much, and to exculty remains.”-p. 202.

cite considerable expectation; but we On the reasonings contained in this have no conception that those who paragraph, it seems unnecessary to peruse its pages with attention, will make any comments. It contains a either leave it with disgust, or comstrong insinuation that the assertion plain of disappointment. of one apostle is not much worthy of Unaided by the sanction which credit, unless the others have repeated names celebrated for talents, and digit in their writings ;--that the omis- nified with titles, might confer, it ap, sion of Matthew is an indirect im- pears before the public without an peachment of Mark ;-and that the owner, and, like the eggs of the doctrine rests on a passage which ostrich, “ was not revealed to those to whom l --- Borrows life from an indulgent sky."


Review--The Imperial Almanack.


For reasons not known to us, the sive outline of what this Almanack author has concealed his name. This, comprises, and under each bead the however, he must have been well reader cannot fail in baving his sanaware, would be of little consequence guine wishes gratified. in the estimation of the judicious and The Calendar; Eclipses and Transit scientific; and it is only from these of Mercury; Chronological, &c. Notes; that a favourable opinion is worth ob- Jewish Calendar; Mahometan Calentaining. Men of this description dar ; Roman Calendar; Elements of will always form their judgments by the Solar System; Terrestrial Latithe intrinsic merit of what is offered tudes and Longitudes; General Survey to their consideration, without being of the Earth; Population of Great influenced by the delusions of preju-Britain ; Principal Places in Ditto; dice, or biassed by the claims of Colonies and Dependencies; Royal friendship.

Family ; Number of British Peers, at It has been intimated, that the different dates; Number of Members Imperial Almanack claims Dr. Olin- of the House of Commons; Amount of thus Gregory, of the Royal Military Revenue at different Epochs ; National Academy, Woolwich, for its legitimate Debt at Ditto ; Syllabus of Emplovparent. We are not aware that Dr. ments; Exports and Imports; BiGregory has any where made this shops, Deans, &c. with the extent and public avowal; but there is strong numbers of Prebendaries, Canons, presumptive evidence in favour of the Livings, &c. in each Diocese; Dimenfact, arising from external ciroum- sions of Cathedrals; Table of Probastances; and the conclusion is corro-bilities of Life; Uses of the said Taborated by those internal marks of ble ; Table for Valuation of Annuities mathematical precision, accurate cal- on Lives; London Bills of Mortality; culation, and scientific rescarch, which Classification of Diseases ; Altitudes the work almost every where con of Mountains ; Altitudes of Perpetual tains,

Snow; Altitudes of Edifices ; Dates Differing from most of his cotempo- of Geographical Discoveries; Dates raries and predecessors, the author so of Astronomical, Dates of Astronofar compliments the understanding of mical and Nautical Inventions; Ta. his readers, as to imagine that they bles of Specific Gravities; Thermomewill be able to form a tolerable calcu- tric Criteria of interesting Chemical lation respecting the seasons of the Phænomena ; European Itinerary year, without receiving information Measures ; Historical Table of English through his pages. Hence, he has Coins; Results of Computations and not even intimated, that the weather Experiments. will be warmer in July than in Janu- ! But although a glance at the preary; and he has left them to infer ceding articles will inform the reader from their own observations, and from of the additional matter this Almanack analogy, whether they may expect contains, and in some degree to frost and snow in June, or December, appreciate its value, from the various On the same principle, we presuine, branches of scientific and useful knowhe has omitted those astrological con- ledge which are presented to his view, sultations of the stars, on which the it is only by a more intimate acquaintprognostics of Almanack-makers are ance with its pages, that he will be in general founded, and has substi- | able to form an accurate estimate of tuted science and common sense in the its worth. room of dragons, monsters, and ter- ! The neatness with which it is printed rible hieroglyphics. To those who are reflects much credit on the tradesin love with the marvellous. and who man's abilities, while its correctness are never so well pleased as when they entitles the learned editor to the thanks can take a peep into futurity, this may and support of his scientific readers. occasion some disappointment; but But with all the excellencies which an where reason and philosophy hold the Almanack can possess, and all the dominion of the mind, the event will recommendation which its merit can be hailed as an important era, in which command, the heavy impost levied by this department of science secs its Government in its stamp, necessarily shackles fall.

tending to enhance its price, must, The table of contents which follows, we fear, considerably impede the exgives an accurate, and a comprehen- | tent of its circulation.

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