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terms, I leave to be considered. This, I of bodies, or to denote the aggregate I think, I may at least say, that we of bodies in the universe, in both these should have a great many fewer dis- senses matter exists. It is, however, putes in the world, if words were taken in reference to the former of them, for what they are, the signs of our that a substratum is denied; and in ideas only, and not for things them- this sense, I shall continue to deny selves. For when we argue about its existence, until I discern the necesmatter, or any the like term, we truly sity of admitting it. For the existence argue only about the idea we express by of a solid extended insentient subthat sound, whether that precise idea stance, termed matter, I have eviagree to any thing in nature, or not. dence which satisfies me; but of an And if men would tell what idea they unseen, mysterious, unknown submake their words stand for, there stratum of matter, I have no evidence could not be half that obscurity or whatever; nor do I believe that it wrangling, in the search or support of has any being in nature. It is a pure truth, that there is."
ontological fiction! Your correspondent suspected that Is not the existence of a material my rejecting a substratum of matter, substance, subject to the control of would plunge me into the matterless an infinitely wise and powerful Being, abyss of Berkeley. This, however, is sufficient to account for all that we not the case. And I am resolved that experience? Where then is the necesno sophistry shall ever draw me beyond sity or use of a substratum, if all phethe margin of that vacuous gulf. Inomena may be accounted for without believe in the existence of matter,--I it? Besides, what is its nature? This cannot help believing it and I will may seem an impertinent question, believe it. And therefore I object to as it is said to be unknown; but matethe phraseology of Locke, in the pre- rial, or immaterial, it must be. If ceding passage, in reference to the material, and matter requires a subnon-existence of matter in general. stratum, what is the substratum of On this subject, I doubt not that philo- this substratum ?* If a substratum sophical investigation will terminate of matter be once admitted, this quesin a full confirmation of the first dic- tion will recur ad infinitum. And tates of common sense. With this why not call it the matter of matter? conviction, I cannot approve of any This, if any such thing exists, is certainexpression that implies the non-exist-ly its proper denomination. And if it ence of matter as a real entity. That be not material, then matter is ultimatter and individual bodies have not mately resolved into an immaterial, independent existence, is certain. The mysterious, unknown, nobody knows latter are but certain aggregates of what! And if so, who can tell, reveatoms, subjected to particular laws, lation apart, but that all things are which give birth to their diversified so many different modifications of the forms, appearances, and effects. It is same substance? these whose existence is adventitious, To this conclusion, it appears to successive, and evanescent. Andme, we must come, if we admit the were all these phenomena destroyed existence of a substratum distinct by a suspension of those laws by which from, but essential, to the being of at present they are produced, it would matter. Nor do I think that your not affect the existence of the former. correspondent has succeeded either Matter is the constituent principle of in establishing its existence, or in bodies. It is that, which in all the removing the consequences deducible successive transmutations and deno- from it. minations that bodies undergo, inva- | * See King's Origin of Evil, Vol. I. page 3. riably preserves its identity. And
Note 1. that which renders it permanent, as far
(To be continued.) as I know, is, its exclusive occupancy of a definite portion of space; and On the Aspect of Science towards this renders solidity or impenetrability
Religion. inseparable from its nature.
Whether we understand the term to THE EDITOR OF THE IMPERIAL matter to indicate the component parts
SIR,--If you deem the following leta * Locke's Essay, vol. 2. page 96. | ter from a friend, on the Aspect which No. 26.-VOL, III.
the Arts and Sciences bear towards ,dency to elevate his views of the Religion, worthy an insertion in your Divine Being above those of that man valuable miscellany, its early inser- who is not acquainted with it. On a tion will oblige your's, &c. . survey of the heavens, and the count
A. B, D.
less multitudes of revolving worlds
they contain, he will be led to exclaim, MY DEAR FRIEND,—According to your like pious David, “When I consider request, I sit down the few minutes the heavens, the work of thy hands, I have to spare, to write a few lines and the sun, moon, and stars, which on the Aspeot which the Arts and thou hast made; Lord, what is man, Sciences bear towards Religion. It that thou art mindful of him?”—and is positively asserted by the pen of with Milton, divine inspiration, that without know “ These are thy glorious works, Parent of ledge the heart cannot be good: but good, it must be admitted that there are
Almighty! thine this universal frame!
