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Blacow's Sentence.-Commercial Report.


REV. RICHARD BLACOW'S SENTENCE. | was tried and found guilty, at the last LancasIn our number for January, col. 93, we took ter Assizes. On Monday the 26th of Noveman occasion to review a virulent discourse deli-ber, 1821, he was brought up to receive the vered by this gentleman ;-a discourse, which sentence of the court, which was as follows: has rendered him amenable to the bar of his To pay a fine of £100 to the King, be imprisoncountry, and finally brought upon him the sen. | ed six months, and find security for his good tence of the law. It contained a daring libel behaviour for five years; himself in £500, and on her late Majesty. For this libel Mr. Blacow | two sufficient sureties in £100 each.


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COMMERCIAL REPORT, LIVERPOOL, 24th NOVEMBER, 1821. The nearer we approach to the end of the year, the more does the course of business usually become dull and uninteresting. Such at least has been the experience of former years. It is true, the manufacturing districts are at this season seldom so full of work, yet we have reason to know that the Cotton trade in its various branches is in a tolerably healthy state ; and in Staffordshire, where the trade has been long in a languishing condition, we learn that many eminent houses have orders to execute which will give them full employment antil the next spring.

In our own port, the leading articles have reached such a low point, that many, both of our consumers and speculators, have had their attention aroused thereby; the market, in consequence of their operations, has assumed more briskness, and the prices of some descriptions of produce have improved. The reduction which had taken place in the prices of American and other descriptions of Cotton, occasioned, in part, by the late extensive public sales, having made them an object of notice, the trade at the same time being very bare of stock, has brought this week into the market a numerous attendance of dealers and consumers. A very animated inquiry has been experienced for almost every kind of Cotton; and the business done bas been considerable, amounting to 11,300 packages since the 17th instant, as follows:- d. d.

4555 Bags of Uplands, from 8d. to 10d. 307 - Mina Geras,
Orleans, 8 to 12


- Novas, 10% to 10 Alabamas, 8 to 81 271

Sea Island, 13 to 22


Barbadoes, 91 to 98 48 Ditto Stained, 10 to 11} 171

Carthagena, 7 to 8 1759 Pernambucco, 11 to 12


West India, 9
Bahias, 10 to 111 1.10

Peruvian, 104
416 - Maranhams, 11% to 111

60 - Bengal, 6 to 71 An advance of d. per lb. has been obtained on the low qualities of boweds ; the good quaJities have not ex

not experienced the same improvement. Brazils have lihewise been more in request; but the recent import of this description still proves of an inferior quality, and obliges the spinners to have recourse to the low qualities of Sea Islands. As the stock of Cotton in hand is now rapidly disappearing from the market, several o the holders are confidently looking forward to some further inprovement in price ; and should the import of the new crop be *delayed, this may probably be the case. "

Sugars. The demand for British plantation has improved. The holders are very reserved in bringing forward their stocks, which indeed are now at a low ebb-the advance this week has been 1s. per cwt. on the better, and 2s. per cwt. on the lower qualities.

Coffee.--The transactions in this article are, on account of the season, necessarily confined to the wants of home consumption. Ordinary quality has fetched 98s. to 1025. good and fine only 1038. to 106s. 6d.; low middling 113s. per cwt.

Rum.—The sales are trilling.
Tobacco.-Prices are rather looking up, and the trade purchase freely.

Hides.---The late imports have chiefly got into the hands of the dealers, at 9 d. to 11 d. per Ib.; for Buenos Ayres Horse Hides, 7s. to Ss. 9d. per piece. German Dry Hides, 11 d. Horse Hides, at 11s. 6d. to 13s. per piece.

Pot Ashes are in demand for France, at 39s. 6d. per cwt. Pearls at 43s. Montreal Pots at 32s. 6d. to 34s. Pearls 37 s. 6d. per cwt. . In Dye Woods there has been no occurrence worth notice. Sicily Barilla has fetched £27. per ton. Tar and Tarpentine have obtained improving prices; the Distillers are looking for an amendment in Spirits. There is a fair demand for Fish Oils, and all the Newfoundland Cod Oil is sold out of the Importers hands, for exportation to Ireland, at £18. 10s. per tun. Pale Seal Oil £26. per tun. Palm Oil £30. per tun. Tallow Y. C. still dull at 45s. per cwt.

