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473 Historical Observations respecting Liverpool. 474 the patient; and it has been found of scriptions of persons, its doors are essential benefit to the persons afflict- always open. Distress is the only reed, and also to the town at large, commendation required. Few benewhich may be considered as remark- volent institutions established in Liably healthful.

verpool, have been attended with so The Alms-Houses, at the head of many beneficial effects as this. The Mount - Pleasant- street, though de- number of persons that have been retached from the house of Industry, are lieved since its commencement in at no great distance from it. These 1789, is almost incredible. Of the furnish a comfortable abode to many services which have been rendered to poor persons. The buildings are low, the unhappy sufferers, its supporters but terminating at each extremity bý are deeply sensible, and this sensibitwo wings, with an area in front; they lity they have fully evinced by their have a neat and pleasing appearance. liberality. It only requires to be uniThe parish cemetery is at no great versally known to receive universal distance from these houses, and in this patronage. the dead are deposited in coffins, In March, 1804, the Welsh Charitable placed side by side, and piled one on Society was instituted. The object of another, in large excavations made in this institution, which is under the the ground to receive them.

patronage of His Majesty, is to inThe Ladies have a CHARITY, which struct, clothe, and apprentice poor was begun in 1796, for relieving at children, descended from Welsh patheir houses poor married women in rents, and born in Liverpool, but who child-bed. These receive medical as- have no parochial settlement within sistance, bed-linen, food, and every the town. An extensive school, under other necessary, which their situation the direction of this society, has been requires. No building is exclusively erected in Russel-street, where the appropriated to this charity. It is education of 430 boys is conducted patronized by ladies of the first re- on the Madras system. spectability, and its affairs are con- The Female School of Industry, which ducted by a committee of six ladies was begun in September, 1809, has and seven gentlemen, with a lady pa- for its object the moral and religious troness, president, and vice-president. instruction of poor girls, in order to In the year 1819, 1358 persons were make them useful and industrious relieved from this institution, and members of society. The children are its expenditure amounted to £1289. clothed and educated at the expense

of the institution. From their earnAn Institution for restoring Drowned ings, a certain portion is deducted Persons, was established in October, towards the defraying of the current 1775, at the charge of the corpora- expenditure ; and, under certain retion, who give to those who take up a gulations, a fund is established, from body, ane guinea for each person re- which each receives a given sum on covered, and half-a-guinea when all her marriage, on the birth of each efforts prove unsuocessful. By these legitimate child, or, if unmarried, an encouragements, a great proportion of annual stipend for life, after a given those whose bodies have been taken age. up within a time which might afford The Roman Catholics have a large the least hope of re-animation, have Charity-School on Copperas - Hill, been restored to life. To facilitate which was built by subscription. Its this humane design, long poles, with object is the tuition of children behooks at the ends, are distributed longing to the Romish Church only. about the docks, for the purpose of There is also another extensive school dragging for such persons as unfortu- in Pleasant-street, for the instruction nately fall into the water.

of children of Irish parents of all deThe Stranger's Friend Society, ori- nominations. ginated with the Wesleyan Methodists The Liverpool Female Penitentiary, in this town; and it is chiefly, though was projected on the day of our nanot exclusively, conducted by them. tional jubilee, in 1809. A public From the benefits of this institution, meeting was afterwards held on the the members of the Methodist Society occasion, in the Town-Hall, and, the

are wholly excluded; but charity being sanctioned, it received to all other denominations and de- support from the promise of annual

2 H


in Liverpool,

No. 27.-Vol. III.


Reply to Animadversions on Hutton & Bonnycastle, 476 subscriptions, on which it has since continued to subsist. The institution

Reply to Animadversions on Hutton

and Bonnycastle. is at present carried on in a large house at Edge-Hill; but a spot on

MR. EDITOR. which the erection of an eligible Sir, It appears from an article inbuilding is in contemplation, has serted in your interesting work for been procured in a more convenient Dec. last, col. 980, that Mr. Dunch is situation, and some preparations are of opinion, I have said too much in already making for the accomplish- favour of Dr. Hutton and Mr. Bonny, ment of this benevolent purpose. castle, and that the praise attributed

