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The Seven Icebergs of Spitzbergen.
1 - The front surface of icebergs is THE seven icebeRGS OF SPITZ
glistening and uneven. Wherever a BERGEN,
part has recently broken off, the colour “The Seven Icebergs are each, on an of the fresh fracture is a beautiful average, about a mile in length, and. greenish blue, approaching to emeraldperhaps near two hundred feet in green; but such parts as have long height at the sea edge; but some of been exposed to the air, are of a greenthose to the southward are much grea- ish-grey colour, and, at a distance, ter. A little to the northward of Horn sonetimes exhibit the appearance of Sound, is the largest Iceberg I have cliffs of whitish marble. In all cases, seen. It occupies eleven miles in length the effect of the iceberg is to form a of the sea coast. The highest part of pleasing variety in prospect, with the the precipitous front adjoining the sea, magnificence of the encompassing is, by measurement, four hundred and snow-clad mountains, which, as they two feet, and it extends backward to recede from the eye, seem to “ rise the summit of the mountain, to about crag above crag,” in endless perspecfour times that elevation. Its surface tive. forms a beautiful inclined plane of On an excursion to one of the smooth snow; the edge is uneven and Seven Icebergs, in July 1818, I was perpendicular. At the distance of fif- particularly fortunate in witnessing teen miles, the front edge subtended one of the grandest effects which these an angle of ten minutes of a degree. polar glaciers ever present. A strong Near the South Cape lies another ice- north-westerly swell having for some berg, nearly as extensive as this. It hours been beating on the shore, had occupies the space between two lateral loosened a number of fragments attachridges of hills, and reaches the very ed to the iceberg, and various heaps of summit of the mountain, in the back broken ice denoted recent shoots of ground, on wbich it rests.
the seaward edge. As we rowed to• It is not easy to form an adequate wards it with a view of proceeding conception of these truly wonderful close to its base, I observed a few little productions of nature. Their magni pieces fall from the top, and while my tude, their beauty, and the contrast eye was fixed upon the place, an imthey form with the gloomy rocks mense column, probably fifty feet around, produce sensations of lively in- square, and one hundred and fifty feet terest. Their upper surfaces are ge- high, began to leave the parent ice at nerally concave: the higher parts are the top, and leaning majestically foralways covered with snow, and have a ward with an accelerated velocity, fell beautiful appearance ; but the lower with an awful crash into the sea. The parts, in the latter end of every sum water into which it plunged was conmer, present a bare surface of ice. The verted into an appearance of vapour or front of each, which varies in height smoke, like that from a furious canfrom the level of the ocean, to four nonading. The noise was equal to hundred or five hundred feet above it, that of thunder, which it nearly resemlies parallel with the shore, and is ge bled. The column which fell was nearly nerally washed by the sea. This part, square, and in magnitude resembled a resting on the strand, is undermined to church. It. broke into thousands of such an extent by the sea, when in any pieces. This iceberg was full of rents way turbulent, that immense masses, as high as any of our people ascended loosened by the freezing of water upon it, extending in a direction parlodged in the recesses in winter, or by ticularly downward, and divided into the effect of streams of water running innumerable columns. In some places, over its surface and through its chasms chasms of several yards in width were in summer, break asunder, and with a seen, in others they were only a few thundering noise fall into the sea. But inches or feet across. One of the as the water is in most places shallow sailors who attempted to walk across in front of these icebergs, the masses the iceberg, imprudently stept into a which are dislodged are commonly re- narrow chasm filled up with snow to duced into fragments before they can | the general level. He instantly plungbe floated away into the main sea. ed up to his shoulders, and might, but This fact seems to account for the for the sudden exertion of his arms, rarity of icebergs in the Spitzbergen have been buried in the gulf.'sea.
Female Character at Otaheite.- Remarkable Coincidences. 32
SKETCHES OF FEMALE CHARACTER REMARKABLE COINCIDENCES RespectAT OTAHEITE, IN 1796.
ING SNEEZING. The women of quality allow them. It was formerly a prevailing custom selves greater liberties than their infe- in this country, on the sneezing of an riors; and many among the Arreoy infant, for its father, mother, nurse, or women, (a licentious society enjoying some friend present, to say “God bless various privileges) pride themselves you," or, God bless you, my dear ;' and on the number of their admirers, and in many parts of the nation this usage live in a fearfully promiscuous inter is not yet abandoned. This custom course. Few children can be the con- seems to have been founded upon an sequence of this mode of life, and ancient superstition, that sneezing was these are universally murdered the occasioned either by witches or evil moment they are born.
spirits, portending evils, which this inYet with all this, many are true and vocation was introduced to prevent. tender wives; their large families It is somewhat remarkable, that in prove their sacred attachment to the Otaheite the same custom prevails individual with whom they are united ; among the natives ; but their views of and our European sailors who have the occasion have not been communicohabited with them have declared, cated. With us the expression “God that more faithful and affectionate bless you,” &c. is chiefly confined to creatures to them and their children the sneezing of infants, but not exclucould no where be found. The history sively so, it being sometimes used in of Peggy Stewart marks a tenderness reference both to men and women. In of heart that will never be heard Otaheite, when a stranger enters the without emotion.