Thus wondrous fair, thyself how wondrous some kinds of knowledge very in
then, jurious to the morals of men, and op- Unspeakable ; who sitt'st above these heav'n's posed to the welfare of society. This To us invisible, or dimly seen assertion only includes such know- In these thy lowest works; yet these declare ledge as is calculated to promote the | Thy goodness beyond thought, and power
divine.” happiness and usefulness of man in this world, and prepare him for all And whilst his mind is thus inspired state of eternal felicity beyond the with the most sublime and exalted grave. I conceive that an acquaint ideas of the majesty and greatness of ance with the Arts and Sciences, is
the supreme Being, he will sink into calculated to render a person more
nothingness and insignificancy in his useful and respectable in the world, own estimation, and exclaim, like than one destitute of a knowledge of Watts, them. But it is most important and “Great God! how infinite art thou!" essential that a man should have a And not only Astronomy, but Nacorrect knowledge of himself, as atural History and Philosophy, in all sinful and accountable creature, and their branches, are calculated, when of God his Creator, and Christ his properly pursued, as studies subordiRedeemer; without this knowledge, nate to religion, to have a very beneevery other kind will avail him nothing ficial influence on the mind. The inin a dying hour. But where learning dividual who is acquainted with these and piety concentrate in a person, sciences, under the influence of pious they shine brilliantly. I am fully feelings, will be constrained to admire aware, my dear Friend, I am quite the power and wisdom of God, as disincompetent to do justice to the sub-played in the work of creation. At ject; for I consider, in order to treat his sovereign mandate, worlds upon it properly, it is necessary I should | worlds burst into being, and were possess a good knowledge of the Arts peopled with countless tribes of creaand Sciences. But this not being the tures, At his all-powerful voice, the case, you must expect my views of sun, that source of light and heat, the subject to be very contracted. with all the innumerable host of stars
Whether we consider the subject as which roll along the immensity of referring to the state of religious feel- / space, sprang forth. Who can coning in an individual, or with respect to template the whole universe of mi the cause of religion in general, Iterial being, in connection with conceive that the study of the Sciences vast magnitude and number of heaunder proper regulations, and in sub- venly bodies, and not entertain reve ordination to religion, instead of proy- rential thoughts of that Almighty ing injurious, will be found to be ad-Being, who by a word brought then vantageous. I would not be under-into existence? The prophet Is stood to say, that I think the study of seems to have been under si all the Sciences will prove equally feelings, when he exclaimed and alike profitable. But to begin astonishment, “ Lift up your eyes with Astronomy; I conceive it to be high, and behold; who hath crea as beneficial as any.
these things, that bringeth out the • The study of this science, by a man host by number? he calleth them. of piety, must necessarily have a ten- | by names, by the greatness of
might; for that he is strong in power, ing; that is, they have not been not one faileth.”
obliged to confine themselves to topics I conceive also an acquaintance which children might explain, but with Anatomy is very useful, and cal- have encountered, with success, subculated to promote religious thoughts jects which required the exercise of and feelings. At a survey of the forcible reasoning powers. Do you structure of the human body, the wish a proof of this? I need only direct regular organization of every part, your thoughts to India; there witness the use of every muscle, of every what has been achieved by a Carey, nerve, and the great skill displayed Ward, and Marshman, and many other in their formation and regular motion, men of learning and piety. And I will naturally lead us to say, “I will would ask, has their piety, or did the praise thee, for I am fearfully and piety of Watts, Doddridge, Newton, wonderfully made; marvellous are Hervey, and others, appear the less thy works, and that my soul knoweth conspicuous, on account of their acright well.” With this, I think, Logic, quaintance with the Sciences ? I or Intellectual Philosophy, might very think not; neither was their usefulprofitably be studied, for it is abso- ness in the cause of religion obstructed lutely necessary a man should possess thereby. I therefore conclude by saya knowledge of the powers of his own ing, that the Arts and Sciences bear mind, and be able to think, judge, a favourable aspect towards Religion, reason, and communicate his thoughts rather than otherwise. to others with precision and accuracy. He should also be well acquainted with the various operations and fa FRAGMENT OF A DAY-BOOK KEPT BY culties of his mind, else he will be STANISLAUS AUGUSTUS, LAST KING liable to confound them one with OF POLAND, FROM SECOND MARCH, another: it may also be useful in 1797, UNTIL TWELFTH FEBRUARY, many more instances than I have 1798. time now to enumerate.