Hemp is getting scarce, and fetches £44. per ton. Flax is likewise looking up, and both Foreign and Irish are likely to be dearer. Archangel mats 12s. to 14s. per dozen.

There have been four arrivals this week of Smyrna fruit ; the quality has proved excellent, yet the buyers hold back, with a view to induce the holders to a competition. The sales effected were for Sultana Raisins, 83s. to 87s. 6d. Red Smyrna at 53s. 6d. Caraboorna 57s. Black Smyrna 49s. to 50s. 6d. Pulled Figs 71s. 6d. per cwt.

Of Timber. the arrivals have been very heavy, and the p ces have conse ntly been much depressed. Miramachi Pine sells at 20d. Quebec Pine at 19 d. per foot. Oak at 2s. 8d. Quebec Deals at £12. 10s. per St. Petersburgh hundred.

The business at the Corn Market is quite uninteresting. Stocks accumulate, and prices are lower. The consumers are taking good Irish wheats at 7s. 2d. to 7s. 6d. per 701b. Fine old Irish will not command above 9s. to Is. 6d. per 701b. For bonded wheat of every kind, there is no sale. American Flour out of bond, is of tardy sale, at 36s. to 40s. per barrel. The arrivals of this article from the United States, are anticipated to be very great.



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Imperial Magazine;





MEMOIR OF JOHN RAY, A. M. F. R. S. was formed, which continued through (With a Portrait.)

life. In 1649, they became fellows of

the College together; Mr. Ray having This truly christian philosopher was just before taken his bachelor's dethe son of a blacksmith, at Black-Not-gree. In 1651, he commenced master ley, near Braintree, in the county of of arts, and the same year he was choEssex, and born there November 29, sen lecturer in Greck; two years after1628. Though his ancestral name was wards he read the mathematical lecRay, for some reasonor other, of which ture; and in 1655, that upon humano account has been given, he conti- nity, or classical learning, a succession nued to spell it Wray till the year of appointments which fully evinced 3670, when he resumed the original the high reputation he had acquired in patronymic, and apprised his learned the languages and sciences. In 1657, friend Dr. Martin Lister, of the change, he was eiected to the office of præleca in a Latin letter. The Doctor, how- tor primerius of his college ; the next ever, was not altogether satisfied with year he served that of junior dean, and the alteration, and observed in reply, twice afterwards he discharged the " I was pleased with the derivation of trust of steward. He had also a numyour name whilst V was at it, it agreed ber of pupils, his attention to whom, so well with a virtue so eminent in you, and the other duties which devolved and which, I am confident, you will upon him in the college, weakened his never lay aside, however you please constitution so much, that the physito alter the writing of your name. You cian urged the necessity of exercise well know what Vray in French and an occasional absence from the means.” He received his education university, In compliance with this at the free-school of Braintree, to which advice, he made many excursions, he thus alludes in a letter to Aubrey, which led him to the study of botany, • Tho' I do not pretend to have been a science then in its infancy, and of the first magnitude for wit or do scarcely regarded at all, except for cility, yet I think I may without arro- pharmaceutical purposes. His first gance say, that in our paltry country tour of any length was in the summer school here at Braintree, Ego meis me of 1658, when he rode to Chester, and minoribus condiscipulis ingenio prælexi ; from thence into North Wales, where bat perchance the advantage I had of he visited Snowden, and returned to my contemporaries, may rather be Cambridge by the way of Shrewsbury owing to my industry than natural and Gloucester. In 1660, be published parts ; so that I should say, studio or his Catalogus Plantarum circa Cantaindustria excellui.

brigiam nascentium,' or, “A Catalogue His progress in learning, however, of Plants growing near Cambridge." was such, that at the age of sixteen he | This was the first work of the kind that was deemed qualified for the univer- had appeared in England; and some sity ; and accordingly, on the 28th of years afterwards the author enlarged June, 1644, he was entered a member it by an account of plants found in of Catherine-Hall, Cambridge, from other parts of the kingdom. Soon after whence, in 1646, he removed to Trinity this publication, Mr. Ray received both College, for the sake of the sciences / deacon's and priest's orders from the which were studied there. His tutor hands of that venerable prelate, Dr. was the celebrated Greek professor, Robert Sanderson, bishop of Lincoln; Dr. Duport, who used to boast that he a circumstance which fully proves that had brought up two of the best scho- | he was an episcopalian, though, on the lars of the age, meaning John Ray and passing of the act of conformity in Isaac Barrow. Between these excel- 1662, he vacated bis fellowship, belent persons a most cordial friendship 'cause he could not assent to the declaNo. 35,- VOL. III.

