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Peak of Teneriffe.


nor dare to be wicked! But, where along the first great frustum, leading thy powers, fettered as they are in cor- to the smaller and higher Sugar poreal tenements, prove too narrow for Loaf. The passage was steep and disconviction, and too weak for guidance, agreeable, being covered with pumice lead me forth beside the waters of stones, which gave way at every step. celestial wisdom, and conduct me to In about an hour, they got to the Alta the fountains of heavenly Revelation! | Vista, where it was necessary to climb Revelation will graciously supply over the lava, leaping from one large whatever is deficient; will raise and stone to another, till they arrived at support whatever is weak; illumine the foot of the Sugar Loaf. Here they what is dark and doubtful; confound rested about five minutes. They then what is sinful; and exalt what is vir- began to ascend the Sugar Loaf. This tuous. Guarded then by this blessed was the most fatiguing part, it being anion of Reason and Revelation, may exceedingly steep, and wholly consistmy hours roll on in the delights of ing of small pumice stones, so that the innocence and happy reflection! And foot at every step sinks and slides back, when I am about to exchange time for They were obliged to take breath reeternity; Ob! may the verge of my peatedly. It was more than six o'clock future prospect be gilded with rays of when they got up to the summit of the comfortable hope! Oh! may my con- | Loaf. At this time the clouds had scious feelings be a source of joyful gathered about a mile and a half perassurance, that I have played my game pendicular below. They were thick, of mortal life well; and have been and had a very striking effect, appearsuccessful in winning the great, the ing like an immense extent of frozen important, and invaluable stake of sea, covered with innumerable hillocks everlasting happiness!"

of snow, above which the islands of Great Canary, Palma, Gomera, and

Hiero, or Ferro, raised their heads. On Peak of Teneriffe.

the sun getting a little higher, the

clouds disappeared, and opened to the Edinburgh, Jan. 1, 1821.

view the coast around; and the colours MR. EDITOR,

hoisted on the Peak, were distinctly SIR,—The mountain denominated the seen by gentlemen in Oratova, through Peak, in the island of Teneriffe, has their telescopes. The prospect from long been celebrated for its altitude, the Peak is romantic and extensive, no and for the crater within its summit. other hill being of a height to interIt has never failed to attract the atten- cept the view. The coast is perceived tion of all who have visited the island, all around, and a distinct idea of the and its proximity to Europe has caused island formed. From this place they it to be visited by many in the scientific saw the town of Santa Cruz, and the world. But the accounts given of its shipping in the road; which is a diselevation are very heterogeneous. Mr. tance, in a direct line, of about twentyJohnstone, who visited it lately, calcu- five miles. lated its elevation to be 2,023 English The excavation, or caldron, within fathoms, or two miles, two furlongs, and the summit of the Peak, is not less eighty-six yards, which nearly corre- than 80 feet in depth. The gentlemen spond with those calculations which descended into it, and gathered some are considered to come nearest the sulphur, with which the surface is truth. He likewise made an excursion | mostly covered. In many parts the to its summit, of which he gives an | foot cannot rest upon the same spot account.

| above a minute, the heat penetrating Having ascended a considerable quickly through the shoes. Smoke issues height, they encamped on ground co- frequently from the earth. Just under vered with pumice stone, with a stream the surface, is a soft reddish clay, so of water on each side; in front a bar-hot, that the hand introduced into it Ten plain, the island of Grand Canary must be quickly withdrawn. In the bearing S. E. as if rising out of an im- caldron, the sulphureous odour is very mense field of ice formed by clouds offensive, but on the ridge it may be below them. About four o'clock next easily endured. horning, the first of August, the moon They continued two hours and a

Iming bright and the weather clear, | half upon the summit of the Peak, mey began to ascend a kind of path, I without feeling any inconvenience from


Peak of Teneriffe.


heat or cold. Soon after sun-rise, the / which then blew would permit them to thermometer in the shade was at 51o. judge. They descended the Sugar Loaf in a Liquors appeared to them to have few minutes, running the whole way, I lost nothing of their smell or strength which was found to be the best mode, at that height; a circumstance which