As well during the journey to PetersRespeciing the study of Mathe-burgh, as during his stay in that rematics, I think it is very useful to sidence and at Moscow, Stanislaus strengthen and invigorate the reason dictated bulletins, addressed to his ing faculties; the truth of this you friends in Poland; but as he had no. know by experience, therefore I need great reliance on the sanctity or senot say any thing more concerning it. crecy of the Russian post-office, le
Now, as to giving you my decided left a large white border, on which he opinion, whether or no the Sciences wrote with sympathetic ink whatever bear a favourable aspect towards he thought not fit for the perusal of Religion, I will merely assert this, strangers, and several passages of the that if we take a view of the good and manuscript are written in this manevil resulting from the study of them, ner. Kotzebue obtained possession we shall find the good evidently to of the whole, under condition of suppreponderate : and, in conclusion, if pressing what might compromise any we consider the subject with respect living person. The manner in which to the general cause of religion, we the emperor received the king, and sball find them favourable rather than how the latter bore his fate, as also otherwise. It is true, the Christian's his remarks, cannot fail to interest religion is characterized by its simpli- the observers of mankind. city, and the gospel does not stand in ' “ Mietau, 20 March, 1797.-Only need of human wisdom, to add to its the day before yesterday did the king dignity and excellence, for, without arrive here, at eleven o'clock in the any embellishments, it is able to make night; because a thousand obstacles men wise unto salvation through faith had united to delay his arrival, and in Christ; nevertheless, an acquaint- to make his journey as disagreeable ance with the Sciences has never ren- as possible. Nobody was, however, Gered the ministers of the gospel less I more sorry for it than the general useful, I believe; but, on the contrary, Count Besborodke, who had relied they have found this knowledge aon the preparations of general Tor- 1 valuable acquisition to them, in ob- masoff; unfortunately, the latter hadvating that laboured stiffness in their been displaced a few days before out composition, and sameness in preach- of his government, and all had been
neglected to an incredible degree. | point of the imperial sceptre; he The number of miles was falsely in- | has embellished the place with much dicated, and consequently the calcu- expense and taste. A splendid suplation of the hours was sure to be per had been prepared; and the marwrong! Even the road was missed, shal to the court Wielohursky, waitand on leaving Wilna, a round-about ed upon the king with five courtiers was made, of more than four miles, in in their gala dresses, who welcomed the most horrible by-roads. Several him in the name of the different accidents of the same description had branches of the imperial family. The occurred; thawing weather suddenly emperor had suspended the mournchanging with frost, spoiled all the ing for three days, on account of the roads, and many carriages broke. king's arrival. On the next morning
“ This forced slowness allowed the the king took prince Stanislaus in his king to visit, at Poraysire, the con-carriage, and both proceeded to the vent of the Kartusians; a remarkable seat of the countess Skawronska, two monument of the riches of the chan- versts from this town. He found cellor Paé, and the use which he there the vice-chancellor prince Kumade of them. The only painting rakin, with a great suite, and the that appeared valuable, was the meet court equipage. The king stepped ing of Maria with the mother of Jo | into the state carriage, and sat alone hannes. Another curiosity of the on the back seat, with prince Kurakin place has disappeared, viz. the bo- and prince Stanislaus on the front: dies of Paé and his wife; they were the imperial pages hung themselves still in preservation forty years ago, to the coach-doors, and the master of but have since perished. To make the horse, Prince Galitzin, rode on up for this, a pompous and badly- | the right side. A detachment of the styled inscription informs the curious, garde-noble opened the procession, that lady Paé had been of the Mailly and another of hussars concluded it. family, related to the princes of Sa- A great concourse of people accomvoy, the Bourbons, and a couple of panied it up to the Marble palace, in Greek emperors. Mietau has been whose rooms the king found the empevery much enlarged and embellished ror, who embraced him cordially, and since the king was there last. To in-conversed with him during an hour crease the singularity of his present in private, before he returned to his situation, the old Stackelberg, for- residence. The grand dukes, Alexmerly ambassador in Poland, has ander and Constantine, were likewise been appointed for the office of cham- present. The description of the berlain during the stay in Peters- Marble palace would fill a book. burgh. The former secretary of the | “On the next day, the king dined embassy, who is likewise here, thinks with the emperor, seated betwixt him that the emperor made this nomina- and the empress; the latter, and the tion to humble Stackelberg, with young grand duchesses, presented a whom he is displeased.”
