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301 Economy in Fuel.-Memoirs of Leonardo Aretino. 302

......sorocosessorameworoonanonoomsurrorrorvirroresororororooroogrovocoureroaroor. Primrose, Primula vulgaris; Oxlip, P. , appear unworthy of much attention ; elatior; Peigle, P. veris; Sowbread, but in places where it is both scarce Cyclamen europæum; Hairy Violet, and dear, every economical recomViola hirta ; Marsh Violet, V. palustris; mendation must be deemed of imporDog's Violet, V. canina; Tasteless Moun- tance. In several parts of Wales, the tain Currants, Ribes alpinum; Goose- inhabitants have long been in the berry, R. grossularia ; Common Elm, habit of using what they call Fire-balls, Ulmus campestris & montana; Spring instead of simple coals. These FireGentian, Gentiana verna; Wild Cher- balls are made by mixing together vil, Chærophyllum sylvestre; Pale Nar- small coals, clay, and water, until the cissus, N. biflorus; Snake's Head, Fri-compound is brought to a certain contillaria meleagris; Wild Tulip, Tulipa sistence, when it is divided into balls, sylvestris; Yellow Star of Bethlehem, and reserved for use. Somewhat anaOrnithogalum luteum; Common Star of logous to the preceding, is the followBethlehem, 0. umbellatum; Vernal / ing species of fuel, which we apprehend Squill, Scilla verna; Hairy Field Rush, has been found to surpass the expecJuncus campestris; Great Bilberry, tation of all who have tried it. We Vaccinium uliginosum; Knotgrass, Po- cannot vouch for its real excellencies lygonum aviculare; Moschatell, Adoxa from actual observation ; but the commoschatellina; Purple Saxifrage, Saxi- ) pound being simple, and the articles fraga oppositifolia; Common Wood- within the reach of every one, and sorrel, Oxalis acetosella; Broad-leaved easily to be obtained, an experiment Mouse Ear, Cerastium vulgatum; Plum, may be made without much ingenuity, Prunus domestica, & insititia; Pear, trouble, or expense. Pyrus communis ; Wild Service, P. Take one bushel, either of small torminalis; Spring Cinquefoil, Poten-coal or sawdust, or both mixed togetilla verna; Pasque Flower, Anemone ther, to which add two bushels of sand, pulsatilla; Wood Anemone, A. nemo and one bushel and a half of clay. Let rosa; Yellow Wood Anemone, A, ra- these be all mixed well together with nunculoides; Blue Mountain Anemone, common water, until the mass appears A. apennina; Three species of Ranun in consistence like common mortar. culus; Green Hellebore, H. viridis; When well mixed, take small quanGround Pine, Ajugo chamæpitys ; tities, and roll them into balls, or cast Ground Ivy, Glechoma hederacea; them into small moulds like bricks, Toothwort, Lathræa squamaria ; Yellow then pile them in a convenient place, Figwort, Scrophularia vernalis; Speed- and when dry, they will be fit for use. well Cress, Draba muralis; Bastard A fire cannot be lighted with this comCress, Thlaspi perfoliatum; Coralwort, pound, but when lighted, if these are Dentaria bulbifera; Cuckoo Flower, placed behind, with a coal or two in Cardamine pratensis ; Bitter Cress, C. front, they will be found to keep up a amara; Winter Cress, Erysimum præ- stronger heat than any fuel of the comcox; Thale Cress, Arabis thaliana; mon kind.--Cottager's Monthly Visitor, Turnep, Brassica rapa; Dove's Foot | No. I. Geranium, G. molle; Bulbous Fumitory, Fumaria solida; Spring Vetch, Vicia lathyroides: Dandelion, Leon- | MEMOIRS OF THE LIFE AND TIMES OF todon taraxicum; Tall Butterbur, Tus

LEONARDO ARETINO. silago hybrida; Common Butterbur, T.