Among others who have ascended contradicts all the tales that have hito the summit of the Peak, is M, therto been related on that head. VoMongez. The crater, he informs us, is latile alkali, ether, spirit of wine, rea true sulphur pit, similar to those in tained all their strength; the smoking Italy. It is 50 fathoms long, and 40 spirit, of Boyle, was the only one that broad, rising abruptly from east to seemed to have lost any sensible porwest. At the edges of the crater, par- tion of its energy. Its evaporation, ticularly on the under side, are many however, was not the less quick. In spiracles, or natural chimneys, from 30 seconds, a quantity which he poured which there exhale aqueous vapours, into a cup was entirely volatilized, and and sulphureous acids, which are so nothing remained but the sulphur which hot as to make the thermometer rise tinged the rims and the bottom. When from go to 34o of Reaumur. The in-he poured the vitriolic acid on that side of the crater is covered with yel- liquor, there happened a violent detolow, red, or white argillaceous earth, nation, and the vapours that arose had and blocks of lava, partly decomposed. a very sensible degree of heat. He Under these blocks are found superb tried to form volatile alkali by decomcrystals of sulphur ; these are right-posing sal ammoniac with the fixed sided rhomboidal crystals, sometimes alkali, but the production was slow an inch in length, and he supposes they and hardly sensible; while, at the level are the finest crystals of volcanic sul- of the sea, this process, made with the phur that have ever been found. same substances in the same propor

The water that exhales from the tions, succeeded very readily, and in spiracles is pure, and not in the least abundance. acid, as he was convinced by several | Being curious to investigate the naexperiments. He supposes the eleva- ture of the vapours that exhale from tion of the Peak to be 1900 toises above the crater, and to know whether they the level of the sea. He made several contained inflammable air, fixed air, chemical experiments upon its top; and marine acid, he made the following but he merely gives an account of the experiments. He composed on the edge effects. The volatilization and cooling of one of the spiracles a nitrous soluof liquors, were there very considerable. tion of silver in a cup. It remained Half a minute was sufficient for a dissi- more than an hour in the midst of the pation of a pretty strong dose of ether.vapours, which were continually exhalThe action of acids on metals, earths, ing, but without any sensible alteraand alkalies, was slow, and the bubbles tion; which sufficiently shewed that no which escaped during the effervescence vapours of marine acid exhale from the were much larger than ordinary. The crater. He then poured into it some production of vitriols was attended drops of marine acid, when a precipiwith very singular phenomena. That tation of luna cornea immediately enof iron assumed all at once a very sued; but instead of being white, as beautiful violet colour, and that of that precipitation generally is, it was copper was suddenly precipitated of a of a fine dark violet colour, which very bright blue colour. He examined quickly became grey, and it assumed the moisture of the air by means of the the form of small scaly crystals. These hygrometer of pure alkali, and of the were very distinct when looked at with vitriolic acid; and he thence concluded, / a glass, and they were even visible to as well as from the direction of the the naked eye. He thought himself aqueous vapours, that the air was justifiable in attributing this alteration very dry, for at the end of three hours of colour to the yapours of inflammable the vitriolic acid had suffered hardly air, according to some experiments any change, either in colour or weight; that he had made on the precipitation the fixed alkali remained dry, except of luna cornea in such air. Lime water near the edges of the vessel that con- exposed for three hours on the margin tained it, where it was a little moist; of the crater, and in the neighbour and Saussure's hygrometer pointed to hood of a spiracle, was not cover 64°, as nearly as the impetuous wind with any calcareous pellicle, nor ex



Ancient Indictments.Poor in China.


hardly with any filmy appearance; | the cause of pauperism, it seems to which proved, in his opinion, not only be the practice for the alle part of that no vapours of fixed air exhale the family to support their poor or from the crater, but that the atmosphe- reduced relatives. ric air which rests upon it, contains

The remaining tribes of paupers are very little of that air; and that the such as are diseased. These may be inflammable vapours and sulphureous divided into two large classes, viz. the acid, alone, were sensible and consider- | clean, and the unclean. The first class able. The electricity of the atmosphere comprehends: 1st, the blind; 2, the was pretty considerable ; for Saussure's | lame; 3d, the deaf and dumb. The electrometer, when held in the hand at unclean class consists of lepers. the height of above five feet, indicated The number of blind poor in China 30; while on the ground it pointed | is astonishingly great. I have not only at 11°. The electricity was posi- been able to obtain any thing even like tive. Sir, your's, &c.

an approximation of the exact proD. P. portion to that of the whole population.

The best informed appear not to know,

or perhaps they are unwilling to tell; ANCIENT INDICTMENTS.

for they generally say, that they came Edinburgh, 3d Jan. 1821.

| from another part of the country, &c.