habitation of a native, the people of " This woman was the daughter of the house call out Mannow wa, “ Wela chief, and was taken for his wife by come,” to which the stranger replies Mr. Stewart, one of the unhappy mu- | Harre minay, “ I am coming :" imtineers. They had lived with the old mediately those of the house answer, chief in the most tender state of en- | Yourana ť' Eatooa, “ God bless you." dearment. A beautiful little girl was And if any person sneeze, whether the fruit of this union. She was at old or young, they use the same saluthe breast when the Pandora arrived, tation or expression, “ God bless you." seized the criminals, and secured them After the origin of this singular coinin irons on board the ship.
cidence it would be in vain to inquire. “ Frantic with grief, the unhappy Peggy (for so he had named her) flew with her infant in a canoe to
ANOTHER COINCIDENCE ON THE TRIthe arms of her husband. The interview was so affecting and afflict
NITY, STILL MORE REMARKABLE. ing, that the officers on board were There is another coincidence in the overwhelmed with anguish; and names given by the inhabitants of OtaStewart himself, unable to bear the heite to the objects of their worship, heart-rending scene, begged she might that is equally striking, and far more not be admitted again on board. She important. was separated from him by violence, The deities of Otaheite are nearly and conveyed on shore, in a state of de- as numerous as the persons of the inspair and grief too big for utterance. habitants. Every family has its tee, or
*“ Withheld from him, and forbidden guardian spirit, whom they set up and to come any more on board, she sunk worship at the morai. But they have into the deepest dejection; it preyed a great god, or gods, of a superior upon her vitals; she lost all relish for order, denominated FwHANOW Po, food and life; rejoiced no more ; | born of Night. pined away under a rapid decay of two | The general name for deity, in all months; and fell a victim to her feelings, its ramifications, is Eatooa. dying literally of a broken heart. Her Three are held supreme; standing child is perhaps yet alive, having been in a height of celestial dignity that no brought up by a sister, who nursed it others can approach unto; and what with peculiar care, discharging to- is more extraordinary, the names are wards the helpless orphan, all the personal appellations. duties of an affectionate mother.”
1. Tāne, te Medõoa, “ The Father.".
Reflections on the New Year.
2. Oromattow, Tooa tee te Myde, hours, and enliven the lonesome path. “GOD IN THE Son."
The mariner, who is sailing on a sea 3. Taroa, Mānnoo te Hooa, “ The replete with rocks and quicksands, BIRD, THE SPIRIT."
steers his fragile bark with much “ To these dii majores they only ad anxiety and solicitude, and ever and dress their prayers in times of great anon, amid impending dangers which distress and seasons of peculiar exi threaten him with immediate destrucgency, supposing them too exalted to tion, he inquires, Whither am I directbe troubled with matters of less mo- ing my course? Shall I arrive in safety ment than the illness of a chief, storms, at the haven of security? Whilst hope devastations, war, or any great cala keeps his mind buoyant; and the mity.”-Missionary Voyage, page 333. prospect of seeing those he loves, and
who are related to him by ties the strongest, and most endearing, adds a
sweet to the bitters of many a cheerREFLECTIONS ON THE NEW YEAR.
| less day, and joyless night.
The Christian is a traveller; the 'Tis greatly wise to talk with our past hours,
world, in his estimation, is a dreary And ask them, what report they bore to heaven;
region; he is beset with merciless and And how they might have borne more welcome news. Their answers form what men Experience call;
cruel foes; he is continually in danIf Wisdom's friend, her best; if not, worst foe.
ger of mistaking his path, and becomO reconcile them! Kind Experience cries,
ing a prey to his blood-thirsty and imThere's nothing here, but what as nothing weighs;
placable enemies : how indispensably The more our joy, the more we know it vain; And by success are tutor'd lo despair.
necessary then is it for him to cultivate Nor is it only thus, but must be so.
reflection, and to make frequent inquiWho knows not this, though grey, is still a child.
ries with regard to his situation, but Loose then from earth the grasp of fond desire,
above all to solicit the aid and guidWeigh anchor, and some happier clime explore.
ance of that God, whose he is, and
whom he professes to serve, who has To review a past year, a past month,
condescendingly and kindly engaged a past week, a past day, yea, even a
to become the guide and protector of past hour, well becomes those who
his people, whilst they are wandering are candidates for eternal happi
through this vale of tears. ness. To pause a moment, and in
The Christian is a mariner; he is quire, What have I been doing? Whi
| sailing over a tempestuous ocean, and ther am I going? Am I in a safe path?