(Continued from col. 279. petasites; Purple and Spider Orchis, 0. mascula &* ophrys aranifera; Five “Í have already informed you,” says species of Carex; Common Birch, Be- he in a second letter to his patron, “ of tula alba; Box, Buxus sempervirens; | the contention in which I found myself Oak, Quercus robur & Q. sessiliflora; unexpectedly and unwillingly involved Beech, Fagus sylvatica; Dog's Mer- on my arrival in this place. I now cury, Mercurialis pérennis; Walnut, write to acquaint you with the sequel Juglans regia ; Horse Chesnut, Æsculus of the affair.-The Pontiff being, for hippocastanum.

the reasons which I formerly mention

ed, doubtful what line of conduct be ECONOMY IN FUEL.

ought to pursue, deferred coming to

any resolution, and neither rejected nor In districts where fuel is both plentiful granted my suit. His uncertainty was and cheap, the following article may daily increased by the artifices of my 303

Memoirs of Leonardo Aretino.


adversaries' partisans, who were con- skilled in Latin literature, and well tinually whispering something to my acquainted with the Greek authors, disadvantage, and drawing odious but, above all, endued with strict comparisons between me and Angelo. integrity, and uncommon kindness of Such was my situation for nearly the heart.”+ Colucio's letter was read to space of a month. At last, however, the Pontiff, in the presence of some of the opposition and vain boastings of the cardinals, and of several other my adversaries, and this most irksome persons of distinction, both laymen competition, have come to an issue, and ecclesiastics, who listened to it which not only dissipates the uneasi- with respectful silence, and who, on ness which I felt on this account, but its recital, were not more impressed causes this occurrence to be a subject with respeot for the youthful secretary of the most heartfelt satisfaction to me. whom it was intended to recommend, For when our contest and the hopes of than with admiration of the talents and my opponents were at their height, benevolence of its author. It should there arrived a letter addressed to the seem that Colucio also transmitted to Pontiff by the duke of Berri. The sub- Leonardo a letter of reproof which he ject was of the utmost importance, and had addressed to Jacobo d'Angelo. This the letter itself was long and elaborate. letter, however, Leonardo thoughtit exThe Pontiff, wishing to answer it with pedient to suppress. “I do not think," more than common accuracy, at the said he, with laudable delicacy, in his suggestion of the cardinals, assigned reply to Colucio,-“I do not think the task of drawing up his reply to me that it will at all become me to renew and my competitor; thus making this the remembrance of a contention which business the test of our respective abi- is now terminated, and consigned to lities. Glad of this opportunity of oblivion. For if my adversary bears trying my strength with my rival, I any ill-will against me, he is sufficiently drew up an answer according to the punished by being every day the unwilinstructions which I had received: and ling auditor of my own praises."'S after an interval of two days, my letter Leonardo had not been long emand Angelo's were read to the Pontiff ployed in the business of his new office, and the sacred college. What differ- before he found himself exposed to the ence was observed between our per- perils, which, in times of civil tumult, formances, on their recital, I know not; await the confidential servants of the but this I know, that Angelo's abettors, great. Immediately upon the accession who had so arrogantly extolled him of Innocent VII. to the pontifical above me, now freely acknowledge their throne, which event took place on the error. The Pontiff instantly congratu 17th of October 1404, the Roman lated me on my success, and instituted people, who had submitted with indigme to the office in question. I hasten nant reluctance to the rigorous sway to give you this intelligence, in order of Boniface IX. took up arms in asserthat by making you acquainted with tion of their liberties. The new Pontiff the termination of this affair, I may was obliged to bend before the rising dissipate any uneasiness which might tempest, and on the 27th day of Octopossibly have been excited in your ber he signed a Concordat, the general mind by my last letter.”*