very fine group; the two grand dukes " Narva, 8th March.--Mr. Von are patterns of politeness and civility: Tiesenhausen, the governor, has re- but nothing surpasses the manner in ceived the king with distinguished which the emperor himself displays civility; and, generally speaking, it the goodness of his heart, and the would be impossible to behave better fine attention which he bestows; the in this respect than the whole nobility most friendly intimacy has animated of Livonia has done. In the gover- his conversations with the king. nor's conduct, was there a certain kind! “ The Marble palace has cost seveof cordiality, by which the king was ral millions, but it is nevertheless so much affected.”
badly arranged, that the king's suite “ Petersburgh, 14th March.-On the is not only lodged in a confined man9th, the king arrived at Ropseha, a ner, but even very uncomfortably: country seat, 35 versts from here, it is said, that when the grand duke where Peter the Third died. The celebrated his marriage there, some count gave it as a present to prince of his people took away tables, chairs, Orloff, who sold it to a very rich Ar- and even the locks from the doors; menian from Ispahan,called Lasaroff; every thing must be bought anew. this man is the same who sold the Stackelberg has not been named as large diamond which now adorns the officiating chamberlain; but he stands
so badly at court, that he has resolv- on account of the approaching coroed to withdraw to his estates."
nation, the roads were almost like “ 17th March.-The king has been ploughed fields. In the palace which visiting, yesterday, the hermitage was assigned to the king, the servants which constitutes a part of the impe- of the late governor have behaved rial chateau, and which one would call nearly as bad as the above-mentioned in other places, museum, cabinet of people had done in the Marble palace; curiosities, picture gallery, &c. The in all the rooms of the suite, have gallery of Arabeskes, of the Vatican, tables, chairs, and locks, been taken copied after Raphael, belongs like-away; the horses and carriages could wise to it. The whole is so exten- / only be accommodated in part.” sive, that the king was nearly two " Moscow, 13th April.-On the 7th, hours in walking through it without the king looked at the house of the stopping, and merely casting now and minister, count Besborodko, which then a slight glance on the different the emperor is to inhabit. There objects. The last thing he saw, was exists, most likely, not in all Europe a model of Voltaire's seat at Ferney, a building in which more splendour together with his library; which be- and taste should be united. Particucomes particularly interesting through larly remarkable are the bronzes, the the notes and remarks in his own tapestry, and the chairs; the latter hand-writing, which he had affixed to are as convenient as they are richly many books, and which contain in ornamented. One values this palace part his opinions on the most impor- at 700,000 rubles. Count Besbotant points of religion, morality, and rodko, who had come to pay his repolitics. One finds also here, minia-spects to the king, said it had been ture and oil paintings, from the pencil built in nine years: his house in Peof the empress herself, which would tersburgh, contains more precious do credit to any artist : a copy after paintings, but in other respects it is Grenze is so well finished, that one by no means equal to this : people who might take it for an original. This is have seen St. Cloud at the moment no compliment, but the real truth; and the queen of France had finished it, the king has seen, moreover, works of affirm, that the ornaments of Besbos the same hand in ivory and precious rodko's palace are by far the richer stones, whose numbers and value and more tasty. The gilded carved excite astonishment.
work, and the costly chairs, are mostly “To-day the king visited the Tau- made in Vienna; the fine bronzes are rish palace, which contains a prodi- bought from French emigrants. In gious number of rooms. In the sa- the dining-room is a side-board, whose loon where prince Potemkin gave the degrees are covered with more than last treat to the late empress, his pre-two hundred excellently worked vases, sent majesty had since a whole batta- of gold, silver, ivory, corals, &c. The lion to go through the military ma- most precious tapestry has been furnoeuvres. Here hang the original nished partly by foreign countries, and paintings of the victories of the Rus- partly by Russia. Chinese furniture sian fleet in the Mediterranean, and is also to be found here in abunthe taking of Oczakow and Ismael. dance." Catharine II. liked this palace very
(To be continued.) much in the latter years of her life, because she had there her dwelling on the first floor, and could go into
Observations on Theft, by Homo. the adjoining garden without going up and down stairs. One made the 1 MR. EDITOR. king observe, that she had written on SIR, --There is nothing so extravagant, the door the day on which she had but it may have entered into the head been here for the last time.”
of man, and even into that of a legis"Moscow, 5th April.-The king has lator, or pretended philosopher. made the journey hither in nine days We need not travel to Greece or and a half, which was two days more Rome to ascertain this point; nor have than he had reckoned upon; but fifteen we any occasion to explore the occurcarriages broke on the road, and some rences of past ages for the purpose, of them even twice, because the since every day will furnish occurrences weather changed every moment; and sufficiently strong and numerous to