At the time of the jubilee, the to them, is due to Mr. A. Taylor, who, debtors confined in the Borough gaol it seems, published a treatise on Arithwere liberated by a public subscrip- metic, in the year 1804; from which tion; but the money subscribed ex-work, he insinuates, that those Matheceeding the sum required, the sur-maticians have derived their chief explus, amounting to about £800, was cellencies, in respect to the method of placed out at interest, the produce stating questions in the Rule of Three, to be applied, under the direction of a A moment's reflection might have concommittee, to the relief of debtors con- vinced him of the contrary, for the fined in the Borough gaol. Through methods of stating are totally different; the investigations to which this insti- his rules, and their ruļes, have scarcely tution has led, many fraudulent trans- any thing in common. actions, and ilļegal arrests, have been Besides, about 30 years ago, when detected; and the institution has I was a school-boy, (and how long proved a powerful protection to the prior to that period, I know not,) Dr. unsuspecting seaman and foreigner, Hutton's treatise and rule were in against the wiles of unfeeling disho- general use in tủe northern counties; pesty.

and other treatises of earlier date, Another benevolent institution, de contain the same rule; it will be sufisigned to benefit the condition of the cient to notice only one, Mr. J. Mair's Poor, and increase their comforts, was Treatise on Arithmetic, published in also established in consequence of the 1777. Mr, Bonnycastle's method is jubilee. Its effects are complicated the same, but his arrangement of the and various, but all chiefly tending to terms different, and, as I think, more teach the needy to draw their own re- scientific. It is true, this method sources from themselves. The ob- was not given in the earlier editions jects whịch this institution has in view, of his excellent treatise, it being first are promoted by benevolent exertions, introduced, I believe, in the tenih carried on in a commodious building edition ; but it is quite ridiculous to in Bold-street.

suppose he borrowed it from Mr. The Auxiliary Bible Society, which Taylor's work, which agrees with it was established in 1811, has its depo- in nothing, except the arrangement of sitory in Slater-street, in which also the ternis, when the proportion bapa Ladies' Branch is included. This pens to be direct. Also, there are is supported by subscriptions, dona- other works well known to Mr. Bontions, and public collections at the nycastle, in which are found both the annual meetings held in May. Be- same method and arrangement ! sides rendering assistance to the need only mention J. Robertson's parent institution, its object is to dis- Arithmetic, prefixed to his Elements Tribute Bibles and Testaments to the of Navigation ; mine is the third edipoor, to seamen, and to foreigners, tion, published in 1772. This shews who visit the port. Since its está- that Mr. Dunch has not sufficiently blishment, this society has distributed attended to the subject, and his zeal 36,574 Bibles and Testaments, and for his friend has carried him beyond the sum expended amounts to nearly due decorum in his remarks. £14,000. The annual meeting is nu- Judging from the extracts given, it merously and respectably attended. does not appear to me, that Mr. TayLike the object which it aims to pro- lor's method possesses any peculiar mote, it knows nothing of sect or par- advantages; or, that it is at all to be ty: the speakers belong to Christians compared with those of Dr. Hutton of various denominations,

and Mr. Bonnycastle. However, I (To be continued.)

never intended to be understood as

Replies to Queries.

478 stating, that the method originated

Another Reply. with those celebrated mathematicians. As to the contractions I have noticed, Sir,- In your Magazine for April, a

Mr. Editor. it need only be remarked, that they are found, with several others, in correspondent requests to be informmany of the treatises on Arithmetic; the heads of Children.

ed, of a cure for the Ring-worm, in they were selected as being the most useful and general.

If your correspondent will address

a letter to M. B. ät the Post-office, I shall only add, that from an extensive experience in instructing

Rochdale, without charge, a safe and youth, I have been led to conclude, in question, will be sent him gratis

simple remedy to cure the complaint that the rule, as given in your number for May last, col. 333, is better the desired effect.

which has, on several occasions, had than any I have seen, and that alone

I am yours, &c. was the reason for wishing to give it

HUMANITAS. circulation in your valuable work :

April 14, 1821. those who have been accustomed to other methods, may think differently; and to persons who already under- Reply to a Query on Instinct and stand the subject, one rule may be as

Reason. good as another, and perbaps the

MR. EDITOR. difference will not be great to clear- SIR,- In the number for February, headed learners, but I am persuaded, col. 197, of your very interesting pubit is of more consequence to those lication, a correspondent inquires, pupils who are less bright in their in

" What are the essential properties tellect, I remain yours, &c.

of Instinct in the Animal Creation ?” Thos. Exley.

and “ What are those superior prinBristol, March 1, 1821.

ciples in man, which form the line of distinction between animal and ra

tional beings ?” Should you deem Answers to a Question on Ring-worms the subsequent Reply deserving a in Children's Heads.

place in your miscellany, by inserting MR. EDITOR.

it, you will oblige, Sir, Sir,Your correspondent, (col. 374,)

Your's respectfully, who requests that some humane per

J.J. son will prescribe a cure for what is in order to assist inquiry, it will be called the Ring-worm in the heads of proper, in the first place, to ask, children, may use the following with What is Instinct?” safety and success:

By some Lexicographers, it is deTake of muriated quicksilver, ten fined to be “ that power which acts

dissolve in muriatic acid ten on and impels brutes to any particudrops, then add antimonial wine an lar manner of conduct, supposed neounce. Of these drops, let a child, cessary in its effects, and to be given two years old, take three or four, (if them instead of Reason.” The celethey do not purge,) night and morn- brated Dr. Paley calls it“

a propening, in a little cold water. An adult sity prior to experience, and indepenmay take from fifteen to twenty. dent of instrụction." As this defini

Let the eruptions be anointed night tion is apparently more perspicuous, and morning with the following oint- and at the same time elucidates the ment:

nature of instinct, more obviously Take of ointment of white calx of than the former, we shall, on the auquicksilver, an ounce; water of kali, thority of its author, consider it as essence of lemon, of each twenty the criterion of our opinions. drops.

From this definition we may learn, The above prescriptions are effica- that instinct, in brutes bears å strict cious in the Scyrvy, and scorbutic analogy to the will in man, and that and all cuticular eruptions, whatever the difference between these two princause they arise from: they will also ciples consists, in the one being subcure the itch, red faces, freckles, mor-ject to the government, and under the phew, grubs, tetters, or any deformi- direction, of the Almighty, while the

other exerts a free and independent HUMANUS. capacity. This being understood, we


ties of the skin.



Review- The Rights of God and Cæsar. 480 have no reason to conclude, what is Review.—The Rights of God and Cagenerally allowed to be true, that this

sar; a discourse on Matt. xxv, 15--21. propensity (abstractedly considered) is endued with intelligence. For it would

By Adam Clarke, LL.D. F.A.S.

Member of the American Antiquahe evidently ridiculous to say of the will, that it is cunning, or sagacious ;

rian Society; and Honorary Member the same will hold good of instinct,

of the Historical Society of New York. for those epithets are equally appli

pp.31. London. Butterworth & Blan

shard. 1821. cable to it. From hence then, I think we may fairly conclude, that instinct There is scarcely any ground on is not intelligent ; it being an evident which a theological adventurer can inconsistency to ascribe to the will, tread, more dangerous than that which or any thing analogous to it, wisdom may be denominated political. At or sagacity. This reasoning may ap- every step he takes, either volcanic pear strange, and be unsalutary, to fires, concealed abysses, or the progthose who have been accustomed to nostics of earthquakes, threaten to adhere to general opinion, and may arrest his progress, and to overwhelm possibly excite against them the charge him in the conflict of elemental of presumption. But let them re

But, although dangers menace, member, that to oppose it, will be multitudes have ventured on the poeffectually to contradict the truth of lical ocean, many of whom have the above definition, which certainly never more returned to port; and sanctions the conclusion,

among those few who have been However, to close our remarks, it more fortunate, several have appearwill be proper to observe, that what ed with “ shrouds and tackle torn." appears to constitute the essential


The discourse before us has eviperties of Instinct, are, a capability of dently a political aspect; but the receiving, and communicating power. topics discussed, have no bearing Should we consider Instinct as it is either on Whig or Tory. The ground, generally considered, we must ascribe which is too wide for party spirit to it to the Almighty, and call its essen- occupy, embraces, on an extended tial properties, his perfections. And scale, a reply to this important quesalthough various objections may be tion—“ Is it lawful to give tribute alleged in opposition to this opinion, unto Cæsar, or not?” This question is yet it must be allowed, that what to answered in the affirmative; but on us appears foolish and absurd in the such principles as few will be disposed modes of nature, may, perhaps, be to controvert; and in such a manner looked upon by God, as perfect wisdom, as is not likely to give offence, even being essential to his government of to men whose political creeds are in the natural world.

hostility to each other.

Dr. Clarke The question connected with this, observes, will be easily answered. For it is “ Christ shews his profound wisdom and manifest, that all the principles of prudence, in not attempting to discuss the ques mind, of which man is possessed, form tion at large, as that would have involved cona line of distinction between him and siderations of a political nature, which the combrutes; and it would be repugnant to of which, in any case, they would have been

mon people could not well comprehend ; and common sense, to fix upon any parti- very inadequate jadges. Ånd in this, bas not cular principles to form this distincoar Lord left the preachers of his gospel an tion. If we take it otherwise, we example that they should follow his steps ? shall at once perceive a manifest dis- How injudicious must that preacher be, who tinction.

frequently brings before his people abstract Mirfield, March 12, 1821.

questions concerning civil rights and civil wrongs, party politics, reasons of state, finan

cial blunders, royal prerogatives, divine right A CONSTANT Reader, requests an

of kings, &c. questions, on which a thousand English versification of the following things may be said pro and con; and, after all, Lines, by the late Professor Porson.

difficult, after hearing both sides, to make up his

mind as to that to which he should from duty and Mors morstis morti mor tem misi interest attach himself.

the science of law and government the stady morte de disset

considerable part of a long life,

possessed on

such advantages as can never fall within the Æter næ viltæ || janual.clausa folret.

reach of the common people, find themselves often puzzled in their own

Those who have made

speculations and des

Review— The Royal Minstrel.