tenor of which was very favourable to Thus was Leonardo, after an ardu- the insurgents. This act of concession ous and disagreeable contest, enrolled had not the effect which the Pontiff in the number of the papal secretaries expected, upon the minds of the malabout the beginning of May 1405. No contents, who were stimulated to a sooner was Colucio Salutati apprised renewel of their outrages against the of his success, than he addressed to public tranquillity by the powerful Innocent a letter, in which he cele- family of Colonna. They were also brated the virtues of his young friend encouraged to resist the papal authority in the highest terms of praise, “con- by Ladislaus king of Naples, who, gratulating the Pontiff on the acquisi- | under pretence of curbing the insolence tion of a servant strong in constitution, of the populace, had thrown a garrison of a graceful aspect, distinguished by into the castle of St. Angelo.|| The his knowledge, of singular eloquence, following description which Leonardo

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- Memoirs of Leonardo Aretino.!


gave of the circumstances of these civil, long and fruitless conference with his commotions, in his correspondence Holiness, these envoys were returning with Colacio Salutati, possesses all home, when they were suddenly attack that interest which is usually found in ed at a little distance from the castle the narratives of those who relate of St. Angelo. The majority made striking occurrences of which they have their escape; but eleven of them were themselves been eye-witnesses.

taken prisoners, and conducted to Lo“The perpetual hostilities, in which dovico,t the nephew of the Pope, in we are engaged in this city, prevent consequence of whose orders they had me from applying my mind to literary been arrested. In his presence they pursuits : for so great is the incon- were severely reproached for their perstancy and perverseness of the Roman fidy to the Pontiff, their recent attempt people, that there is no prospect of a upon the Ponte Molle, and their treasonrestoration of the public tranquillity. able correspondence with the king of Yesterday morning, before daybreak, Naples. When, in reply to these rethe citizens sallied out of the town, proaches, they avowed and defended supported by some of the king's aux- | their conduct, young Lodovico was so iliary troops, and made an attempt to extremely exasperated, that he began occupy the Ponte Molle. On this to strike them on the face with his bridge there is a tower, where we have sword. The issue of the affatr was, established a guard, for the purpose of that all the eleven were put to death, preventing any one from passing with and their bodies were thrown through out the permission of the Pontiff. Here the windows of the palace. Two of the contest was for some time main- them were of the number of the seven tained with great fury. Our troops magistrates created by the Pontiff for being at length hard pressed, a body the government of the Roman repubof horse was sent to their aid, who lic; the rest were of the first families of routed the Romans, of whom a few the city, and, what is a subject of painwere slain, and more wounded. The ful reflection, some of them were dedefeated insurgents having fled into cidedly adverse to that seditious conthe city, with their accustomed rash- duct on the part of the citizens, which ness, made a stand at the Capitol, to has been productive of so much uneawhich place they summoned a general siness. The news of this event being assembly of the multitude. As it was immediately spread through the city, a holiday, the lower orders of the peo- the populace instantly flew to arms, ple, who were heated with wine, had and, with tumultuous shouts, blocked fully leisure to obey the summons. The up all the avenues. A little time leaccordingly flew to arms, and marched fore this event took place, relying on to besiege the pontifical palace. Our the pacific assurances of the citizens adherents, on the other hand, having who had waited on the Pontiff, I had made the requisite preparations for crossed the river, and gone into the defence, awaited the attack of the city ; but when I heard the tumult, I populace with steadiness; and threw immediately hastened back to our quarup works before the castle of St. An-ters. Directing my course through the gelo, the garrison of which is by no streets, I came to Hadrian's bridge, means well affected to our cause. The where I found a large body of troops, intervention of night, however, sus- who blocked up the passage: pended the contest."*

“There I beheld the sword with glittering point This affair took place on the fourth of August.