Some of them learn to perform on Mr. Editor.

musical instruments, and to recite Sir,- In perusing a Work which fell tales, for which they receive payment, into my hands a few days since, I met and therefore may be considered as subwith the following Memorandum of a sisting by their industry; but a great remarkable Indictment. The writer be- proportion of them go about as comgins his minutes thus :-“MEMORANDUM, mon beggars, frequently in companies That one the 19 daye of February 1661 | of ten or twelve, in which case they was the first tyme that I was uppone the are attended by a guide; more geneJury for life and death at the old Bay rally two or three go together, and ley, and then there were these persons | guide themselves along by means of following tryde, and for what crime." long sticks, by which they seem to feel After making minutes of nine persons the way. The blind and lame sit in who were tried that day, and of seventeen the streets and highways, and implore the next day, being the 20th Feb. 1661, is the charity of the compassionate. the following :- Kathrine Roberts is Leprosy is a dreadful calamity in endited for selleing of a Child to the China. It dooms the wretched sufferer, Spirrits for 28s. 60. but after much even should he recover, to remain, for heareing of the witnesses it could not ever after, an outcast from his relatives. be clearly proved, and so she was found This class is exceedingly numerous, nott guilty.” I must acknowledge I and crowd the streets and bighways. cannot comprehend the nature of the They are seen in considerable numbers charge in this Indictment. I will be near the residence of Europeans at obliged to any of your readers for their Canton. A cold winter night is usually opinion apon it. The next minute is destructive to many of these miserable " Mary Grante is endited for beating beings. They might easily be restored of her husband, but nothing is made to health; yet in the superstitious of this, the law says that the husband notion of the Chinese, the restoration cannot endite the wife for a battery.". of such to health, does not restore them Yours, &c. D. F. to any of the comforts of social inter

course, not even to work. .

In Canton, and other large towns, POOR IN CHINA.-BY AN OBSERVER. establishments exist for supplying the

destitute, aged, blind, lame, &c. with hina, sudden and unforeseen ca- maintenance. But no division similar nities, such as a river breaking to our parishes exists in China; nor embankment, fire destroying a vil indeed any other, unless for police

; and the like, often reduce a regulations, and these have not conwhole kindred to a state of extreme nected with them any establishment Werty, and oblige them to beg, for for the support of the poor.

they have a public license. In! Their places of religious worship are per cases, where disease is not made, occasionally, merely the place

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Poor in China.



from which alms are distributed, and, branch of industry is left to the Chinese, we have reason to suppose, more from even to the management of the houseostentation than true charitable mo- hold affairs of paupers tives. The mandarins of the district. From this view of the Christian inhasometimes also distribute from their bitants of Macao, a people without temples, the allowance to the destitute, manufactures, arts, or industry, it will aged, blind, &c. but no charitable be expected that pauperism of a pecufund seems ever to have been con- liar description must result; accordnected with any of their temples, con- ingly, we have the incongruous phenosidered as a religious establishment; menon-beggars without humility, and yet it appears to be a sentiment pretty even appearing proud in silks and lace, generally diffused, that charitable deeds sword and cocked hat, asking charity are pleasing to Heaven, and that they for the love of God, and telling you, may deprecate impending wrath. Ac God will pay! cordingly, on certain days charitable This may appear a singular fact in donations are made, of money, but the grand problem of charity. It may more frequently of rice. In a country require explanation. The early miswhere the necessaries of life are com sionaries were well provided with the monly very cheap, and where a little means of meliorating the condition of rice, a little pork or fish, and vegeta- | the neophytes; and the encouraging bles, enable the poor to make even a circumstances attending their first succomfortable meal, it will be readily un- cess, procured for them ample means derstood that the condition of the poor of building stately churches, and conis far from bad. Even the leper seems, necting with them ample charitable from the nature of his infirmity, to ob- funds. From these, supplies would tain supplies of food with facility, and be readily obtained ; and perhaps the he appears to bow to his hard fate missionaries, not contemplating the with a degree of resignation.—These possible failure of these funds, were remarks apply perhaps generally to careless in inculcating habits of industhe southern or warmer provinces of try. This is the more probable, as the China. In the northern division, number of saints' days, on which it is where rice is not cultivated, and where not lawful to do any kind of work the winters are severe, the poor suffer without special permission, are so many much greater hardships. In proof of as greatly to impede every kind of this, it may be stated, that the northern labour; and I have been informed that beggars often find their way even to there is scarcely a day throughout the Macao.