482 ductions, though formed on and from princi- , nidas, and several other works, will ples, of the truth and excellence of which they be comprised in the same species edacated, how naturally strong soever and of composition with the Iliad, the vigoroas their intellect may be, judge on such Æneid, and Tasso's Jerusalem Deli. subjects, so as to steer clear of the perplexities vered. These works will all range of the science in general, and of the practical under his definition, which is, that absurdities into which the partizans of liberty“ an Epic Poem is, in its nature, the and prerogative are continnally running?. Our recital of some illustrious enterprise, Lord, therefore, wisely avoids such discussions, as they could never lead to general edifi- in a poetical form.”. Admitting this cation ; and settles the business by seizing a | latter definition to be correct, no doubt marim that is common among all nations, and can be entertained, that the Royal was practically acknowledged by the Jews, Minstrel is entitled to the character vize that the prince who causes his image and titles to be struck on the current coin of a country,

which it assumes. thereby claims the sovereignty, and is virtually

The exploits of David constitute acknowledged to be the governor. Instances of the most commanding actions of the this are frequent in Asiatic history.”—p. 13. Poem, to which various characters,

In this extract, the Author has evi- enterprises, interviews, incidents, and dently done more than he intended; he adventures, are all made subservient. has given the character of his sermon,

A consultation between demons and in delineating the wisdom of the Sa- the Witch of Endor, to dethrone Saul, viour.

and to prevent David from being To his numerous friends, it will be king, occupies the first book: David a sufficient recommendation to say, leaving his flocks, and visiting the that this discourse is connected with camp. of Israel, the second: the prethe name of Dr. Clarke, and that it is parations for battle, the defiance of not unworthy of the name it bears. Goliath, David's introduction to Saul,

accepting of the challenge, and con

quest of the Philistine giant, the Review.-The Royal Minstrel, or the third: the friendship of David and

Witcheries of Endor, an Epic Poem, Jonathan, the envy of Saul, and the in twelve Books. By J. F. Pennie. danger of David, the fourth : various 8vo. pp. 442. Pinnock & Maunder, vicissitudes in David's life, the fifth, Strand, London. 1819.

sixth, venth, and eighth: his inter"An Epic Poem,” according to Bossu, view with Abigail, and the circum" is a discourse invented with art, to stances which follow, the ninth: Daform the manners, by instructions dis- vid's adventures, and Saul's consultaguised under the allegory of an im- tion of the Witch of Endor, the tenth: portapt action related in verse, in a | the march of the Philistines to fight probable, entertaining, and surpris- the Hebrews, a mutiny, Ziklag in ing manner."

flames, and David's triumphs, the eleTo enumerate the various opinions venth: and the grand battle on Gilboa, that have been entertained, respecting the discomfiture of the Israelites, the the nature and specific properties of death of Saul, of Jonathan, and his an Epic Poem, would occupy more brothers, the funeral of the king, and room, than we can devote to the ar- David's splendid coronation, fill up ticle now under consideration; and the twelfth, and conclude the poem. should we take the judgment of some Ten pages, containing short notes, are fastidions critics for our guide, we appended at the conclusion, explanashould be led to conclude, that the tory of the historical allusions, the Iliad of Homer, and the Æneid of facts, and the modes of expression Virgil

, are the only compositions in which occur in various parts of the existence, that can aspire to this work.

Although we do not intend to accuse Dr. Blair, however, dissents from the author of plagiarism, no one can this severity of exclusive appropria- cast his eye over this poem without tion, and calls it “ the pedantry of instantly observing, that he is inticriticism.” According to this author's mately acquainted with Milton's

Paraviews, Milton's Paradise Lost, Lu-dise Lost; and it is no dishonour to can’s Pharsalia, Statius's Thebaid, his genius to observe, that in many Ossian's Fingal and Temora, Ca- places he has been a successful imimoen's Lusiad, Voltaire's Henriade, tator of this great example. The maCambray's Telemachus, Glover's Leo- chinery throughout, bears a strong ra

honourable name.

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