“ Drawn, and prepar’d for death “On the sixth of the same month," "I was no sooner aware of my danger, (says Leonardo in a second epistle on than I wheeled round, and at the next the subject of this insurrection,) “some entry I hastily alighted from my horse. of the citizens waited on the Pontiff, Here I contrived to change my dress, for the purpose, as they alleged, of pro- and, mixing with the crowd, I passed posing a plan for the accommodation on foot, without being discovered by of the present differences. After a the posts of the enemy. I had scarcely

left my servant, when he was assaulted * Leonardi Aretini Epist. Lib. i. ep. 4. by a body of armed insurgents, who

+ Lodovico de Migliorati, whom Muratori, in his account of this transaction, justly, but

killed him, and carried off his clothes, oarsely, styles, " homo bestiale,See Müratori | and my horses which I had committed Appali, tom. ix. p. 26,

to his care. When I had rejoined our

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friends, the first spectacle which I had only a few days' provisions in our beheld was a heap of dead, who were quarters, and news was brought that lying in the middle of the road, trans- | the army of the king of Naples was fixed with large wounds, and weltering marching against us. In consequence in blood. At this sight I stood sbiver- of these circumstances, the Pontiff ing with horror; for upon a nearer yielded to the persuasion of those who examination I distinguished amongst urged the necessity of an immediate them some of my acquaintance. On departure. Our partisans, therefore, proceeding to the residence of the hastened to pack up their baggage. Pontiff, I found him in an agony of This business being effected as well as grief at the news of this transaction, the scantiness of the time would permit, which had taken place without his we marched in the following order :knowledge. Such indeed is his mild The vanguard consisted of a troop of and pacific disposition, that nothing is horse, which was followed by the bagmore repugnant to his nature than the gage and the infantry. Next came effusion of human blood. He was, the Pontiff and his whole court; and therefore, overwhelmed with grief, and, lastly, the march was closed by a body deploring his sad fortune, he lifted up of cavalry, who followed at some disbis eyes to heaven, as if he was calling tance, in order to repel any attack God to witness his innocence of any which might be made upon the rear. evil design against the Roman people. It was eight o'clock in the evening So much was he overpowered by his when we left the city; and after marchfeelings, that he could not determine ing in no small alarm for about twelve upon any plan of conduct, and the miles, we arrived at two o'clock at opinions of the by-standers were Cesano. Having 'spent the remainder various. Some advised him to depart of the night there, we recommenced immediately, and not to await the our march at daybreak; and about hostile attack of the exasperated popu- noon we arrived at Sutri, the inhalace. In support of this counsel, they bitants of which town flocked out in observed, that the troops of the king multitudes at our approach, and reof Naples were at no great distanceceived the Pontiff with every demonfrom the city, and that they would stration of joy. Having halted at undoubtedly take part with the Romans. Sutri the remainder of that day and Others were of opinion, that he should the ensuing night, on the following not by any means quit the city; but morning we proceeded to Viterbo, that he should stand a siege, and send where I trust that we shall remain for for assistance from such of the neigh- some months.”+ bouring towns as were well affected to his interest. There were others who

+ Leonardi Aretini Epist. lib. i. ep. 5. thought it advisable for him to defer

(To be continued.] his departure till the next or the ensuing day, in order that his friends might | have time to collect their moveable ON THE INTELLECTUAL FACULTY OF property, and also, that his departure

BRUtes. might have the appearance, not of a That brute animals possess reflection flight, but of a removal. There were and sentiment, and are susceptible two approaches by which we might be of the kindly as well as the irascible attacked by the insurgents, the one by passions, independently of sexual atthe bridge which is situated under the tachment and natural affection; and castle of St. Angelo, the other by the that they have a great share of fidelity, Tranštevere and the Janiculum. A of pride, and even a sense of glory; strong detachment of soldiers had been may be demonstrated from the Eleposted in a kind of fortress, to keep in phant, the Horse, and the Dog. . check the garrison of the castle of St. Elephants, even in a savage state, are Angelo, the commander of which we peaceable and gentle creatures, and had reason to suspect of hostile inten- never use their weapons, but in detions. Opposite to the Janiculum, the fence of themselves or companions. city walls, which in some places had When one is tamed, he is the most fallen to decay by their antiquity, were friendly and obedient of all animals; lined with our soldiers. There is no and seems entirely devoted to the perdoubt that we could have resisted the son who feeds and takes care of him. wbole force of the insurgents ; but we In a short time he understands signs,