his feeble bark is in continual danger Shall I arrive eventually at that place
of dashing upon a rock, or of founderwhere happiness is unallayod by mi
ing upon the quicksands; he expesery, and holiness is unmixed with
riences wave upon wave, billow upon sin and sorrow?-well becomes those
billow, and often gives up all for lost. who are feelingly alive to the destinies
“ All hope that he shall be saved, is of mankind. The queries are of such
| taken away:" at this moment, howinfinite importance, as to need no en
ever, with restless importunity he inforcement upon the mind of the true
vokes the assistance of that friend, who Christian ; upon the mind of that man, is
il man, is born for adversity, whose aid he has who is aware of the awful responsi
heretofore experienced in circumbility attaching itself to his conduct,
stances as urgent as those in which he whilst in a state of trial and proba
is now placed; and exercising implicit tion. The traveller, who is directing
confidence in his veracity and fidelity, his course through a dreary region,
| he exclaims, “ Lord, save, or I perish.” abounding with savage beasts, and
Nor does he supplicate in vain; for more savage men,
soon, in accents sweet and melodious, - pauses oft,
more sweet than e'er flowed from morAnd oft with trembling limbs and aching heart,
tal tongue, he hears his Father's voice, Looks backward, forward, on this side and on
saying, “ Peace, be still ; and, lo, there that.
is a calm.” Then he dismisses his Being assured of safety, he resumes fears, and banishes his sorrows; with his perilous journey, whilst the antici- alacrity and joy, he unfurls his sails pation of a speedy arrival at the place and speeds his course, whilst the conof destination, and a contemplation sciousness of his possessing a skilful of the objects he has in view, tend in and unerring pilot, and the anticipasome measure to beguile the tedious / tion of a speedy arrival at the haven
The first question was, how she
| On the Salvation of the Heathen. came there? Her father not suspecting the miraculous escape his daugh
MR. Editor, ter had experienced, she sobbed | out, “ Me was frighten'd, father, and SIR,-When an opinion is indastrijumped out of the window.” In truth, ously propagated, which is derogatory though scarcely to be credited, she to the Honour, and Mercy, and Goodhad sprung from the back window ofness, and Veracity, of the Divine the first floor, into the yard below, Being, it is the duty of every man, a height of nearly eighteen feet; the who considers it as having this tenground having been excavated to give dency, to lift up his voice against it, light to kitchens below.
and “ justify the ways of God to man." The first consideration was, to search It is in this point of view that I confor broken bones, bruises, &c. But, sider the opinion, which I have venafter a minute inspection, both by tured to controvert, in the No. for himself and a surgeon, it was ascer- Sept. column 701, of your excellent tained that no hurt was occasioned by Magazine. I have already said, the fall, at least there was no outward“ Either the Heathens are moral agents, appearance of any, save a slight (independent of revelation) or they are scratch down the middle of the back, not." Let us try to prove this a little which it was supposed had been re- more at large. ceived by her springing against a pro- ! 1st. The great Jehovah is a being jecting wall, and which perhaps in in whom infinite intelligence, moral some degree broke the violence of the excellence, and efficiency, concentrate; fall. The child underwent the restric- and we are told (Gen. i. 27.) that man tions recommended by the medical was “ created in his image;" thereattendant, of repose, &c. and after fore man must also possess finite intelthree days was perfectly recovered. ligence, a limited moral capacity, and
The imminent danger from which confined efficiency. the child tbus escaped, arose out of 2d. The soul of man is the substance the too prevalent custom of alarming in which these attributes or properties children with idle tales of old men, inhere, and the body is but the vehicle boogaboes, &c. Such folly cannot be of his mind; yet if the body be so too severely reprehended. That mo- circumstanced that it cannot perform thers will accustom themselves, or its part in the process of intelligence, suffer those entrusted with the care of &c. such persons cannot be denomitheir offspring, to frighten them into nated intelligent, moral agents, or effia temporary and agitated repose, is cient, though they possess the capadeeply to be lamented. The little in- city for these, as it respects their nocent indeed, through fear, appears minds. This is the case with infants. to sleep ; its eyes are shut; and per- idiots, and the diseased, and they are haps, by dint of persevering alarms, not accountable for a moral capacity, may at last fall into a slumber, “but is which cannot, in the nature of things, it the sleep of repose and rest?' does be exerted. The Heathens then, who it refresh and invigorate its tender are not infants, idiots, or diseased, frame? Alas, no! Mark its convulsive must be accountable for the exercise of movements : dreams agitate its little their moral capacity. mind; it starts in agony; it sobs, and 3d. If the Heathens are not moral at last awakes in affright, though not agents, independent of the “ gospel invariably like the child in question, read or preached,” they must then be who, it appears, had, from the same necessary agents, until we are good cause, and through the strongest fear, enough to send them it, and if so, their contrived to throw itself from the win-actions, &c. can have no moral evil in dow, yet always leaving the same them, consequently they can be no effects, a constant dread and intimi- bar to their salvation. dation through life, not unfrequently 4th. If the “ gospel read or preachsuch as imbitter a great portion of ed” communicates moral agency to our valuable time, leaving us a prey those who hear it, the “ gospel read to diseases, beyond the art of medi- or preached," must be itself a moral cine, and the skill of experience, to agent, or, if not, how can it communicure.
W. H. cate what it does not possess ? Bermondsey-Square, Nov. 1st.
5th. There is an eternal distinction