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Memoir of John Ray.

1164 ration against the solemn league and spications were so well received, that covenant. He remained, however, a the president and fellows returned him lay communicant of the church of Eng - their thanks, with a request that he land, though he constantly declined would continue his favours. During every offer of preferment; for which, the year 1674, and part of the next, he among other reasons, his ardent pur- was employed in preparing Mr. Wilsuit of science may justly be assignedloughby's“Observations about Birds" as a principal motive.

for the press; which work, however, On leaving Trinity College, Mr. Ray was not published till 1678. These accompanied his friends Mr. Francis two learned men and diligent obserF. Willoughby, Mr. Philip Skippon, anders, finding the history of nature very Mr. Nathaniel Bacon, in a tour thro' imperfect, formed the resolution, beEurope, whicb journey took up two fore their journey abroad, to reduce years, and the particulars of it were the several tribes of animals and vegepublished by Mr. Ray in the year 1673. tables into systematic order, with accuIn 1667, he became a fellow of the rate descriptions of the several species. Royal Society, at the earnest entreaty As the genius of Mr. Willoughby lay of the members of that learned body, chiefly to the study of animated nature, particularly Bishop Wilkins ; at whose he undertook the classification of the desire he translated into Latin his birds, beasts, fishes, and insects, while Iordship's great work, entituled the Mr. Ray devoted his chief attention to * Real Character, or Philosophical the vegetable world. Old Lady WilLanguage;" but the version was never loughby dying, and Mr. Ray's pupils published. In 1672, died Mr. Wil-being removed from under his tuition, loughby, aged only thirty-seven, at he left Middleton-Hall about 1676, and Middleton-Hall, his seat in Warwick- retired with his wife to Sutton-Coldshire, “ to the infinite and unspeak- field, about four miles from the former able loss and grief,” says Mr. Ray, place ; but soon after he went to reside “ of myself, his friends, and all good at Falborne-hall, in Essex; and lastly, men." This gentleman had been fellow took up his abode in his native village collegian with Mr. Ray, and having a / of Black Notley. The first fruit of his similar turn for the study of natural leisure and retirement here, was his history, the closest intimacy was “ Methodus Plantarum Nova," pubformed between them ; the sincerity lished in an octavo volume, in 1682. of which was manifested in Mr. Wil. The system of which he gave an outline loughby's bequeathing to his friend an in this compendium, was first applied annuity of sixty pounds a year, and by the author practically in the “ Hisappointing him one of the execators of toria Plantarum," the first volume of his will, with the particular care of his which, in folio, appeared in 1686 ; the two sons. The eldest of these children second in 1687, and the third in 1704. not being four years old, Mr. Ray, as a This immense compilation is still held faithful trustee, undertook the instruc- in deserved esteem as a book of retion of him, as he did afterwards of his ference, but chiefly on account of the brother, composing for their use bis several valuable and expensive works "Nomenclator Classicus," which is which are condensed and inserted in it, uncommonly exact, especially in the as the “Hortus Malabaricus,"and other names of natural objects. Francis, rare collections, now hardly to be found the eldest of these youths, dying before even in public libraries. While thus he was of age, the younger became diligent in arranging his own obserLord Middleton. The same year which vations, Mr. Ray was not unmindful of deprived Mr. Ray of his dear friend the trust reposed in him by bis friend. Mr. Willoughby, also took away the Having therefore favoured the world great and good Bishop Wilkins. Being with the Ornithology of Mr. Willoughthus, as it were, left without society, by, be now prepared for the press, and Mr. Ray turned his thoughts to a matri-, published in 1685, that gentleman's monial connection; and in 1673, he “History of Fishes." In 1688, came espoused the daughter of Mr. Oakeley, out our author's “Fasciculus Stirpium a country gentleman in Oxfordshire. | Britannicarum” ; and in 1690, the By this lady he had four daughters, “Synopsis Methodica Stirpium Brithree of whom survived him.

tannicarum.” Of the last performance, He now resumed his correspondence Sir James Smith, the president of the with the Royal Society, and his commu- Ljonæan Society, says, “ that if the

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