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and the sound of his master's voice. reasoning faculty of brutes, and to disHe distinguishes the language of pas- tinguish the operations of intellect from sion, of command, of satisfaction; and those of instinct, we need only conacts accordingly. He receives his template the actions and disposition of orders with attention, and executes the Dog. In a savage state, it must them with prudence and alacrity, but be allowed, that he is fierce, cruel, without precipitation. He easily learns and voracious; but, when civilized, to bow his knees and lower his body, and accustomed to live with men, he for the convenience of those who mount is possessed of every amiable quality. him. He caresses his friends, and lifts He seems to have no other desire than burdens with his trunk, and assists those to please and protect his master. He who are loading him in laying them on is gentle, obedient, submissive, and his back; but, above all, he delights faithful. These dispositions, joined to in shining harness and trappings, and his almost unbounded sagacity, justly in being thus led on to the war.

claim the esteem of mankind. AccordThe intrepidity and sagacity of the ingly, no animal is so much caressed Horse has been regarded with admira or respected: he is so ductile, and so tion by all ranks of men, and in all much formed to please, that he assumes ages of the world. Even in a domes- the very air and temper of the family tic state he is bold and fiery; and, in which he resides. equally undaunted as his master, faces An animal endowed with such undanger and death with ardour and common qualities must answer many magnanimity. He delights in the noise useful purposes. His fidelity and and tumult of arms, and seems to feel vigilance are daily employed to prothe glory of victory: he exults in the tect our persons, our flocks, and our chase; his eyes sparkle with emulation goods. The acuteness of his smell in the course. But, though bold and gains him employment in hunting: he intrepid, he is docile and tractable; he is frequently employed as a turnspit: knows how to govern and check the at Brussels and in Holland he is trainnatural vivacity and fire of his temper. ed to draw little carts to the herbHe not only yields to the hand, but market; and in the northern regions secms to consult the inclination, of his draws a sledge, with his master in it, rider. Constantly obedient to the im- or else loaded with provisions. The pressions he receives, his motions are instances of sagacity, fidelity, and atentirely regulated by the will of his tention, and even of foresight, which master. He in some measure resigns these faithful animals have evinced his very existence to the pleasure of towards their masters, must have fallen man. He delivers up his whole pow- under the observation of every reader; ers, he reserves nothing; he will rather I shall therefore only recite the foldie than disobey. Who could endure lowing instance, which is of unques. to see a character so noble abused ? tionable authenticity: who could be guilty of such gross bar- At the seat of the late Earl of Litchbarity? none but wretches most relent-field, three miles from Blenheim, there less and unfeeling! We need go no is a portrait in the dining-room of Sir farther than the Horse, to prove how Hen. Lee, by Johnstone, with that of a strongly nature has endowed brute ani- mastiff Dog which saved his life. It mals with memory; for whatever roads, seems, a servant bad formed the design pastures, inns, or stables, a horse has of assassinating his master, and robbeen accustomed to, though removed bing the house; but, the night he for years to a distant part of the coun- had fixed on, the dog, which had never try, he never forgets them; but if ever been much noticed by Sir Henry, for he returns, or passes by them again, the first time followed him up stairs, he gives evident tokens that he has got under his bed, and could not be been accustomed to the place. The got from thence. In the dead of night, celebrated equestrians, Hughes and the servant entered the room to execute Astley, could, I doubt not, furnish a his horrid design, but was instantly thousand curious anecdotes to illus- seized by the Dog, and, being secured, trate this fact, and to shew that confessed his intentions. There are nothing is wanting but the gift of ten quaint lines in one corner of the speech to make them reasonable crea- I picture, which conclude thus :

But in my Dog, whereof I made no store, * But to shew, more obviously, the I find more love than those I trusted more on

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