year, on which they may not have The Chinese pagan population of a religious excuse for neglecting their Macao, is commonly calculated to be worldly concerns. On the other hand, from 35 to 40,000. The Christian popu- | the Chinese have very few religious lation, comprehending the Portuguese; hinderances; a few days of festivity the Chinese in the dress of Portuguese; / about the new year, and of attendance mixture of these in every degree with on the tombs of their ancestors, being the original settlers from Europe, India, nearly their only interruptions to labour. Africa, and the neighbouring Philip- Thus, were the Christians ever so pine and Malay Islands—is under 5000. industriously inclined, they could not From Timor and the Portuguese set- enter into any successful competition tlements in Africa, about 100 slaves with the Chinese pagans. Hence, they arrive annually : from these various seem from the first to have been dissources during 250 years, the present couraged from making any effort. They mixed race of Macao has sprung. I learn to do nothing. They have divided themselves into two! The funds for the support of the poor classes: 1st, those of foreign descent; are dilapidated very considerably of 2d, the Chinese descendants. The late, from causes which it would be first preserve all the pride and conse- | painful to state. Were it not that a quence of the first settlers. Most real quantity of rice necessary to supply worth will be found amongst the second the absolute wants of nature, is in class. Each class contains a very few general easily procured, many must respectable merchants and ship-owners. starve; as it is, perhaps no part of Excepting such employments as are the world contains a species of pauabsolutely necessary for the outfit and perism so greatly and so deservedly management of their ships, every other wretched ; since it arises from this

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extinction of that principle of shame more closely than ever, by persons who, which is perhaps the best preventive perhaps, before had not sufficiently of idleness, the parent of poverty. done so, though they had it in their

house, and had no doubts about its

divine origin. It is not enough to be The Importance of Revelation. convinced of its authenticity; and to

read a portion of it occasionally: it MR. EDITOR,

must be examined minutely, and the Sir,-When lately looking into an old different parts compared with each book, entitled “The Fulfilling of Scrip- other: (the marginal references will ture," written by that excellent and be very useful in this respect, even discerning man, Mr. Fleming; I com- without a comment.) Nor is it suffipared many of his sentiments with cient to be satisfied in this point, in events which have lately come to theory; there must be a personal applipass amongst us; and was much edi cation. When the reader is convinced fied thereby. He observes, “We may that there is a universal disease in the often see a very strange concurrence of human race; let him then inquire, Is things, how instruments act in bringing there a remedy? and how is that remedy about the Lord's end, and advance the to be applied, in order to a cure? This interests of the church; even while book will clearly point out all this, if each doth most vigorously drive his candidly examined.” own design. We have seen the enemies The late Sir William Jones, and the of the church raised to a strange height, noble Bereans of old, would examine all advantages favouring them, until for themselves; and not assent to things their plot was just ripe; when, lo! merely from hearsay reports. Let the at that very instant, something unex | disciples of Voltaire, Volney,Gibbon, and pected hath fallen out, which turned other gentry of the corps, together with their former success to their own ruin the light infantry of Thomas Paine, be and disappointment. We have seen informed, (and I insist upon it,) that all most despicable and ordinary things the light or knowledge they possess, made subservient to some great piece is derived to them, directly or indiof the Lord's work. Judgment must rectly, through the medium of that begin at the house of God: yet the book which they presume to vilify. church's trouble is a forerunner of ven- | And had it not been for it, they would geance on her adversaries; and the have been as dark and ignorant as the cup prepared for them is of a strong com savage hordes in New South Wales, position; the wine is red and mixed, or Labrador. There have been little and the dregs very thick. A dreadful nibblers in every age; but they have winter-storm on the world is pointed always found the file too hard for their out as a spring-time to the church. teeth. The fact is, some of our modern The godly may mistake and tremble at anarchists would revive the reign of their mercy, even when it is before Robespierre again: they would not only their eyes. It is our great concern to destroy the gospel, but trample the fear Him, who guides all these things; laws too under their feet. However, and not to faint at the strange appear- there will always be found in Britain, ance of the time, or the signs thereof; twelve honest jurors, and an impartial but to read our personal duties, from judge, who will decide in cases of this the sad presages of public judg- kind. God will defend his own truth: ments; to aim at more nearness to and though he may suffer his oppo. God; and to secure a retreat under his nents to proceed for a time; he will shadow, until the indignation pass over. / at length arise, and crush them with a (Isai. xxvi. 20.)

mighty hand. “The rage and enmity against the

I am, Sir, your's, &c. bible and its contents, which have lately

PERSPICAX. been revived, is another proof of the truth contained therein. There is in the natural man, a something (call it

LITERARY CONTRASTS. what you please) which is enmity against God. But the truth will be The ultimate sale of the copy-right of more and more discussed, and thereby Paradise Lost, produced to Milton's confirmed: true religion prospers by widow eight pounds; and Dryden reopposition. The bible will be studied | ceived from Tonson two pounds, thir

No. 26.-Vol. III,

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